Mrinmay K Mallik

Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kulan, Zhambyl, Kuwait

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Publications (21)23.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In cytology practice some papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases have indeterminate diagnoses and overlapping cytological features with benign lesions. This study was undertaken to find out if immunocytochemistry using Galectin-3, CD-44 and HBME-1 could be of help in such situations. Forty-six cases consisting of 22 malignancy (PTC) cases, 7 suspicious of (S/O) PTC, 1 follicular neoplasm, 5 follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), and 11 benign (colloid goiter) cases diagnosed by FNA were included in this study. Staining reactions were graded in a sliding scale of -, 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+. In an assessment of 100 cells, each cell with weak, and moderate to strong positive reaction were assigned a score of 1 and 4, respectively. Staining reaction of ≥+2 and scores >100 were considered positive. Frequency of cases with ≥+2 reaction, and scores >100 for each of Galectin-3, CD-44, and HBME-1 were significantly higher in PTC or combined PTC and S/O PTC cases as compared with FLUS and benign cases taken together (P = 0.01744 to 0.00000). When the cases were compared according to histological malignant and benign diagnoses, the difference was also significant in respect of ≥+2 reaction, and scores >100 for Galectin-3 and CD44 (P = 0.04923 to 0.00947); however, there was no significant difference, when these parameters for HBME1 were compared. Galectin 3, CD 44, and to some extent HBME 1 are useful immunocytochemical parameters with potential to support FNAC diagnosis of PTC, especially in situations with difficult differential diagnoses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013; © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 06/2014; 42(6). DOI:10.1002/dc.23062 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exclusive reports on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytodiagnosis of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) are scarce in literature. This report reflects the diagnostic difficulties associated with cytodiagnosis of this rare variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The study is based on 11 cases with age ranging from 16 to 63 years and a median of 50 years. Male to female ratio was 6:5. Ten cases presented with lymphadenopathy and one had lymphadenopathy as well as extranodal solid tumor. The initial cytodiagnosis was suggestive of TCRBCL in one case, TCRBCL/Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in three cases, TCRBCL/HL/anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in two cases, TCRBCL/ALCL in one case, and TCRBCL/non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) T-cell/ALCL in one case. There was also a cytologically diagnosed HL case, which on review turned out to be HL/TCRBCL. Histopathological diagnosis was HL in all these nine cases. There were two histologically diagnosed TCRBCL cases during this period, with cytodiagnoses of NHL other than TCRBCL in one and HL in the other. While highlighting the difficulties associated with the cytodiagnosis of TCRBCL, this study conveys a word of caution that adequate immunocytochemical studies should be performed before diagnosing this rare neoplasm with a varied cytomorphology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 11/2012; 40(11):956-63. DOI:10.1002/dc.21683 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During routine fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), a number of cases are diagnosed as suspicious; or it is suggested that PTC or a neoplasm be ruled out by histopathology. Since these diagnostic labels are likely to put the clinicians in a difficult situation while planning the management, this study aims to find out how much the surgeon should read from these reports. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 38 cases diagnosed as PTC or suspicious of PTC. Group B included 40 cases in which it was suggested that PTC/a neoplasm to be ruled out and non-neoplastic lesions with one or more cytologic features of PTC. The two groups were compared with clinical, imaging and cytomorphologic features. A significant difference was observed with respect to age between Group A and Group B (P<0.001). The frequency of the following five cytologic features was significantly higher in Group A: papillary formation (P<0.001), psammoma bodies (P=0.054), fine nuclear chromatin (P=0.010), frequent nuclear grooves (P<0.001) and intra-nuclear cytoplasmic inclusion (P<0.001). Three or more of the five cytologic features were also reported in significantly higher number of Group A cases (P<0.001). Majority (81.8%) of the cases with subsequent histology in Group A were confirmed as PTC as opposed to 7.7% in Group B (P<0.001). Thus, cases with definitive cytodiagnosis of PTC and suggestive of PTC (Group A) should be taken much more seriously by the surgeons as compared to Group B cases.
