Bassem A Bejjani

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (91)316.06 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Keratoconus (KTCN) is a thinning and anterior protrusion of the cornea which results in altered refractive powers and loss of visual acuity. Despite numerous studies, the reasons of development and progression of KTCN remain unknown. Genetic studies have led to identification of several loci linked with KTCN, including a locus in one multigenerational Ecuadorian family. The purpose of this study was to identify sequence variants in candidate genes segregating with the KTCN phenotype in another Ecuadorian family. METHODS: Non-parametric linkage analysis was performed in Ecuadorian family KTCN-019. Candidate genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, and SLC4A11 were selected and examined in this family by direct sequencing of all exons, promoters, and intron-exon junctions. RESULTS: Two novel suggestive loci were identified in 2q13-q14.3 and 20p13-p12.2. Screening of the candidate genes revealed 66 sequence variants, including five novel variants, in both coding and non-coding regions. The substitution c.214+242C>T in IL1RN gene, was observed in all affected individuals and three apparently unaffected family members. The novel deletion of 54 nucleotides in position c.2558+149_2558+203 in SLC4A11 was observed in all patients but one, two healthy individuals, and one person with an unknown phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses of selected genes have led to identification of numerous sequence variants in the examined Ecuadorian family. Both, substitution c.214+242C>T in IL1RN and novel deletion c.2558+149_2558+203del54 in SLC4A11 were observed significantly more frequently in family members with KTCN (p = 0.004525 and p = 0.00761, respectively), suggesting involvement of these two genes in KTCN etiology in the studied family.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:A number of genes in the 9q34.11 region may be haploinsufficient. However, studies analyzing genotype-phenotype correlations of deletions encompassing multiple dosage-sensitive genes in the region are lacking.Methods:We mapped breakpoints of 10 patients with 9q34.11 deletions using high-resolution 9q34-specific array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to determine deletion size and gene content.Results:The 9q34.11 deletions range in size from 67 kb to 2.8 Mb. Six patients exhibit intellectual disability and share a common deleted region including STXBP1; four manifest variable epilepsy. In five subjects, deletions include SPTAN1, previously associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile spasms, intellectual disability, and hypomyelination. In four patients, the deletion includes endoglin (ENG), causative of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Finally, in four patients, deletions involve TOR1A, of which molecular defects lead to early-onset primary dystonia. Ninety-four other RefSeq genes also map to the genomic intervals investigated.Conclusion:STXBP1 haploinsufficiency results in progressive encephalopathy characterized by intellectual disability and may be accompanied by epilepsy, movement disorders, and autism. We propose that 9q34.11 genomic deletions involving ENG, TOR1A, STXBP1, and SPTAN1 are responsible for multisystemic vascular dysplasia, early-onset primary dystonia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability, therefore revealing cis-genetic effects leading to complex phenotypes.Genet Med 2012:14(10):868-876.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 06/2012; 14(10):868-76. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keratoconus (KTCN), a non-inflammatory corneal disorder characterized by stromal thinning, represents a major cause of corneal transplantations. Genetic and environmental factors have a role in the etiology of this complex disease. Previously reported linkage analysis revealed that chromosomal region 13q32 is likely to contain causative gene(s) for familial KTCN. Consequently, we have chosen eight positional candidate genes in this region: MBNL1, IPO5, FARP1, RNF113B, STK24, DOCK9, ZIC5 and ZIC2, and sequenced all of them in 51 individuals from Ecuadorian KTCN families and 105 matching controls. The mutation screening identified one mutation and three sequence variants showing 100% segregation under a dominant model with KTCN phenotype in one large Ecuadorian family. These substitutions were found in three different genes: c.2262A>C (p.Gln754His) and c.720+43A>G in DOCK9; c.2377-132A>C in IPO5 and c.1053+29G>C in STK24. PolyPhen analyses predicted that c.2262A>C (Gln754His) is possibly damaging for the protein function and structure. Our results suggest that c.2262A>C (p.Gln754His) mutation in DOCK9 may contribute to the KTCN phenotype in the large KTCN-014 family.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 11/2011; 20(4):389-97. