Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo

Federal University of Santa Catarina, Nossa Senhora do Destêrro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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Publications (51)37.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: doi: 10.1080/17461391.2014.944874
    European Journal of Sport Science 08/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of different methods of interval training (IT) on physiological variables and performance in competitive cyclists. Method. The classification of the IT methods were: a) sub-maximal (ITsub), b) high (ITmax) and c) supramaximum (ITsup). The search strategy included the following terms: interval training, interval training on cycling, high intensity interval training, high intensity interval training in cycling and sprint. We choose for the followed databases: PubMed, Google Scholar and SPORTDiscus. For this purpose, a search were in a period between July 2011 and February 2012. Results. The different methods of IT increased maximal aerobic power (Pmax), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), physiological thresholds, time to exhaustion (Tlim) and 40-km cycling time trial (CR40km ) in competitive cyclists. Conclusion. Therefore, the three methods of IT showed that 6-8 sessions of training during 4-6 weeks is necessary to improve physiological variables and cycling performance in competitive cyclists
    Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte 07/2014; 7(2):83-89.
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    ABSTRACT: Perfil antropométrico e performance aeróbia e anaeróbia em jovens jogadores de futebol Anthropometric profile and aerobic and anaerobic performance in young soccer players Paulo Cesar do Nascimento 1 Tiago Cetolin 1 Anderson Santiago Teixeira 1 L u i z G u i l h e r m e A n t o n a c c i Gugliemo 1 Recebido: 11/11/2013 Aceito: 01/04/2014 A r t i g o o r i g i n A l Contato: Paulo Cesar do Nascimento -nascimentopc84@hotmail.com 1 Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina NASCIMENTO, P C do; CETOLIN, T; TEIXEIRA, A S; GUGLIEMO, L G A. Perfil antropométrico e performance aeróbia e anaeróbia em jovens jogadores de futebol. R. Bras. Ci. e Mov. 2014; 22(2): 57-64 RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as características antropométricas e performance aeróbia e anaeróbia de adolescentes jogadores de futebol. Para tanto, participaram deste estudo 34 jogadores da categoria infantil (INF) (idade 14,44 ± 0,55 anos, massa corporal 60,94 ± 8,51 kg, estatura 173,16 ± 8,91 cm) e 30 jogadores da categoria juvenil (JUV) (idade: 15,94 ± 0,69 anos, massa corporal 70,0 ± 9,86 kg, estatura 177,58 ± 8,24 cm).Todos os adolescentes foram submetidos a medidas antropométricas, composição corporal e somatotipo, seguido pelos seguintes protocolos de campo: teste de Carminatti (T-CAR) para avaliação da potência aeróbia máxima a partir da determinação do pico de velocidade (PV), teste anaeróbio de sprints repetidos e teste de velocidade de 10 e 30 m. Para detectar possíveis diferenças entre as categorias competitivas foi utilizado o teste t de Student para amostras independentes adotando o nível de significância de 5%. Os jogadores JUV foram mais pesados, mais altos e apresentaram maiores perímetros musculares comparado aos jogadores INF, enquanto para o somatório das dobras cutâneas não foram visualizadas diferenças. Os desempenhos nos testes aeróbios e anaeróbios analisados foram significativamente superiores para a categoria juvenil em relação à infantil. Dessa forma, podemos concluir que a idade cronológica determina as diferenças nas características antropométricas e nos desempenhos físico de jovens jogadores no meio (categoria infantil) e final (categoria juvenil) da adolescência como provável resultado do processo de crescimento e maturação biológica. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and aerobic and anaerobic performance of adolescent soccer players. For this, young soccer players classified asunder 15 -U15 (n=34; age 14.44 ± 0.55 years, body mass 60,94 ± 8,51 kg, stature 173,16 ± 8,91 cm) and under 17 -U17 (n=30; age 15.94 ± 0.69 years, body mass 70,0 ± 9,86 kg, stature 177,58 ± 8,24 cm) participated in this study. All adolescents were submitted to performed anthropometric assessments, body composition andsomatotype, accompanied by the following field tests protocols: Carminatti test (T-CAR) for the evaluation of maximal aerobic power from the determination of the peak velocity (PV), repeated sprints anaerobic test (40 m RSA) and the 10 m and 30 m speed test. To detect possible differences between competitive age groups (U-17 vs. U-15) was used t test for independent samples adopting significance level of 5%. Older players (U-17) were heavier, taller and had greater muscle circumferences compared to youngest players belonging U-15 age group, while for the sum of skinfolds were not visualized differences among them. Thus, we can conclude that chronological age determines differences in morphological characteristics and motor performances (aerobic and anaerobic indicators) of young soccer players in middle (U-15) and end (U-17) of adolescence period as probable outcome of biological growth and development.