C E Cerniglia

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C., DC, United States

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Publications (326)903.3 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and their pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparison using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild-type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize biphenyl, the LMW PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene, and the HMW PAHs pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with the highest enzymatic activity toward three-ring PAHs. Structure analysis and PAH substrates docking simulations of the Pdo substrate-binding pocket rationalized the experimentally observed metabolic versatility on a molecular scale. Using information obtained in this study and from previous work, we constructed an RHO-centric functional map, allowing pleiotropic and epistatic enzymatic explanation of PAH metabolism. Taken together, the Pdo system is a RHO system with pleiotropic responsibility of LMW PAH-centric hydroxylation, and its epistatic functional contribution is also a crucial for metabolic quality and quantity of the PAH-MN.
    Journal of Bacteriology 07/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ceftiofur is a highly effective veterinary cephalosporin, yet it is rapidly degraded by bacteria in the gut. The goal of this work was to directly determine the mechanism of ceftiofur degradation by the bovine intestinal isolate Bacillus cereus P41. B. cereus P41 was isolated from the feces of a cow that had not been treated with cephalosporins, and was found to rapidly degrade ceftiofur in culture. Analysis of spent culture media by HPLC/UV and HPLC/MS revealed one major metabolite of ceftiofur, with a negative ion m/z of 127. Comparison of ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, and cefpodoxime degradation suggested that the major stable ceftiofur metabolite was the thiofuroic acid group eliminated from the C-3 position of the drug after hydrolysis by β-lactamase. Genomic DNA from B. cereus P41 was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the transformants were screened for growth in the presence of ceftiofur. DNA sequencing of the plasmid pHSG299-BC-3 insert revealed the presence of a gene encoding a metallo-β-lactamase. Incubation of ceftiofur with either the E. coli transformant or a commercial B. cereus metallo-β-lactamase showed degradation of the drug and formation of the same major metabolite produced by B. cereus P41. These data demonstrate that a metallo-β-lactamase plays a major role in the degradation of ceftiofur by the bovine intestinal bacterium B. cereus P41.
    Veterinary Microbiology 06/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) presence has been the cause of recalls of both sterile and non-sterile pharmaceutical products since these opportunistic pathogens have been implicated to cause infections to susceptible individuals. BCC are ubiquitous in nature, but in pharmaceutical settings the most common source is contaminated water systems. Some strains of BCC, previously described as Pseudomonas cepacia, were not readily detected by standard culture methods. We have explored different strategies to recover and enrich Burkholderia cenocepacia previously cultured in distilled water for 40 days. Enrichment media of varied nutrient concentrations and composition were used, including modified Tryptic Soy Agar or Broth (TSA or TSB), Reasoner's 2nd Agar or Broth (R2A or R2AB), Brain-Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB), Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB), and Ashdown's (ASH) medium. Of the various broth media tested, cell growth was significantly greater in TSB and R2AB than in BHIB, MHB, or ASH broth. TSB and R2AB were also compared for their recovery efficiency. Generally, there was no significant difference between the numbers of B. cenocepacia grown on 15 differently modified TSA and five modified R2A solid media. Overall, however, diluted TSA and TSB media, and R2A and R2AB showed better recovery efficiency than TSA and TSB for inocula containing small numbers of cells. All strains persisted in distilled water for 40 days. Broth media were more effective than solid media for recovery of B. cenocepacia from distilled water. These results may assist in improving detection assays with recovery and enrichment strategies to maximize recovery of these fastidious organisms.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology 04/2014; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of humans to antimicrobial residues in food-producing animals may alter the intestinal microbiota which could result in a potential risk to human health. To determine the effect of enrofloxacin on the human intestinal microbiota, fecal suspensions (25%) were cultured in the presence of 0.06-5 µg/ml enrofloxacin. The bacterial community was analyzed by plating on selective culture media, pyrosequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes and viable counts on Bacteroides sp., Enterococcus sp., and Bifidobacterium sp. selection medium indicated that there were no significant changes in the bacteria numbers at the selected enrofloxacin concentrations (0.06, 0.1, and 1 µg/ml) relative to the control samples after a 48 h incubation. NMR analysis showed remarkably similar spectra in cultures treated with 0.06, 0.1, and 1 µg/ml enrofloxacin, with some slight differences in peak heights. However, hierarchical clustering analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite concentrations between the control and those samples treated with 1 µg/ml enrofloxacin. Leucine, phenylalanine, proline, and 2-oxovalerate were positively correlated with the concentration of enrofloxacin. NMR analysis is a potentially useful tool to monitor changes of the human intestinal microbiota, in addition to traditional culture methods and pyrosequencing.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2012; 22(5):317-325. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 μM, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health.
