[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional genomics has received considerable attention in the post-genomic era, as it aims to identify function(s) for different genes. One way to study gene function is to investigate the alterations in the responses of deletion mutants to different stimuli. Here we investigate the genetic profile of yeast non-essential gene deletion array (yGDA, approximately 4700 strains) for increased sensitivity to paromomycin, which targets the process of protein synthesis.
As expected, our analysis indicated that the majority of deletion strains (134) with increased sensitivity to paromomycin, are involved in protein biosynthesis. The remaining strains can be divided into smaller functional categories: metabolism (45), cellular component biogenesis and organization (28), DNA maintenance (21), transport (20), others (38) and unknown (39). These may represent minor cellular target sites (side-effects) for paromomycin. They may also represent novel links to protein synthesis. One of these strains carries a deletion for a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, that we term TAE1 for Translation Associated Element 1. Our focused follow-up experiments indicated that deletion of TAE1 alters the ribosomal profile of the mutant cells. Also, gene deletion strain for TAE1 has defects in both translation efficiency and fidelity. Miniaturized synthetic genetic array analysis further indicates that TAE1 genetically interacts with 16 ribosomal protein genes. Phenotypic suppression analysis using TAE1 overexpression also links TAE1 to protein synthesis.
We show that a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, affects the process of protein synthesis and reaffirm that large-scale genetic profile analysis can be a useful tool to study novel gene function(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of colicins with target cells is a paradigm for protein import. To enter cells, bactericidal colicins parasitize Escherichia coli outer membrane receptors whose physiological purpose is the import of essential metabolites. Colicins E1 and E3 initially bind to the BtuB receptor, whose beta-barrel pore is occluded by an N-terminal globular "plug". The x-ray structure of a complex of BtuB with the coiled-coil BtuB-binding domain of colicin E3 did not reveal displacement of the BtuB plug that would allow passage of the colicin (Kurisu, G., S. D. Zakharov, M. V. Zhalnina, S. Bano, V. Y. Eroukova, T. I. Rokitskaya, Y. N. Antonenko, M. C. Wiener, and W. A. Cramer. 2003. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10:948-954). This correlates with the inability of BtuB to form ion channels in planar bilayers, shown in this work, suggesting that an additional outer membrane protein(s) is required for colicin import across the outer membrane. The identity and interaction properties of this OMP were analyzed in planar bilayer experiments.OmpF and TolC channels in planar bilayers were occluded by colicins E3 and E1, respectively, from the trans-side of the membrane. Occlusion was dependent upon a cis-negative transmembrane potential. A positive potential reversibly opened OmpF and TolC channels. Colicin N, which uses only OmpF for entry, occludes OmpF in planar bilayers with the same orientation constraints as colicins E1 and E3. The OmpF recognition sites of colicins E3 and N, and the TolC recognition site of colicin E1, were found to reside in the N-terminal translocation domains. These data are considered in the context of a two-receptor translocon model for colicin entry into cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular import of colicin E3 is initiated by the Escherichia coli outer membrane cobalamin transporter, BtuB. The 135-residue 100-A coiled-coil receptor-binding domain (R135) of colicin E3 forms a 1:1 complex with BtuB whose structure at a resolution of 2.75 A is reported. Binding of R135 to the BtuB extracellular surface (DeltaG(o) = -12 kcal mol(-1)) is mediated by 27 residues of R135 near the coiled-coil apex. Formation of the R135-BtuB complex results in unfolding of R135 N- and C-terminal ends, inferred to be important for unfolding of the colicin T-domain. Small conformational changes occur in the BtuB cork and barrel domains but are insufficient to form a translocation channel. The absence of a channel and the peripheral binding of R135 imply that BtuB serves to bind the colicin, and that the coiled-coil delivers the colicin to a neighboring outer membrane protein for translocation, thus forming a colicin translocon. The translocator was concluded to be OmpF from the occlusion of OmpF channels by colicin E3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
High throughput yeast functional genomics experiments are revealing associations among tens to hundreds of genes using numerous experimental conditions. To fully understand how the identified genes might be involved in the observed system, it is essential to consider the widest range of biological annotation possible. Biologists often start their search by collating the annotation provided for each protein within databases such as the Saccharomyces Genome Database, manually comparing them for similar features, and empirically assessing their significance. Such tasks can be automated, and more precise calculations of the significance can be determined using established probability measures.
We developed Yeast Features, an intuitive online tool to help establish the significance of finding a diverse set of shared features among a collection of yeast proteins. A total of 18,786 features from the Saccharomyces Genome Database are considered, including annotation based on the Gene Ontology’s molecular function, biological process and cellular compartment, as well as conserved domains, protein-protein and genetic interactions, complexes, metabolic pathways, phenotypes and publications. The significance of shared features is estimated using a hypergeometric probability, but novel options exist to improve the significance by adding background knowledge of the experimental system. For instance, increased statistical significance is achieved in gene deletion experiments because interactions with essential genes will never be observed. We further demonstrate the utility by suggesting the functional roles of the indirect targets of an aminoglycoside with a known mechanism of action, and also the targets of an herbal extract with a previously unknown mode of action. The identification of shared functional features may also be used to propose novel roles for proteins of unknown function, including a role in protein synthesis for YKL075C.
Yeast Features (YF) is an easy to use web-based application (http://software.dumontierlab.com/yeastfeatures/) which can identify and prioritize features that are shared among a set of yeast proteins. This approach is shown to be valuable in the analysis of complex data sets, in which the extracted associations revealed significant functional relationships among the gene products.