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Recently, molecular cytogenetic techniques have identified novel copy number variants in individuals with schizophrenia. However, no large-scale prospective studies have been performed to characterize the broader spectrum of phenotypes associated with such copy number variants in individuals with unexplained physical and intellectual disabilities encountered in a diagnostic setting. : We analyzed 38,779 individuals referred to our diagnostic laboratory for microarray testing for the presence of copy number variants encompassing 20 putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci. We also analyzed the indications for study for individuals with copy number variants overlapping those found in six individuals referred for schizophrenia. : After excluding larger gains or losses that encompassed additional genes outside the candidate loci (e.g., whole-arm gains/losses), we identified 1113 individuals with copy number variants encompassing schizophrenia susceptibility loci and 37 individuals with copy number variants overlapping those present in the six individuals referred to our laboratory for schizophrenia. Of these, 1035 had a copy number variant of one of six recurrent loci: 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11, and 22q11.2. The indications for study for these 1150 individuals were diverse and included developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum, and multiple congenital anomalies. : The results from our study, the largest genotype-first analysis of schizophrenia susceptibility loci to date, suggest that the phenotypic effects of copy number variants associated with schizophrenia are pleiotropic and imply the existence of shared biologic pathways among multiple neurodevelopmental conditions.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 08/2011; 13(10):868-80. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although copy number changes of 5q31 have been rarely reported, deletions have been associated with some common characteristics, such as short stature, failure to thrive, developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID), club feet, dislocated hips, and dysmorphic features. We report on three individuals with deletions and two individuals with duplications at 5q31, ranging from 3.6 Mb to 8.1 Mb and 830 kb to 3.4 Mb in size, respectively. All five copy number changes are apparently de novo and involve several genes that are important in developmental pathways, including PITX1, SMAD5, and WNT8A. The individuals with deletions have characteristic features including DD, short stature, club feet, cleft or high palate, dysmorphic features, and skeletal anomalies. Haploinsufficiency of PITX1, a transcription factor important for limb development, is likely the cause for the club feet, skeletal anomalies, and cleft/high palate, while additional genes, including SMAD5 and WNT8A, may also contribute to additional phenotypic features. Two patients with deletions also presented with corneal anomalies. To identify a causative gene for the corneal anomalies, we sequenced candidate genes in a family with apparent autosomal dominant keratoconus with suggestive linkage to 5q31, but no mutations in candidate genes were found. The duplications are smaller than the deletions, and the patients with duplications have nonspecific features. Although development is likely affected by increased dosage of the genes in the region, the developmental disruption appears less severe than that seen with deletion.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2011; 155A(8):1906-16. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microdeletions of 1q43q44 result in a recognizable clinical disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID) with limited or no expressive speech, characteristic facial features, hand and foot anomalies, microcephaly (MIC), abnormalities (agenesis/hypogenesis) of the corpus callosum (ACC), and seizures (SZR). Critical regions have been proposed for some of the more prominent features of this disorder such as MIC and ACC, yet conflicting data have prevented precise determination of the causative genes. In this study, the largest of pure interstitial and terminal deletions of 1q43q44 to date, we characterized 22 individuals by high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. We propose critical regions and candidate genes for the MIC, ACC, and SZR phenotypes associated with this microdeletion syndrome. Three cases with MIC had small overlapping or intragenic deletions of AKT3, an isoform of the protein kinase B family. The deletion of only AKT3 in two cases implicates haploinsufficiency of this gene in the MIC phenotype. Likewise, based on the smallest region of overlap among the affected individuals, we suggest a critical region for ACC that contains ZNF238, a transcriptional and chromatin regulator highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. Finally, we describe a critical region for the SZR phenotype which contains three genes (FAM36A, C1ORF199, and HNRNPU). Although ~90% of cases in this study and in the literature fit these proposed models, the existence of phenotypic variability suggests other mechanisms such as variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance, position effects, or multigenic factors could account for additional complexity in some cases.