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 10/2010; 53(4):686-91. DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.72032 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelioid sarcoma is an uncommon soft-tissue sarcoma typically presenting as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass in the distal extremities of young adults. Lately, a 'proximal' subtype has been described, which occurs in the pelvic and genital areas of somewhat older individuals and tends to behave more aggressively than the conventional subtype. The correct diagnosis of this subtype is essential, since this tumor can be easily mistaken for other malignant tumors that exhibit epithelioid morphology. We report a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma that presented as an inguinal mass in a 47-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor consisted of diffuse sheets of epithelioid cells with scattered rhabdoid morphology. By immunohistochemistry, the neoplastic cells expressed cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, CD34, CD99 and showed complete loss of nuclear INI1 protein expression. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was considered borderline for 22q deletion. We present this case to emphasize the importance of diagnosing this uncommon tumor and the role of INI1 immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis.
    Pathology & Oncology Research 09/2009; 16(2):181-8. DOI:10.1007/s12253-009-9203-8 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is commonly believed that cytodiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is much easier than that of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, recognition of certain NHL subtypes with Reed-Sternberg (R-S)-like cells and results of immunohistochemical studies point to the contrary. To study the limitations of cytology in diagnosis of HL, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears of 130 lymphoma or suspected lymphoma cases were reviewed. Initial and reviewed cytodiagnoses were compared with histopathology in 89 cases. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies were performed in 56 and 59 cases, respectively. Among histologically diagnosed HL cases, definitive cytodiagnosis of HL (initial as well as reviewed) was significantly less frequent than cytodiagnosis of NHL among histologically diagnosed NHL cases (P = 0.0328 and = 0.0001, respectively). On the other hand, cytologically diagnosed HL/NHL cases were significantly more frequent in the former group (P = 0.0001 and = 0.0018, respectively). ALCL and TCRBCL were the two NHL subtypes which created confusion with HL in FNA smears. Twenty-one cytohistological concordant HL cases and equal number of discordant cases were compared. When compared with discordant group, the patients in concordant group were significantly younger (P = 0.045). Hodgkin/Hodgkin-like cells and typical R-S cells were significantly more frequent in FNA smears of the concordant group (P = 0.0478 and = 0.0431, respectively). Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed good correlation with histological diagnosis of HL. It is suggested that proper interpretation of cytologic features, together with use of immunocytochemical parameters can help in reducing the margin of error in cytodiagnosis of HL.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 08/2009; 37(8):564-73. DOI:10.1002/dc.21064 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe here the case of a 42 year-old female with a benign, metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) of the abdominal wall diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. The patient had undergone myomectomy for uterine leiomyomas eight years ago. BMLs are composed of well-differentiated smooth muscle and are uncommon tumors that are more often seen in the lungs; soft tissues and skeletal muscle are rarely involved.
    Journal of Cytology 01/2008; DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.44047 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease (CD) is difficult to diagnose on fine needle aspiration and may be mistaken to be a lymphoreticular malignancy because of the presence of large cells having nuclei showing atypical features. The cytomorphological findings in three histopathologically documented cases of hyaline-vascular CD were evaluated to a set of cytomorphological criteria which could help in the identification of this condition on aspirate smears. The Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik stained smears from three cases of histologically documented hyaline-vascular CD were reviewed by one author. After review the following cytomorphological criteria were suggested to be indicators of the lesion. (i) The presence of large oval to round cells having ill-defined cytoplasmic margins and large nuclei with irregular nuclear outlines having fine or coarse chromatin giving a crumpled tissue paper appearance. (ii) A polymorphous population of lymphoid cells predominantly of small lymphocytes in the background. The smears from these three cases were then mixed with smears from four cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and three cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma. These ten cases were blindly evaluated by two other cytopathologists in order to evaluate the utility of the proposed criteria in identifying CD. The cytomorphological criteria seen in the methodology section were present in all the cases. These features were helpful in distinguishing CD from reactive lymphoid hyperplasias and Hodgkin's Lymphomas in all cases except one case. Although hyaline-vascular CD is a difficult diagnostic entity on aspirate material the presence of large histiocytic cells with a crumpled tissue paper appearance of the nuclei in a background of small lymphocytes are useful indicators for suspecting this lesion. However, these findings should be analysed in larger studies to determine if they could in anyway reduce the diagnostic dilemma in cases of CD.