    Anaerobe 05/2012; 18(4):445-53. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we obtained over 4,000 transposon mutants of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 and analyzed one of the mutants, 8F7, which appeared to lose its ability to degrade pyrene while still being able to degrade fluoranthene. This mutant was identified to be defective in nidA, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO), known to be involved in the initial oxidation step of pyrene degradation. When cultured with pyrene as a sole source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the nidA mutant showed a significant decrease in the rate of pyrene degradation compared to the wild-type PYR-1, although pyrene was still being degraded. However, when incubated with PAH mixtures including pyrene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene, the pyrene degradation rate of the mutant was higher than that of the mutant previously incubated with pyrene as a sole source of PAH. There was no significant difference between wild-type PYR-1 and the mutant in the rates of phenanthrene and fluoranthene degradation. From the whole-cell proteome analysis of mutant 8F7 induced by pyrene, we identified expression of a number of RHO enzymes which are suspected to be responsible for pyrene degradation in the nidA mutant, which had no expression of NidA. Taken together, results in this study provide direct evidence for the in vivo functional role of nidA in pyrene degradation at the level of the ring-cleavage-process (RCP) functional module but also for the robustness of the PAH metabolic network (MN) to such a genetic perturbation.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/2012; 78(10):3715-23. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AzoA from Enterococcus faecalis is a member of the polymeric flavin-dependent NADH-preferred azoreductase group. Little is known about the binding and interaction of NADH and azo dye in the azoreductase group. A synergetic strategy based on computational prediction, reverse genetics validation coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, and reconstruction of mutation network was used to investigate the binding and interaction of NADH and a model azo dye, Methyl Red, with AzoA. Methyl Red and NADH interacted in a unique binding mode in which the benzoic acid moiety of Methyl Red and the nicotinamide ring of NADH were not parallel to the flavin isoalloxazine ring, but lay against it at angles of ∼45° and ∼35°, respectively. The adenine ribose moiety of NADH was surrounded by loop ℓ2 on chain B and α3 on chain A in a typical Rossmann fold. There were 12 and 19 amino acid residues that could participate in the binding of Methyl Red and NADH, respectively, especially the residues Tyr-129 and Asp-184. The functional perturbation effects of 13 residues, including Tyr-129 and Asp-184, were mapped to reconstruct the mutation network, which confirmed the proposed binding modes and also provided insights into the interaction among NADH, FMN and Methyl Red.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2012; 520(2):99-107. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The indigenous human intestinal microbiota could be disrupted by residues of antibiotics in foods as well as therapeutically administered antibiotics to humans. These disruptions may lead to adverse health outcomes. To observe the possible impact of residues of antibiotics at concentrations below therapeutic levels on human intestinal microbiota, we performed studies using in vitro cultures of fecal suspensions from three individuals with 10 different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 150 μg/ml) of the fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin. The bacterial communities of the control and enrofloxacin dosed fecal samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. In addition, changes of functional gene expression were analyzed by a pyrosequencing-based random whole-community mRNA sequencing method. Although each individual had a unique microbial composition, the communities of all individuals were affected by enrofloxacin. The proportions of two phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, were significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin exposure, while the proportion of Firmicutes increased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) using the Fast UniFrac indicated that the community structures of intestinal microbiota were shifted by enrofloxacin. Most of the mRNA transcripts and the anti-microbial drug resistance genes increased with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of control and enrofloxacin treated fecal suspensions provided valuable information of affected bacterial taxa down to the species level, and the community transcriptomic analyses using mRNA revealed the functional gene expression responses of the changed bacterial communities by enrofloxacin.
