[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The scope of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the studies on the association between obesity and periodontitis. The methods applied included a literature search strategy and selection of studies using inclusion and exclusion in accordance with the criteria for characteristics of the studies and meta-analysis. The research was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Lilacs databases through 2010. Selected papers were on studies on humans investigating whether or not obesity is a risk factor for periodontitis. Of the 822 studies identified, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of periodontitis was associated with obesity (or had a tendency for this) in 25 studies, though it was not associated in 6 studies. The meta-analysis showed a significant association with obesity and periodontitis (OR = 1.30 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.25 - 1.35]) and with mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease (mean difference = 2.75). Obesity was associated with periodontitis, however the risk factors that aggravate these diseases should be better clarified to elucidate the direction of this association. Working with paired samples and avoiding confusion factors may contribute to homogeneity between the studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluate oral health conditions before and after bariatric surgery.
The sample was composed of 59 patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Salivary flow, periodontal pocket depth and dental wear were evaluated before and after 6 months of surgery. Body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and glucose levels were obtained from the patient's medical files. A t-test was used for dependent samples.
The mean BMI decreased from 49.31 ± 8.76 to 35.52 ± 8.12 kg/m(2) in 6 months after surgery (P < 0.000). Before surgery, 67% of patients had high levels of CRP and 38% higher blood glucose levels and after surgery there were significant reductions in these levels (P < 0.001). Salivary flow ranged from 0.84 to 0.95 ml/min. There was increased prevalence of periodontal pockets (P = 0.022) and mean pocket depth increased to about 0.5 mm (P < 0.001). The percentage of surfaces with dental wear in dentine was significantly higher after bariatric surgery (P = 0.002), while dental wear in enamel decreased (P = 0.019).
Bariatric surgery may improve systemic conditions. However, it had a negative impact on oral health conditions because of an increase in periodontal disease and dental wear.
International Dental Journal 01/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) experimental gel for the prevention of erosive wear on bovine dentin, in vitro. Material and Methods: One hundred dentin blocks were allocated into 5 experimental groups (20 samples each): C (control group, without gel); CG (control group, only base gel); F (fluoride gel, 1.23% NaF; pH 4.1, Dentsply; Brazil); N (Neem gel, 10% neem extract; pH 4.1, manipulation); NF (Neem+fluoride gel, 10% Neem extract and 1.23% NaF; pH 4.1, manipulation). The blocks were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours. After this, they were submitted to six alternating re- and demineralization cycles. The blocks were analyzed for wear (profilometry). The results were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey tests (P<0.05). Results: The mean wear (±SD, µm) was shown as follows in groups: C (13.09±0.99), CG (10.60±1.99), F (10.90±1.44), N (12.68±1.13) and NF (10.84±1.65). All gels showed some preventive action when compared with control group. However, significant differences were found only between Neem+fluoride gel and fluoride gel. Conclusion: A single application of a neem-containing fluoride gel reduced dentin erosion, thus it is a possible alternative in reducing dental wear. Further research should investigate the action mechanism and the synergism between them.
Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 11/2013; 21(6):597-600. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence and severity of tooth wear and dental erosion is rising in children and there is no consensus about an index to be employed. Aim: To assess the reliability of an epidemiological scoring system dental wear index (DWI) to measure tooth wear and dental erosive wear. Design: An epidemiological cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate and compare tooth wear and dental erosion using the dental wear index and erosion wear index (EWI). The study was conducted with randomised samples of 2,371 children aged between 4 years and 12 years selected from the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Records were used for calculating tooth wear and dental erosion; the incisal edge and canine cusp were excluded. Results: As the schoolchildren's ages increased the severity of primary tooth wear increased in canines (P = 0.0001, OR = 0.34) and molars (P = 0.0001, OR = 2.47) and erosion wear increased in incisal/occlusal (P = 0.0001, OR = 5.18) and molars (P = 0.0001, OR = 2.47). There was an increased prevalence of wear in the permanent teeth of older schoolchildren, particularly on the incisal/occlusal surfaces (P = 0.0001, OR = 7.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of tooth wear and dental erosion increased as age increased in children. The epidemiological scoring system Dental Wear Index is able to measure both tooth wear and dental erosive wear. This index should be used to monitor the progression of non-carious lesions and to evaluate the levels of disease in the population.