    Cytopathology 07/2007; 18(3):168-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2303.2007.00450.x · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of squamous cell abnormalities in cervical cytology in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, and to document any change in the pattern of these lesions. Over a 13-year period (1992-2004), 86,434 cervical smears were studied in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait. Conventional Pap smears were first examined by cytotechnicians and finally reported by cytopathologists. The smears were classified according to the modified Bethesda system. The age of presentation of squamous cell abnormalities in Kuwaiti women was analyzed. Smears from 83,052 (96.09%) patients were found satisfactory for reporting while the remaining 3.9% was unsatisfactory. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were seen in 1,790 (2.2%) cases, atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) in 630 (0.8%) cases, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion including human papillomavirus changes (LSIL) in 824 (1.0%) cases, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 189 (0.2%) cases, and carcinoma in 79 (0.1%) cases of which 44 (0.05%) were squamous cell carcinoma. A comparison of average cases/annum during the study period revealed a significant increase in ASCUS from 1.13 to 2.83% (p < 0.001) and AGUS from 0.33 to 1.08% (p < 0.001). However, the percentage of LSIL, HSIL and carcinoma detected in Pap smears remained the same. A significant linear trend (p < 0.001) was observed in satisfactory smears, ASCUS and AGUS over the years. However, no significant change was found in the detection of LSIL, HSIL and carcinoma. A reduction in the age of LSIL/HSIL and an increasing trend in the number of Kuwaiti women over the years was also observed which makes screening of young women essential in Kuwait.
    Medical Principles and Practice 02/2006; 15(4):253-9. DOI:10.1159/000092986 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis due to ectopic endometrial tissue that responds to hormonal stimulation and is extremely rare in a surgical scar appearing in 0.1% of women who have undergone Caesarean section. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can be a valuable diagnostic aid in the evaluation of these subcutaneous abdominal masses. We present the cytomorphological spectrum in eight cases of abdominal wall endometriosis diagnosed by FNAC over a 6-year period (June 1998-June 2004) in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital (Kuwait). The patients ranged from 27 to 56 years of age. Seven had a prior Caesarean section and one had a hysterectomy for fibroid. They presented 3-8 years later with nodules in/near the abdominal scar. Five cases presented with a painful nodule, fluctuant with the menstrual cycle. Cytological findings comprised epithelial clusters and fusiform stromal cells with numerous haemosiderin-laden macrophages. Mild to moderate epithelial atypia was observed in three cases. A diagnosis of endometriosis was rendered in all the eight cases and tissue was available in four cases. Endometriotic nodules need to be differentiated from other benign/malignant masses and evaluated for possible malignant transformation. FNAC provides a safe and effective tool for diagnosis thereby obviating the need for other procedures.