    Anaerobe 02/2012; 18(3):310-20. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Youngbeom Ahn, Kidon Sung, Fatemeh Rafii, Carl E Cerniglia
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    ABSTRACT: The ingestion of antimicrobial residues in foods of animal origin has the potential risk of exposing colonic bacteria to small concentrations of antibiotics and inducing resistance in the colonic bacteria. To investigate whether human intestinal contents would influence resistance development in bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC of enrofloxacin <0.03 μg ml(-1)) was exposed to 0.01 to 1 μg ml(-1) of enrofloxacin in media supplemented with glucose, sucrose, sodium acetate or sterilized human fecal extract. In the first passage, only the medium containing sterilized fecal extract supported the growth of E. coli at an enrofloxacin concentration equal to the MIC. In the second and third passages following exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the drug, the bacteria in media containing sterilized fecal extract grew at 0.1 μg ml(-1) of enrofloxacin. The efflux pump inhibitors, reserpine and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 0.1 μg ml(-1) of enrofloxacin in the medium containing sucrose, but their effect was not observed in the medium supplemented with 2.5% sterilized fecal extract. The proportions of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in E. coli grown in the medium with 2.5% sterilized fecal extract differed from those grown in the medium alone. Fecal extract may contain unknown factors that augment the ability of E. coli to grow in concentrations of enrofloxacin higher than MIC, both in the presence and absence of efflux pump inhibitors. This is the first study showing that fecal extract affects the level of sensitivity of E. coli to antimicrobial agents.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 01/2012; 65(4):179-84. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Jinhui Feng, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 0.7 million tons of azo dyes are synthesized each year. Azo dyes are composed of one or more R₁-N=N-R₂ linkages. Studies have shown that both mammalian and microbial azoreductases cleave the azo bonds of the dyes to form compounds that are potentially genotoxic. The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse microbiota comprised of at least several thousand species. Both water-soluble and water-insoluble azo dyes can be reduced by intestinal bacteria. Some of the metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans although the parent azo dyes may not be classified as being carcinogenic. Azoreductase activity is commonly found in intestinal bacteria. Three types of azoreductases have been characterized in bacteria. They are flavin dependent NADH preferred azoreductase, flavin dependent NADPH preferred azoreductase, and flavin free NADPH preferred azoreductase. This review highlights how azo dyes are metabolized by intestinal bacteria, mechanisms of azo reduction, and the potential contribution in the carcinogenesis/mutagenesis of the reduction of the azo dyes by intestinal microbiota.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2012; 4:568-86. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. IMPORTANCE There have been concerns whether human health is adversely affected by exposure to spilled crude oil, which contains regulated carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we determined the effect of BP Deepwater Horizon crude oil and oil dispersant on the human intestinal microbiota, since there is the potential that low-level residues of petrochemicals could contaminate seafood. The results of this study will increase our understanding of the ecophysiological changes in the microbial communities of the human gastrointestinal tract with respect to crude oil exposure.