International Dental Journal 06/2013; 63(3):154-60. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In published studies, it has been suggested that dental wear is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review was carried out to evaluate the association of GERD, dental erosion, and halitosis and to compare the indices adopted in epidemiological surveys. The Medline database (until October, 2011) was searched systematically to identify studies evaluating the prevalence of oral alterations, such as dental erosion and halitosis, in patients with GERD symptoms. Two reviewers analyzed all reports and the selected studies were evaluated according to the quality of evidence, using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Full-text copies of a total of 32 publications were obtained in duplicate. Sixteen publications were identified among the citations in the Bibliographic lists of studies that fulfilled the exclusion/inclusion criteria and quality of evidence. The relationship between dental erosion and GERD patients was significant in only seven studies. According to three studies, halitosis could be one of several extraesophageal symptoms or manifestations in GERD patients. In one study, it was found that the mucosa of GERD patients was significantly more acidic in comparison with that of the control group. This systematic review showed that there is a relationship between GERD and oral diseases (dental erosion and halitosis). The epidemiological surveys used different indices to analyze GERD and dental erosion. Further research could investigate the best method for assessing the two diseases.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 10/2012; · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and tooth wear in bariatric patients, and relate the oral health conditions to saliva flow.
Fifty-two patients who had undergone bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and 50 severely obese patients indicated for bariatric surgery were submitted to clinical examinations with regard to dental caries (DMFT index), periodontal condition (CPI index), dental wear (DWI index - Dental wear index) and saliva flow. The data were statistically analyzed by the Student's-t, Mann-Whitney, Spearman Correlation and Chi-square (χ(2)) tests at 5% significance level.
The DMFT index was 16.11±5.19 in the surgical group and 16.06±6.29 in the control group (P>.05). The mean CPI was 3.05±0.84 for the operated group and 2.66±1.25 for the obese patients with no significant difference between them (P>.05). There was statistically significant difference between the groups for the presence of periodontal pockets (P=.021). All the patients presented some degree of tooth wear, however, with no significant difference between the two groups (P=.82). The mean saliva flow values of the surgical group and control group were 0.64±0.46 mL/min and 0.66±0.49 mL/min, respectively. There was no significant difference in saliva flow and all oral conditions analyzed (P>.05).
The prevalence of oral diseases was similar in severely obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery and in patients who had been submitted to bariatric surgery. Nevertheless, there was higher prevalence of periodontal pockets in the operated group.
European journal of dentistry. 04/2012; 6(2):191-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate the effect of an experimental gel containing Euclea natalensis extract on dentin permeability. Methods. Thirty-six dentin discs, 1-mm-thick. The discs were prepared from the coronal dentin of extracted human third molars that were divided into 3 groups (n = 10). The dentin discs in each group were treated with the groups following experimental materials: (FG): 1.23% fluoride gel, pH 4.1; (EG): Euclea natalensis extract gel, pH 4.1; (CG): control gel, pH 4.1. The gels were applied to the occlusal slide of the dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. The hydraulic conductance (HC) of each condition was determined four times using a fluid flow apparatus (Flodec). The data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Results. The greatest mean reduction in HC was produced in group EG dentin discs (61.2%; P < 0.05). Even after acid challenge with 6% citric acid the great reduction occurred in group EG (66.0%; P < 0.05) than other groups (CG-77.1%, FG-90.8%). Conclusion. E. natalensis gel not only reduced dentin permeability, but also resisted posttreatment citric acid challenge without changing its permeability. Further research has to confirm this promising result in the clinical situation.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:184346. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the effects of obesity surgery on oral health and to present a case report of the periodontal condition of an obese woman who underwent bariatric surgery. A search of studies related to bariatric surgery and oral health was made in PubMed. For case report, BMI, salivary flow, and periodontal condition were evaluated during three different periods. The oral health problems found were dental wear, periodontal diseases, xerostomia, and dental caries. The patient who was evaluated before bariatric surgery and was followed up for 2 years, lost 40.4 kg, presented normal blood glucose levels and controlled hypertension without medication. Salivary flow remained of equal value in the first year, there was an increase in mean probing depth and there existed low bone density in these sites. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery need to be closely monitored after surgery to prevent the development of oral complications, especially periodontal conditions.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 01/2012; 24(1):84-9. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between tooth wear in primary and permanent dentition in 7 to 10-year-old school children, in 2007.
An epidemiological cross-sectional survey was conducted by trained, calibrated examiners, using the dental wear index (DWI). The cluster sample consisted of 764 children (382 boys, 382 girls) attending 4 public schools selected in different regions of the city. The DWI was proposed to evaluate primary and permanent teeth, coded as letters and numbers, respectively. Data were collected via clinical examinations performed outdoors under natural light, following the WHO recommendations and using a dental mirror and probe. Proportions and confidence intervals were used to describe the prevalence of dental wear. The Mann-Whitney and the Odds Ratio (OR) tests were used to compare the tooth wear prevalence between primary and permanent teeth according to surface (p < 0.05).