    Cytopathology 05/2005; 16(2):94-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2303.2004.00218.x · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dark (hyperchromatic) cerebriform nucleus was recently described as a frequent finding in histopathology sections of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. In the present study, we tried to determine the frequency of dark cerebriform nuclei in the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears of papillary thyroid carcinomas and compared it with those of other thyroid lesions, such as follicular neoplasms and benign hyperplastic lesions. In addition to the above-mentioned nuclear feature, pale (hypochromatic) cerebriform nucleus and other well-established cytomorphological criteria used in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas were analyzed. FNA smears of a total of 102 cases comprising of 61 papillary carcinomas, 10 cases of suspicious papillary carcinomas, 12 follicular neoplasms, and 19 benign hyperplastic lesions were studied. Both the dark and pale cerebriform nuclei were found in a significantly higher number of cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas compared with follicular neoplasms (P = 0.0003 and P < 0.0001, respectively) or benign hyperplastic lesions (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Review sections available in 24 cases showed agreement between the cytopathological and the histopathological diagnoses in 18 (94.7%) of 19 papillary carcinomas. Thus, the dark and pale cerebriform nuclei can be regarded as useful cytomorphological parameters in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 04/2004; 30(3):187-92. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with special reference to its tall cell variant (TCV), which is the most aggressive of the variants. Fifty-four PTC cases were classified into variants, and the frequency of well-known morphologic criteria was determined. Four parameters were quantitatively analyzed based on a study of 200 consecutive neoplastic follicular cells: shape of cells, color of cytoplasm, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion (INCI) and nuclear grooves. The PTC cases included 6 TCV (> or = 30% tall cells), 8 cases with a significant tall cell component (sig. TCC) having 10-29% tall cells, 17 usual variant (UV), 17 follicular variant (FV) and 6 miscellaneous variants. TCV differed significantly from UV and FV in having a higher tall cell count, higher count of cells with reddish cytoplasm and INCI, and higher frequency of cases with lymphocytic infiltration. PTC (with significant tall cell component [TCC]) differed significantly from TCV with regard to tall cell count and lymphocytic infiltration, from UV with respect to tall cell count and monolayered sheets, and from FV with respect to tall cells, INCI, grooved nuclei, acinar formation, fire-flare appearance and giant cells. TCV was cytologically distinct from other variants. The biologic behavior of PTC cases with significant TCC, which morphologically seem to be a group intermediate between TCV on the one hand and UV and FV on the other, however, needs to be carefully monitored.
    Acta cytologica 01/2004; 48(3):325-36. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • 01/2004; 48:325-336. DOI:10.1159/000326381
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    ABSTRACT: A mass in the salivary gland region often presents a diagnostic challenge with regard to its site of origin (salivary versus nonsalivary), benign or malignant nature, and tissue-specific diagnosis. The present study describes the utility of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in the diagnosis of these lesions. Over a 6-year period (January 1994 to December 1999), 712 patients aged between 6 months and 91 years (median, 37 years) were subjected to FNA of swellings in their salivary gland regions. Male:female ratio was 1.28:1. The swellings were mostly located in the parotid (323 cases), submandibular (343 cases), and upper cervical region (27 cases). Swellings of oral (5 cases) and sublingual (2 cases) sites were rare. The lesions diagnosed by FNA cytology were compared among the major salivary glands. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with histology in 45 cases. Benign nonneoplastic lesions were the most common (73%), followed by neoplasms (20%), and those with atypical cytology (1%). Cytologic material was inadequate in 6% cases. Parotid gland region was involved more frequently by neoplasms (27.1%) than the submandibular gland region (13.7%, p < 0.0001). Inflammatory processes affected the submandibular gland region more commonly (42.0%) than the parotid (32.6%, p = 0.0164). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (61.5%), followed by Warthin's tumor (12.6%). Malignancies accounted for 10.5% of neoplasms. Frequency of involvement of parotid by Warthin's tumor (16.7%) was significantly higher than that of submandibular gland (2.3%, p = 0.0191). However, the submandibular gland was more commonly affected by malignancy than the parotid gland (p = 0.0003). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for all neoplastic lesions of the salivary gland were 94.6, 75.0, and 91.1%, respectively. The corresponding figures for malignancies were 60.0, 95.0, and 91.1%, respectively. FNA cytology is very useful for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. However, sampling and interpretation errors may occur. The low specificity for the diagnosis of neoplasms as a whole and the poor sensitivity for malignancies found in our study can be attributed to the relatively small number of benign nonneoplastic and malignancy cases with available histopathologic diagnoses.