    Human Genetics 07/2011; 131(1):145-56. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orofacial clefts of the lip and/or palate comprise one of the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. Though a majority of cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) occurs as isolated congenital anomalies, there exist a large number of Mendelian disorders in which orofacial clefting is part of the clinical phenotype. Here we report on two individuals and one multi-generational family with microdeletions at 20p12.3 that include the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene. In two propositi the deletion was almost identical at ∼600 kb in size, and BMP2 was the only gene deleted; the third case had a ∼5.5-Mb deletion (20p13p12.2) that encompassed at least 20 genes including BMP2. Clinical features were significant for cleft palate and facial dysmorphism in all three patients, including Pierre-Robin sequence in two. Microdeletion 20p13p12 involving BMP2 is rare and has been implicated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome with neurocognitive deficits and with Alagille syndrome when the deletion includes the neighboring JAG1 gene in addition to BMP2. Despite a significant role for the BMPs in orofacial development, heterozygous loss of BMP2 has not been previously reported in patients with syndromic clefting defects. Because BMP2 was the sole deleted gene in Patients 1 and 2 and one of the genes deleted in Patient 3, all of whom had clinical features in common, we suggest that haploinsufficiency for BMP2 is a crucial event that predisposes to cleft palate and additional anomalies. Lack of significant phenotypic components in family members of Patient 1 suggests variable expressivity for the phenotype.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2011; 155A(7):1646-53. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: With the arrival of increasingly complex molecular tests, we are obliged to create new ways to monitor and troubleshoot the underperformance of these multiplex assays. A synthetic multiallelic quality control material has been designed to augment genomic DNA controls. We aimed to evaluate the control on a large scale, testing it on a wide variety of oligonucleotide ligation assays, test protocols, and analysis software. In addition, we investigated how laboratories treat untried and complex materials. Methods: The synthetic control monitored 32 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations and polymorphisms simultaneously. Participants of a cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme were invited to analyze the quality control. Results: In total, 58 laboratories participated in this study. Twenty-seven (47%) laboratories detected 32 variants; another 27 laboratories (47%) detected from 31 to 4 variants and 4 participants reported no variants (6%). The main observations included administrative errors when indicating variants on a checklist, errors caused by misreading the instructions for use of the control or assay, and technical problems related to the assay used. Conclusion: Synthetic quality control materials proved to be valuable in troubleshooting underperforming assays and complement existing genomic controls. The study also revealed a strong need for increased quality control in the postanalytical phase of testing.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 04/2011; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between segmental duplications in proximal chromosome 15q breakpoint (BP) regions can lead to microdeletions and microduplications. Several individuals with deletions flanked by BP3 and BP4 on 15q13, immediately distal to, and not including the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PW/AS) critical region and proximal to the BP4-BP5 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome region, have been reported; however, because the deletion has also been found in normal relatives, the significance of these alterations is unclear. We have identified six individuals with deletions limited to the BP3-BP4 interval and an additional four individuals with deletions of the BP3-BP5 interval from 34 046 samples submitted for clinical testing by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Of four individuals with BP3-BP4 deletions for whom parental testing was conducted, two were apparently de novo and two were maternally inherited. A comparison of clinical features, available for five individuals in our study (four with deletions within BP3-BP4 and one with a BP3-BP5 deletion), with those in the literature show common features of short stature and/or failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypotonia, and premature breast development in some individuals. Although the BP3-BP4 deletion does not yet demonstrate statistically significant enrichment in abnormal populations compared with control populations, the presence of common clinical features among probands and the presence of genes with roles in development and nervous system function in the deletion region suggest that this deletion may have a role in abnormal phenotypes in some individuals.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2011; 19(5):547-54. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keratoconus (KTCN) is a non-inflammatory, usually bilateral disorder of the eye which results in the conical shape and the progressive thinning of the cornea. Several studies have suggested that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of the disease. Several loci were previously described as possible candidate regions for familial KTCN; however, no causative mutations in any genes have been identified for any of these loci. The purpose of this study was to evaluate role of the collagen genes collagen type IV, alpha-1 (COL4A1) and collagen type IV, alpha-2 (COL4A2) in KTCN in Ecuadorian families. COL4A1 and COL4A2 in 15 Ecuadorian KTCN families were examined with polymerase chain reaction amplification, and direct sequencing of all exons, promoter and intron-exon junctions was performed. Screening of COL4A1 and COL4A2 revealed numerous alterations in coding and non-coding regions of both genes. We detected three missense substitutions in COL4A1: c.19G>C (Val7Leu), c.1663A>C (Thr555Pro), and c.4002A>C (Gln1334His). Five non-synonymous variants were identified in COL4A2: c.574G>T (Val192Phe), c.1550G>A (Arg517Lys), c.2048G>C (Gly683Ala), c.2102A>G (Lys701Arg), and c.2152C>T (Pro718Ser). None of the identified sequence variants completely segregated with the affected phenotype. The Gln1334His variant was possibly damaging to protein function and structure. This is the first mutation screening of COL4A1 and COL4A2 genes in families with KTCN and linkage to a locus close to these genes. Analysis of COL4A1 and COL4A2 revealed no mutations indicating that other genes are involved in KTCN causation in Ecuadorian families.