The 7 to 10-year-old school children presented 16% tooth wear. The tooth wear was mostly seen on the occlusal/incisal surfaces (47%), involving enamel or enamel-dentine. Tooth wear in primary teeth was found in canines and molars (93%) and in permanent teeth in molars (34%). There was significant difference between primary and permanent teeth (p < 0.001) and dental wear in primary teeth was greater in boys than in girls (p = 0.02) but not in permanent teeth.
The results suggest that 7 to 10-year-old children with tooth wear in primary teeth had more chances of developing tooth wear in permanent dentition. However, the findings of this study are not conclusive as the associations described are not causal.
Community dental health 09/2011; 28(3):196-200. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of potassium oxalate, fluoride gel and two kinds of propolis gel to reduce the hydraulic conductance of dentin, in vitro.
The methodology used for the measurement of hydraulic conductance of dentin in the present study was based on a model proposed in literature. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs, obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 4 groups (n=9). The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: GI-10% propolis gel, pH 4.1; GII-30% propolis gel; GIII-3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4,1; and GIV-1.23% fluoride gel, pH 4.1, applied to the dentin under the following surface conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid application. The occluding capacity of the dentin tubules was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at ×500, ×1,000 and ×2,000 magnifications. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level.
Groups I, II, III, IV did not differ significantly from the others in any conditions by reducing in hydraulic conductance. The active agents reduced dentin permeability; however they produced the smallest reduction in hydraulic conductance when compared to the presence of smear layer (P<0.05). The effectiveness in reducing dentin permeability did not differ significantly from 10% or 30% propolis gels. SEM micrographs revealed that dentin tubules were partially occluded after treatment with propolis.
Under the conditions of this study, the application of 10% and 30% propolis gels did not seem to reduce the hydraulic conductance of dentin in vitro, but it showed capacity of partially obliterating the dentin tubules. Propolis is used in the treatment of different oral problems without causing significant great collateral effects, and can be a good option in the treatment of patients with dentin sensitivity.
Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 08/2011; 19(4):318-23. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate oral changes, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, dental wear and salivary flow in bariatric patients. Fifty four obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were studied before (n=54), up after 3 months (n=24) and 6 months (n=16).
Indices for evaluating oral conditions were: DMFT, CPI, DWI and salivary flow. OIDP questionnaire was used to assess the impact of oral health on quality of life. ANOVA and Spearman correlation were used (p<0.05).
DMFT was 17.6 ± 5.7, 18.4 ± 4.1 and 18.3 ± 5.5 (P>0.05), presence of periodontal pockets in 50%, 58% and 50% of patients (p>0.05), tooth wear in dentin present in 81.5%, 87.5% and 87.5% before, 3 and 6 months after surgical treatment respectively. There were differences between the three periods for prevalence and severity of dental wear (p = 0.012). Salivary flow was 0.8 ± 0.5 ml/min before surgery, 0.9 ± 0.5 ml/min for 3 months and 1.1 ± 0.5m/min for 6 months (p>0.05). The impact of oral health on quality of life decreased with time after bariatric surgery (p= 0.029).
The lifestyle changes after bariatric surgery and these changes may increase the severity of pre-existing dental problems. However, these alterations in oral health did not influence the quality of life.
Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 01/2011; 26 Suppl 2:79-83. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated in vitro the effect of an experimental gel containing iron on the reduction of hydraulic conductance of dentin. Thirty-six 1-mm-thick dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. The groups corresponded to the following experimental materials: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, pH 4.1; 3% potassium oxalate gel, pH 4.1 (Oxa-Gel®); and iron sulfate gel (10 mmol/L FeSO4), pH 4.1. The gels were applied to dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no significant differences (p<0.05) among the groups in any of the conditions for hydraulic conductance reduction, except for smear layer presence. The active agents reduced dentin permeability, but they produced significantly lower (p<0.05) reduction in hydraulic conductance when compared to presence of smear layer. The effectiveness in reducing dentin permeability was not significantly different (p>0.05) among the gels. This study suggests that the iron gel promoted reduction in dentin permeability comparable to that of the other agents and thus may be considered a good clinical alternative for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect in vitro of experimental gel containing iron and/or fluoride on the erosion of bovine enamel.