    Medical Principles and Practice 01/2004; 13(2):95-106. DOI:10.1159/000075637 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis with demonstration of a tissue cyst containing bradyzoites has been very rarely reported. A 17-year-old female presented with a mobile, painless, 2-cm-diameter swelling over the right suprascapular area. Clinical diagnosis was lipoma. FNA smears showed features of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, including tingible body macrophages and groups of epithelioid histiocytes. A Toxoplasma cyst with bradyzoites was also demonstrated in a Papanicolaou-stained smear. Following FNA cytodiagnosis, serologic tests revealed a high titer of IgG and the presence of IgM-specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, indicating active/recent disease. FNA cytology is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis. Papanicolaou stain is appropriate for demonstration of the parasite. Serology is an excellent adjunct in clinching the diagnosis.
    Acta cytologica 01/2003; 47(2):299-303. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • 01/2003; 47:299-303. DOI:10.1159/000326520
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    ABSTRACT: To compare ThinPrep (TP) Papanicolaou smears (Cytyc Corp., Box-borough, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) with matching conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smears for specimen adequacy, cytologic quality, diagnostic accuracy and screening time. In this prospective study of 1,024 women a split-sample, matched-pair design in favor of CP slides based on single-blind criteria was followed with a smear on a glass slide for CP and the remaining material collected in Preserv-Cyt solution (Cytyc) for a TP smear. A Cytobrush (Medscand, Hollywood, Florida, U.S.A.) was used for smear preparation for CP. TP smears were processed in ThinPrep 2000 (Cytyc). Smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and were interpreted according to the Bethesda system. The number of satisfactory but limited (SBL) cases with TP were 77 (7.5%) as compared to 127 (12.4%) with the CP method. This reduction in SBL smears with the TP method and consequent increase in satisfactory smears were highly significant (P < .001) by McNemar's test. As regards unsatisfactory smears in discordant pairs, although the number of unsatisfactory smears was higher with TP (41 cases) as against CP (27 cases), the difference was not statistically significant (P < .05). The split-sample method showed a high correlation between the CP and TP diagnoses. TP smears had a significant advantage over CP smears in the reduction in the number of ASCUS and AGUS cases (14 vs. 29) (P < .05) and increased the pickup rate of LSIL, 6 vs. 1. Time taken to screen the TP smears was half that of CP smears. No cases of LSIL or HSIL were missed on TP smears. The liquid-based processor significantly improved the adequacy and quality of smears, resulting in fewer recall cases for SBL smears, leading to more definitive diagnoses in atypical cases, increasing the pickup rate of LSILs and reducing the screening time. A machine handling multiple specimens automatically would decrease cost and be an asset to a cytopathology laboratory.
    Acta cytologica 03/2002; 46(2):303-10. DOI:10.1159/000326726 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Acta cytologica 01/2002; 46(2):426-8. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Mrinmay Kumar Mallik, Dilip Kumar Das, Bahiyah Ebrahim Haji
    01/2001; 45(6):1005-1007. DOI:10.1159/000328345
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    ABSTRACT: Granular cell tumors are neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis, although a neural origin is favored. Most reports on the cytologic features of granular cell tumors have been on lesions from the breast or respiratory tract. However, there are only a few reports on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic diagnosis of cutaneous or soft tissue granular cell tumors. A 7-year-old girl presented with a skin lesion on her right forearm of one year's duration. The FNA smears showed sheets and clusters of oval to polygonal cells with an abundant amount of granular cytoplasm. Many single, scattered cells with similar morphology were seen in the background. Immunostaining for S-100 protein showed granular cytoplasmic positivity. The tumor was diagnosed as a benign granular cell tumor. The histopathology report on the excised lesion confirmed the FNA diagnosis. The cytopathologic features of granular cell tumors presenting as skin lesions are distinctive enough to allow a correct diagnosis on FNA cytology.
    Acta cytologica 01/2001; 45(2):263-6. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • 01/2001; 45(2):263-266. DOI:10.1159/000327287

Publication Stats

181 Citations
23.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital
      Kulan, Zhambyl, Kuwait
  • 2004
    • Kuwait University
      • Department of Pathology
      Kuwait, Muhafazat al `Asimah, Kuwait