    mBio 01/2012; 3(5). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most antibiotic inactivation studies have been conducted through in vitro incubations of human use aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and fluoroquinolones, usually at fecal concentrations expected with therapeutic dose regimens in humans and animals. Less is known about the inactivation of these molecules when ingested at concentrations consistent with residue levels present in animal-derived foods from antibiotic treated animals. In this investigation, we used the fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin which is specifically marketed for veterinary medicine as test compound. Fecal suspensions at 10%, 25%, and 50% (w/v) were subjected to physicochemical and molecular characterization and used in the drug binding studies. The fecal binding of enrofloxacin added at concentrations of 0.06, 0.1, 1, 5, 15, 50, and 150 mg/L was determined in various fecal slurry suspensions using analytical chemistry and microbiological assay methods. There was consistent correlation between both assay methods. By the analytical chemistry assay, the 10%, 25% and 50% diluted autoclaved fecal samples dosed with enrofloxacin showed binding of 50±4.6%, 54±6.5% and 56±6.8% of the enrofloxacin, respectively. Binding of enrofloxacin to fecal contents occurred rapidly within 10 min and remained constant over the incubation period. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses and pyrosequencing analysis showed varied profiles of the bacterial composition of the human intestinal microbiota for fecal samples from different individuals. This study provided information on methodological questions that have concerned regulatory authorities on in vitro testing to determine if concentrations of veterinary antimicrobial agent residues entering the human colon remain microbiologically active.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 12/2011; 62(1):74-84. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the role of lysozyme on the viability of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) in egg white (EW), ground beef and milk. At 35 °C in EW, growth rates (GR) for B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. anthracis were 0.005, -0.018, -0.028 and -0.029 OD(600)/h, respectively. Heat-treating EW at 55 and 60 °C reduced the inactivating effect of EW by 3.1 and 10.5-fold, respectively. Addition of lysozyme (2 mg/ml) to 60 °C-treated EW increased the inactivation rate 5.76-fold, indicating involvement of lysozyme in B. anthracis inactivation. B. anthracis inactivation was influenced by pH, as shown by a progressive increase in inactivation rate from 0.25 to -4.42 logs CFU/h over a pH range of 6.0-8.5. Adding 2 mg/ml lysozyme to milk and ground beef also suppressed the growth of B. anthracis 3.3 and 6.5-fold, respectively. These data indicate that lysozyme, as a natural component of EW or potential additive in other foods, could reduce biothreat risks presented by bioterror agents.
    Food Microbiology 09/2011; 28(6):1231-4. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2011; 55(11):4990-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated a metabolic network (MN) from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the perspective of structure, behavior, and evolution, in which multilayer omics data are integrated. Initially, we utilized a high-throughput proteomic analysis to assess the protein expression response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to seven different aromatic compounds. A total of 3,431 proteins (57.38% of the genome-predicted proteins) were identified, which included 160 proteins that seemed to be involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on the proteomic data and the previous metabolic, biochemical, physiological, and genomic information, we reconstructed an experiment-based system-level PAH-MN. The structure of PAH-MN, with 183 metabolic compounds and 224 chemical reactions, has a typical scale-free nature. The behavior and evolution of the PAH-MN reveals a hierarchical modularity with funnel effects in structure/function and intimate association with evolutionary modules of the functional modules, which are the ring cleavage process (RCP), side chain process (SCP), and central aromatic process (CAP). The 189 commonly upregulated proteins in all aromatic hydrocarbon treatments provide insights into the global adaptation to facilitate the PAH metabolism. Taken together, the findings of our study provide the hierarchical viewpoint from genes/proteins/metabolites to the network via functional modules of the PAH-MN equipped with the engineering-driven approaches of modularization and rationalization, which may expand our understanding of the metabolic potential of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 for bioremediation applications.