To standardize the blocks (n = 80), specimens (4 x 4 mm) were previously selected to measure the initial microhardness. The blocks were randomly allocated into four groups of 20 samples each: C (control, placebo gel); F (fluoride gel, 1.23% NaF); Fe (iron gel, 10 mmol/L FeSO(4)) and F + Fe (fluoride + iron gel). The gels were applied and removed after 1 minute. The blocks were then submitted to six alternating remineralization and demineralization cycles. The beverage Coca-Cola (10 minutes, 30 mL) was used for demineralization, and artificial saliva (1 hour) for remineralization. The effect of erosion was measured by wear analysis (profilometry). Data were analysed by ANOVA and the Tukey test for individual comparisons (p <0.05).
The mean wear (+/- SD, microm) was C: 0.94 +/- 0.22; F: 0.55 +/- 0.12; Fe: 0.49 +/- 0.11 and F + Fe: 0.55 +/- 0.13. When the experimental gels were used, there was statistically significant reduction in enamel wear in comparison with the control (p <0.001). However, the experimental gels did not differ significantly among them.
The gels containing iron with or without fluoride are capable of interfering with the dissolution dental enamel in the presence of erosive challenge.
Australian Dental Journal 06/2010; 55(2):177-80. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this double-blind and randomized controlled trial, we analyzed whether a lower concentration of chlorhexidine in dentifrices could reduce the risk of tooth staining without compromising its effectiveness in controlling gingivitis, bleeding, and dental plaque.
Volunteers with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, 1100 ppm F, NaF (n = 27); experimental, chlorhexidine 0.50% (n = 27); and experimental, chlorhexidine 0.75% (n = 27). At baseline, and after 6 and 12 weeks, clinical examinations were carried out. Staining, calculus, gingivitis, bleeding, and dental plaque data were analyzed with Friedman tests to evaluate intragroup changes over time. To detect intergroup differences after 12 months, the data were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis tests. Dunn tests were used in both situations for necessary post-hoc analyses.
The groups were statistically similar for the stain, calculus, and plaque indexes, but there were statistically significant differences for the gingival and bleeding indexes. During the experimental periods, gingivitis and bleeding scores improved in all 3 groups. Only the 0.75% chlorhexidine dentifrice significantly increased the stain index, although most patients did not notice the stains. The intergroup comparison showed a statistically significant better performance of the experimental groups regarding the gingival and bleeding indexes.
This study suggests that the use of dentifrices with lower concentration of chlorhexidine can reduce the risk of tooth staining without compromising its effectiveness in controlling gingivitis and bleeding in orthodontic patients.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 11/2009; 136(5):651-6. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cometidas em pesquisa, com princípios inerentes a qualquer código de ética ou deontológico. Porém, os valores moraisdiferem de uma sociedade para outra, gerando dilemas que envolvem revolução tecnológica, biológica, crenças e teologia. Assim, oseticistas obrigaram-se a considerar disciplinas para além de suas especificidades, estabelecendo fronteiras com diversos campos do conhecimento, pois os progressos até aqui alcançados levantam questões éticas em que, muitas vezes, o próprio conhecimento não apresenta respostas satisfatórias. Este trabalho aborda os vocábulos da ética e moral sob o enfoque médico, religioso, jurídico e psicológico de um modo prático, procurando delinear suas diferenças e similitudes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sociedade moderna assiste a um progresso tecnológico e científico jamais imaginado. A evolução da medicina, em parte, pode seratribuída à pesquisa em seres humanos, mas muitas vezes esta pode interferir de uma maneira prejudicial para os sujeitos da pesquisa.Alguns fatos tiveram grande impacto histórico, impondo a necessidade de discussões de cunho ético, como as experiências atrozes realizadaspelos cientistas com os prisioneiros na última grande guerra, o que motivou a edição do Código de Nuremberg, que estabeleceu, pela primeira vez, regras a serem observadas na pesquisa em seres humanos. A partir disto, surgiram mais normatizações em resposta às atrocidades cometidas em pesquisa, com princípios inerentes a qualquer código de ética ou deontológico. Porém, os valores moraisdiferem de uma sociedade para outra, gerando dilemas que envolvem revolução tecnológica, biológica, crenças e teologia. Assim, oseticistas obrigaram-se a considerar disciplinas para além de suas especificidades, estabelecendo fronteiras com diversos campos do conhecimento, pois os progressos até aqui alcançados levantam questões éticas em que, muitas vezes, o próprio conhecimento não apresenta respostas satisfatórias. Este trabalho aborda os vocábulos da ética e moral sob o enfoque médico, religioso, jurídico e psicológico de um modo prático, procurando delinear suas diferenças e similitudes.