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the reliability and validity of peak velocity determined using the Carminatti's test (PVT-CAR) to evaluate the aerobic fitness of young soccer players (age 13.4 ± 1.2 years; range 10.3 to 15.4 years). To determine test-retest reliability of PVT-CAR, 34 adolescents (U-12, n=13; U-14, n=21) performed the Carminatti's test twice within 3-5 days. Validity was assessed in 43 adolescents (U-14, n=20; U-16, n=23) submitted to both the Carminatti's test and an incremental treadmill test to determine their aerobic fitness indicators. The intraclass correlation of PVT-CAR was 0.89, 0.93 and 0.81 with a coefficient of variation of 2.30% (0.33 kmh), 1.89% (0.26 kmh) and 2.66% (0.39 kmh) for the total sample (pooled data) or separately for the U-12 and U-14 groups, respectively. No significant difference was found between PVT-CAR and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) for the total sample (pooled data) or separately for the U-14 and U-16 groups. In addition, Bland and Altman plots evidenced acceptable agreement between them. The PVT-CAR was significantly related with peak velocity and MAS obtained in the incremental test for the total sample (r= 0.86 and 0.81, p<0.01, respectively) and separately for the U-14 (r= 0.84 and 0.75, p<0.01, respectively) and U-16 groups (r= 0.60 and 0.58, p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the PVT-CAR was correlated with the VO2peak (r=0.57, p<0.01) and the velocity associated to the second ventilatory threshold (r=0.69, p<0.01) when the data were pooled (total sample). As a result, the Carminatti's test may be considered as a reliable and valid measure for assessing and monitoring the development of MAS of young soccer players during adolescence.
    Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different kinds of prior exercise protocols (continuous exercise [CE] versus intermittent repeated sprint [IRS]) on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics parameters during high-intensity running. Methods Thirteen male amateur futsal players (age 22.8 ± 6.1 years; mass 76.0 ± 10.2 kg; height 178.7 ± 6.6 cm; VO2max 58.1 ± 4.5 ml.kg.min-1) performed a maximal incremental running test for the determination of the gas exchange threshold (GET) and maximal VO2 (VO2max). On two different days, the subjects completed a 6-min bout of high-intensity running (50 % ∆) on a treadmill that was 6-min after (1) an identical bout of high-intensity exercise (from control to CE), and (2) a protocol of IRS (6 x 40 m). Results We found significant differences between CE and IRS for the blood lactate concentration ([La]; 6.1 versus 10.7 mmol.L-1, respectively), VO2 baseline (0.74 versus 0.93 L.min-1, respectively) and the heart rate (HR; 102 versus 124 bpm, respectively) before the onset of high-intensity exercise. However, both prior CE and prior IRS significantly increased the absolute primary VO2 amplitude (3.77 and 3.79 L.min-1, respectively, versus control 3.54 L.min-1), reduced the amplitude of the VO2 slow component (0.26 and 0.21 L.min-1, respectively, versus control 0.50 L.min-1), and decreased the mean response time (MRT; 28.9 and 28.0 s, respectively, versus control 36.9 s) during subsequent bouts. Conclusion This study showed that different protocols and intensities of prior exercise trigger similar effects on VO2 kinetics during high-intensity running.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 01/2014; Ahead of Print. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a potência muscular de membros inferiores a partir do counter movement jump (CMJ) em diferentes momentos da temporada (final da temporada, inicio e final da pré-temporada seguinte) em jogadores de futebol e, além disso, foram estudados dados de composição corporal nos três momentos analisados. Participaram do estudo 17 atletas de futebol com idade de 17,8 ± 1,1 anos da categoria juniores de um clube de futebol profissional participante da série A do Campeonato Brasileiro. O percentual de gordura corporal estimado no início da pré-temporada foi significativamente superior ao mensurado no final da temporada anterior (p<0,05). O desempenho no salto vertical apresentou uma queda significativa (5,8%, p<0,05) apenas após a realização da pré-temporada quando analisada a variável altura. Por outro lado, a potência muscular normalizada pelo peso corporal apresentou manutenção nos três momentos analisados, indicando que o desempenho no CMJ é uma variável que não apresenta alteração após um período curto (4 semanas) sem treinamento formal e que a maior ênfase no treinamento aeróbio na pré-temporada pode ter contribuído para reduzir os níveis de potência muscular e a altura atingida num salto vertical.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the test-retest reliability of mechanical parameters derived from a 3-min isokinetic all-out test, performed at 60 and 100rpm. Reliability and validity of the peak oxygen uptake derived from 3-min isokinetic all-out test were also tested. 