    Journal of bacteriology 07/2011; 193(17):4326-37. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid, accurate and inexpensive analysis of the disease-causing potential of foodborne pathogens is an important consideration in food safety and biodefense, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of a robust and inexpensive microarray platform to assay the virulence gene profiles in Salmonella from food and/or the food animal environment, and then use ArrayTrack™ for data analysis. The spotted array consisted of 69 selected Salmonella-specific virulence gene probes (65bp each). These probes were printed on poly-L-lysine-coated slides. Genomic DNA was digested with Sau3AI, labeled with Cy3 dye, hybridized to the gene probes, and the images were captured and analyzed by GenePix 4000B and ArrayTrack™, a free software developed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) researchers. Nearly 58% of the virulence-associated genes tested were present in all Salmonella strains tested. In general, genes belonging to inv, pip, prg, sic, sip, spa or ttr families were detected in more than 90% of the isolates, while the iacP, avrA, invH, rhuM, sirA, sopB, sopE or sugR genes were detected in 40 to 80% of the isolates. The gene variability was independent of the Salmonella serotype. This hybridization array presents an accurate and cost-effective method for evaluating the disease-causing potential of Salmonella in outbreak investigations by targeting a selective set of Salmonella-associated virulence genes.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 03/2011; 5(2):94-105. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Hongmiao Pan, Jinhui Feng, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Azo dyes are widely used in the plastic, paper, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Some metabolites of these dyes are potentially genotoxic. The toxic effects of azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were studied. When the cultures were incubated with 6, 18, and 36 μg/ml of Orange II and Sudan III for 48 h, 76.3, 68.5, and 61.7% of Orange II and 97.8, 93.9, and 75.8% of Sudan III were reduced by the bacterium, respectively. In the presence of 36 μg/ml Sudan III, the cell viability of the bacterium decreased to 61.9% after 48 h of incubation, whereas the cell viability of the control culture without the dye was 71.5%. Moreover, the optical density of the bacterial cultures at 10 h decreased from 0.74 to 0.55, indicating that Sudan III is able to inhibit growth of the bacterium. However, Orange II had no significant effects on either cell growth or cell viability of the bacterium at the tested concentrations. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a metabolite common to Orange II and Sudan III, was capable of inhibiting cell growth of the bacterium at 1 μg/ml and completely stopped bacterial cell growth at 24-48 μg/ml. On the other hand, the other metabolites of Orange II and Sudan III, namely sulfanilic acid, p-phenylenediamine, and aniline, showed no significant effects on cell growth. p-Phenylenediamine exhibited a synergistic effect with 1-amino-2-naphthol on cell growth inhibition. All of the dye metabolites had no significant effects on cell viability of the bacterium.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology 03/2011; 38(10):1729-38. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    Bong-Soo Kim, Jong Nam Kim, Carl E Cerniglia
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    ABSTRACT: A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.
    BioMed Research International 01/2011; 2011:838040. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fourteen quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas putida isolates were recovered from imported frozen shrimp sold in the United States. Two isolates harbored plasmids with qnrA and qnrB genes. PCR and DNA sequencing of quinolone resistance-determining regions identified novel substitutions in GyrA (His139→Glu and Thr128→Ala) and GyrB (Thr442→Asn, Gly470→Ala, and Ile487→Pro) and previously reported substitutions in GyrB (Asp489→Glu) and ParC (Thr105→Pro).
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 12/2010; 77(5):1885-7. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were recovered from imported frozen raw shrimp sold in the United States. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to quinolones and analyzed for mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions, presence of type III secretion system genes, and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid. Polymerase chain reaction assays detected exoS, exoT, exoU, and exoY among isolates. Eight unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters were generated. Mutations were found in gyrA at codon 83 (Ile to Thr) and in parC at codon 87 (Leu to Ser). Together, these findings reveal that imported shrimp may harbor virulent and quinolone-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 11/2010; 8(3):451-3. · 2.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
903.30 Total Impact Points


  • 1981–2012
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • • Division of Microbiology
      • • National Center for Toxicological Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Rosario National University
      Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina
    • Medical University of Łódź
      Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2008
    • Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education
      • Department of Marine Biotechnology
      Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
  • 2004
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1996–2002
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
      • Department of Biology
      Fort Wayne, IN, United States
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology
      Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel
    • Georgia State University
      • Department of Biology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1988–1994
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 1983–1993
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Medicine
      Maryland, United States
    • Texas Institute of Science
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 1992
    • The University of Memphis
      • Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Sciences
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 1977–1988
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • • Center for Applied Microbiology
      • • Department of Microbiology
      Austin, TX, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Biology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1984
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States