    Molecular vision 01/2011; 17:827-43. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myopia is the most common human eye disorder with complex genetic and environmental causes. To date, several myopia loci have been identified in families of different geographic origin. However, no causative gene(s) have yet been identified. The aim of this study was the characterization of Polish families with high-grade myopia, including genetic analysis. Forty-two multiplex Polish families with non-syndromic high-grade myopia participated in the study. All family members underwent detailed ophthalmic examination and high-grade myopia was defined as ≤-6.0 diopters (D) based on the spherical refractive error. A genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based high-density linkage scan was performed using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 on a selected family (HM-32) with multiple affected individuals. Nonparametric linkage analysis identified three novel loci in family HM-32 at chromosome 7p22.1-7p21.1 ([NPL] 8.26; p=0.006), chromosome 7p12.3-7p11.2 ([NPL] 8.23; p=0.006), and chromosome 12p12.3-12p12.1 ([NPL] 8.02; p=0.006), respectively. The effect of linkage disequilibrium on linkage due to dense SNP map was addressed by systematically pruning SNPs from the linkage panel. Haplotype analysis with informative crossovers in affected individuals defined a 12.2; 10.9; and 9.5 Mb genomic regions for high-grade myopia spanned between SNP markers rs11977885/rs10950639, rs11770622/rs9719399, and rs4763417/rs10842388 on chromosomes 7p22.1-7p21.1, 7p12.3-7p11.2, and 12p12.3-12p12.1, respectively.
    Molecular vision 01/2011; 17:2028-39. · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Lisa G Shaffer, Bassem A Bejjani
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosome imbalances are the leading cause of intellectual and developmental disabilities in the population. This paper reviews the current methods used to diagnose chromosome abnormalities in children including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarray technologies. Advances in molecular cytogenetics, especially with the use of microarrays, have substantially increased the detection of chromosome abnormalities in children with disabilities and congenital anomalies above that achievable with conventional cytogenetic banding and light microscopy.
    Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 11/2010; 16(2):114-8. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders represent a range of neurodevelopmental disorders that have been shown to have a strong genetic etiological component. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization and other molecular cytogenetic techniques are discovering an increasing number of copy number variations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. We examined the yield of abnormal microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization findings in our laboratory for individuals referred for testing for autism spectrum disorder. We also examined the presence of autistic features among 151 additional individuals who were referred for microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization testing for indications other than autism spectrum disorder but had genomic alterations overlapping those found in cases referred for autism spectrum disorder. We identified 1461 individuals referred for testing for autism spectrum disorder, with likely significant abnormalities reported in approximately 11.6% of individuals analyzed with whole-genome arrays. These abnormalities include alterations that encompass novel candidate genes such as SNTG2, SOX5, HFE, and TRIP38. A minority of individuals with overlapping abnormalities (19%) had autistic features, and many of the copy number variations identified in our study are inherited (69% among those found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder). Our results suggest these copy number variations are one of multiple factors contributing to the development of an autism spectrum disorder phenotype. Additionally, the broad phenotypic spectrum of the patients with these copy number variations suggests that these copy number variations are not autism spectrum disorder-specific but likely more generally impair neurodevelopment.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 11/2010; 12(11):694-702. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder manifested by infantile hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, followed by morbid obesity secondary to hyperphagia. It is caused by deficiency of paternally expressed transcript(s) within the human chromosome region 15q11.2. PWS patients harboring balanced chromosomal translocations with breakpoints within small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) have provided indirect evidence for a role for the imprinted C/D box containing small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes encoded downstream of SNRPN. In addition, recently published data provide strong evidence in support of a role for the snoRNA SNORD116 cluster (HBII-85) in PWS etiology. In this study, we performed detailed phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses including chromosome analysis, array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), expression studies, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parent-of-origin determination of the 15q11.2 microdeletion on an 11-year-old child expressing the major components of the PWS phenotype. This child had an ∼236.29 kb microdeletion at 15q11.2 within the larger Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region that included the SNORD116 cluster of snoRNAs. Analysis of SNP genotypes in proband and mother provided evidence in support of the deletion being on the paternal chromosome 15. This child also met most of the major PWS diagnostic criteria including infantile hypotonia, early-onset morbid obesity, and hypogonadism. Identification and characterization of this case provide unequivocal evidence for a critical role for the SNORD116 snoRNA molecules in PWS pathogenesis. Array CGH testing for genomic copy-number changes in cases with complex phenotypes is proving to be invaluable in detecting novel alterations and enabling better genotype-phenotype correlations.