14 healthy male subjects completed an incremental ramp testing and four randomized 3-min isokinetic all-out test (two at 60rpm and two at 100rpm). The absolute and relative reliability of the following parameters were analyzed: peak power, mean power, end power, fatigue index, work performed above end power and peak oxygen uptake. No difference was found between each two sets of data, although there were between-cadence differences for peak power, mean power, end power, and fatigue index. Higher intra-class correlation (ICC) and lower coefficient of variation (CV) were found for end power (ICC=0.91 and 0.95; CV=5.6 and 5.7%) and mean power (ICC=0.97 and 0.98; CV=2.4 and 3.1%), than for peak power (ICC=0.81 and 0.84; CV=8.7 and 10%) and work performed above end power (ICC=0.79 and 0.84; CV=7.9 and 10.6%; values reported for 60rpm and 100rpm, respectively). High reliability scores were also observed for peak oxygen uptake at both cadences (60rpm, CV=3.2%; 100rpm, CV=2.3%,) with no difference with the incremental ramp testing peak oxygen uptake. The power profile and peak oxygen uptake of a 3-min isokinetic all-out test are both highly reliable, whether the test is performed at 60 or 100rpm. Besides, peak oxygen uptake and work performed above end power were not affected by the change in cadence while peak power, mean power, end power, and fatigue index were.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 09/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (TCAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T-VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 03/2013; 13(1):165-170. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships among physiological and neuromuscular indices with the 200- and 400-m sprint running performance. Fourteen male sprinters performed the following tests: determination of 200- (P200) and 400-m (P400) running performance; determination of VO2max and the velocity associated at VO2max; squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Significant correlations were observed between SJ (r = -0.53), CMJ (r = -0.69), and MAOD (r = -0.65) with P200. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and MAOD explained 70% of the P200. The MAOD was the only variable to correlate significantly with P400 (r = -0.56); VO2max and CMJ were also selected in the regression together and explained 79% of P400. The indicators of muscular power and anaerobic capacity are capable of explaining P200. In the 400 m, the performance was determined by indices of anaerobic capacity, in conjunction with the athletes' aerobic and muscular power.
    Research in Sports Medicine An International Journal 02/2013; 21(2):124-35.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrinal responses from a running to exhaustion mode at the maximal lactate steady state intensity during continuous and intermittent protocols. DESIGN: Pre-post test measures. METHODS: Twelve athletes performed an incremental treadmill test, several constant speed tests to determine the maximal lactate steady state at continuous and intermittent (5:1 ratio) models and two randomized tests until exhaustion at such intensities. Knee extension torque and blood sampling were collected before and immediately after the time to exhaustion tests. RESULTS: The results showed a significant decrement (∼15%) in torque production after time to exhaustion tests for both exercise models. In addition to neuromuscular impairment, an acute increase of 65% and 38% was observed creatine kinase, during continuous and intermittent running, respectively. Regarding hormonal responses when compared to baseline measurements, cortisol increased by 132% and 121% in the continuous and intermittent protocols, respectively. No correlation was found between biochemical, endocrinal and the neuromuscular variables. CONCLUSION: The present findings showed that running until exhaustion performed at maximal lactate steady state, significantly impaired muscle strength and increased hormonal and muscle damage markers in two different protocols (i.e. continuous and intermittent) amongst trained runners.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 02/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. — The aim of this study was to determine the physiological responses and time to exhaustion, at critical power and 5% above, in trained cyclists. Equipments and methods. — Eleven male cyclists completed an incremental test, three constant work rate tests to exhaustion to determine critical power (CP), and finally two tests until exhaustion at CP and CP plus 5%. Results. — The modeling of the power-inverse time relationship provided a mean critical power of 295 ± 39 W. Time to exhaustion at critical power was significantly higher than 5% above (22.9 ± 7.5 min versus 13.3 ± 5.8 min). Oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, and blood lactate obtained at the end of the CP plus 5% exhaustion trial were not significantly different from the maximal variables. However, the physiological end values during the CP test were significantly lower compared to the incremental test. Conclusions. — These data support the idea that CP in trained cyclists is the physiological index that estimates the boundary between heavy to severe exercise domains. Thus, when cyclists exercised at a power output 5% higher than CP, the VO2max was reached at the end of exercise.