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 11/2010; 18(11):1196-201. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Mapping and genome sharing among affected individuals continue to be important for establishing a link between a genomic variant and its phenotypic consequences. Several loci responsible for a familial form of keratoconus (KTCN) have been mapped, however; no mutations in any genes have been identified for any of these loci. Here we present further sequencing results of candidate keratoconus genes localized to 13q32 and 13q34 and accompanying linkage analyses performed in Ecuadorian families.Methods Genes were screened by standard techniques using 48 genomic DNA samples from individuals from family KTCN-014 and selected affected and unaffected individuals from other Ecuadorian families. Coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of the genes were evaluated. Additional bioinformatics analyses were carried out based on the genomewide scan data obtained from 79 patients with keratoconus and 66 healthy family members.Results Sequencing of COL4A1 and COL4A2 genes at 13q34 have been completed. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in coding and non-coding regions. Haplotype analysis in family KTCN-014 at 13q32 revealed three sequence variants segregating with keratoconus phenotype. Bioinformatics analyses revealed distinct keratoconus loci in particular Ecuadorian families indicating complexity of genetics in familial keratoconus.Conclusion Our results show high complexity of genetics in familial keratoconus
    Acta ophthalmologica 09/2010; 88(s246). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common developmental forebrain anomaly in humans. Both environmental and genetic factors have been identified to play a role in the HPE phenotype. Previous studies of the genetic bases of HPE have taken a phenotype-first approach by examining groups of patients with HPE for specific mutations or deletions in known or candidate HPE genes. In this study, we characterized the presence or absence of HPE or a microform in 136 individuals in which microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) identified a deletion of one of 35 HPE loci. Frank holoprosencephaly was present in 11 individuals with deletions of one of the common HPE genes SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, and TGIF1, in one individual with a deletion of the HPE8 locus at 14q13, and in one individual with a deletion of FGF8, whereas deletions of other HPE loci and candidate genes (FOXA2 and LRP2) expressed microforms of HPE. Although individuals with deletions of other HPE candidates (DISP1, LSS, HHIP, SMO, BMP4, CDON, CDC42, ACVR2A, OTX2, and WIF1) had clinically significant features, none had frank HPE or a microform. A search for significant aCGH findings in individuals referred for testing for HPE revealed a novel association of a duplication involving GSK3B at 3q13.33 with HPE or a microform, seen in two unrelated individuals.
    Human Genetics 04/2010; 127(4):421-40. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microdeletions and microduplications encompassing a ~593-kb region of 16p11.2 have been implicated as one of the most common genetic causes of susceptibility to autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We report 45 microdeletions and 32 microduplications of 16p11.2, representing 0.78% of 9,773 individuals referred to our laboratory for microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing for neurodevelopmental and congenital anomalies. The microdeletion was de novo in 17 individuals and maternally inherited in five individuals for whom parental testing was available. Detailed histories of 18 individuals with 16p11.2 microdeletions were reviewed; all had developmental delays with below-average intelligence, and a majority had speech or language problems or delays and various behavioral problems. Of the 16 individuals old enough to be evaluated for autism, the speech/behavior profiles of seven did not suggest the need for ASD evaluation. Of the remaining nine individuals who had speech/behavior profiles that aroused clinical suspicion of ASD, five had formal evaluations, and three had PDD-NOS. Of the 19 microduplications with parental testing, five were de novo, nine were maternally inherited, and five were paternally inherited. A majority with the microduplication had delayed development and/or specific deficits in speech or language, though these features were not as consistent as seen with the microdeletions. This study, which is the largest cohort of individuals with 16p11.2 alterations reported to date, suggests that 16p11.2 microdeletions and microduplications are associated with a high frequency of cognitive, developmental, and speech delay and behavior abnormalities. Furthermore, although features associated with these alterations can be found in individuals with ASD, additional factors are likely required to lead to the development of ASD.
    Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 03/2010; 2(1):26-38. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Segmental duplications, which comprise approximately 5%-10% of the human genome, are known to mediate medically relevant deletions, duplications, and inversions through nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and have been suggested to be hot spots in chromosome evolution and human genomic instability. We report seven individuals with microdeletions at 17q23.1q23.2, identified by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Six of the seven deletions are approximately 2.2 Mb in size and flanked by large segmental duplications of >98% sequence identity and in the same orientation. One of the deletions is approximately 2.8 Mb in size and is flanked on the distal side by a segmental duplication, whereas the proximal breakpoint falls between segmental duplications. These characteristics suggest that NAHR mediated six out of seven of these rearrangements. These individuals have common features, including mild to moderate developmental delay (particularly speech delay), microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, heart defects, and hand, foot, and limb abnormalities. Although all individuals had at least mild dysmorphic facial features, there was no characteristic constellation of features that would elicit clinical suspicion of a specific disorder. The identification of common clinical features suggests that microdeletions at 17q23.1q23.2 constitute a novel syndrome. Furthermore, the inclusion in the minimal deletion region of TBX2 and TBX4, transcription factors belonging to a family of genes implicated in a variety of developmental pathways including those of heart and limb, suggests that these genes may play an important role in the phenotype of this emerging syndrome.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2010; 86(3):454-61. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of genomic imbalances in young patients can affect medical management by allowing early intervention for developmental delay and by identifying patients at risk for unexpected medical complications. Using a 105K-feature oligonucleotide array, we identified a 7.25 Mb deletion at 10q22.3q23.2 in six unrelated patients. Deletions of this region have been described in individuals with cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features, and may represent a recurring genetic syndrome. All four patients in this study for whom clinical information was available had mild dysmorphic features and three had developmental delay. Of note is the emerging clinical phenotype in these individuals with similar dysmorphic features such as macrocephaly, hypertelorism, and arachnodactyly, and neurodevelopmental delay that includes failure to thrive, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties in the neonatal period, and receptive and expressive language delay with global neurodevelopmental delay after the neonatal period. However, there is no pattern of abnormalities, craniofacial, behavioral, or otherwise, that would have aroused clinical suspicion of a specific syndrome. Finally, the patients' deletions encompass BMPR1A but not PTEN, and these patients may be at risk for colon cancer and should be referred for appropriate prophylactic care and surveillance. Of the two patients in this study who had colonoscopy following the array results, neither had polyps. Therefore, the magnitude of the increased risk for colon cancer is currently unknown.
    Clinical Genetics 02/2010; 78(2):162-8. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful diagnostic tool for the detection of DNA copy number gains and losses associated with chromosome abnormalities, many of which are below the resolution of conventional chromosome analysis. It has been presumed that whole-genome oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays identify more clinically significant copy-number abnormalities than whole-genome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays, yet this has not been systematically studied in a clinical diagnostic setting. To determine the difference in detection rate between similarly designed BAC and oligo arrays, we developed whole-genome BAC and oligonucleotide microarrays and validated them in a side-by-side comparison of 466 consecutive clinical specimens submitted to our laboratory for aCGH. Of the 466 cases studied, 67 (14.3%) had a copy-number imbalance of potential clinical significance detectable by the whole-genome BAC array, and 73 (15.6%) had a copy-number imbalance of potential clinical significance detectable by the whole-genome oligo array. However, because both platforms identified copy number variants of unclear clinical significance, we designed a systematic method for the interpretation of copy number alterations and tested an additional 3,443 cases by BAC array and 3,096 cases by oligo array. Of those cases tested on the BAC array, 17.6% were found to have a copy-number abnormality of potential clinical significance, whereas the detection rate increased to 22.5% for the cases tested by oligo array. In addition, we validated the oligo array for detection of mosaicism and found that it could routinely detect mosaicism at levels of 30% and greater. Although BAC arrays have faster turnaround times, the increased detection rate of oligo arrays makes them attractive for clinical cytogenetic testing.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 01/2010; 3:11. · 2.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
316.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Polish Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Human Genetics
      Warsaw, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
    • PerkinElmer
      Waltham, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Signature Science, LLC
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2008
    • McGill University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004–2008
    • Sacred Heart Medical Center
      Spokane, Washington, United States
    • Washington State University
      • School of Molecular Biosciences
      Pullman, Washington, United States
  • 1996–2006
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular & Human Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States