    Science & Sports 02/2013; 28:e9- e14. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectifs Le but de cette étude est de déterminer les réponses physiologiques et le temps d’épuisement, à la puissance critique et à 5 % au-dessus de la puissance critique pour des cyclistes entraînés. Équipement et méthode Onze cyclistes masculins ont complété un test progressif, trois tests à charge constante jusqu’à épuisement pour déterminer les puissances critiques et enfin deux tests jusqu’à épuisement à la puissance critique et puissance critique plus 5 %. Résultats La modélisation de la relation entre puissance inverse et le temps a fourni une puissance critique de 295 ± 39 W. Le temps jusqu’à l’épuisement à la puissance critique a été considérablement plus élevé que 5 % au-dessus (22,9 ± 7,5 min versus 13,3 ± 5,8 min). La consommation d’oxygène, la ventilation pulmonaire et le lactate sanguin obtenu à la fin de l’essai de l’épuisement à la puissance critique +5 % n’ont pas été considérablement différents des variables maximales. Néanmoins, les valeurs physiologiques finales pendant les puissances critiques test ont été considérablement inférieures comparativement au test progressif. Conclusions Les informations appuient l’idée que la puissance critique des cyclistes entraînés est l’index physiologique qu’estime la limite entre le domaine d’exercice lourd et sévère. Donc, quand les cyclistes sont entraînés à une puissance 5 % plus élevée que la puissance critique, la consommation maximale d’oxygène a été atteinte à la fin de l’exercice.
    Science & Sports. 02/2013; 28(1):e9–e14.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2013; 12(1):165-70. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between physiological indices of aerobic power and aerobic capacity with the performance in the distances of 1.5 km, 3 km and 5 km. Nine endurance runners performed the following protocols: a) test to determine the VO2max, vVO2max and OBLA; b) 2-5 tests in alternate days of 30 minutes with constant speed to determine the vMLSS; and c) performances (P). The linear correlation of Pearson or Spearman and multiple regression were applied to determine the relationships among the indices and the performance. It was found a significant correlation only of the vVO2max with the performance of 1.5 km (r = 0.78) and 3 km (r =0.81). Thus, it can be suggested the inclusion of training sessions at or near vVO2max on weekly periodization. Based on the present findings, it can be concluded that the performance prediction through the indices of power and aerobic capacity depend on the distance and duration of the race.
    Motriz. Revista de Educação Física 12/2012; 18(4):690-698. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introdução Vários estudos têm procurado determinar os índices fisiológicos capazes de predizer a performance aeróbia e que, também, possam ser utilizados como referência para prescrição e controle dos efeitos do treinamento (BRANDON, BOILEAU, 1987; BRANDON, 1995; DENADAI, 1996; DENADAI; ORTIZ; MELLO, 2004). Tradicionalmente, os índices aeróbios mais estudados para a predição da performance durante as corridas de endurance são o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO 2 max), a velocidade correspondente ao VO 2 max (vVO 2 max), o tempo de exaustão na vVO 2 max e a economia de corrida (EC) (DENADAI, 1996; DENADAI; ORTIZ; MELLO, 2004; BILLAT et al., 1999; DENADAI, 1999). Embora o VO 2 max seja o parâmetro fisiológico que melhor expressa a aptidão cardiorrespiratória do indivíduo (BASSETT; HOWLEY, 2000), o mesmo apresenta um baixo poder discriminatório da performance em um grupo homogêneo de corredores (DENADAI; ORTIZ: MELLO, 2004). Por outro lado, a velocidade correspondente ao VO 2 max (vVO 2 max) é um índice determinante para a predição de performance em provas de média e longa duração (NOAKES; MYBURGH; SCHALL, 1990). Sobretudo, porque este índice Motriz, Rio Claro, v.18 n.4, p.690-698, out./dez. 2012 Artigo Original Índices fisiológicos associados com a performance aeróbia de corredores nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação entre os índices fisiológicos de potência aeróbia e capacidade aeróbia performance nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km. Nove corredores de endurance realizaram os seguintes protocolos: a) teste para determinação do VO 2 max, vVO 2 max e OBLA; b) 2-5 testes em dias alternados de 30 min com velocidade constante para determinar a vMLSS e c) determinação da performances. Foram empregadas correlação linear de Pearson ou Spearman e regressão múltipla para determinar as relações entre os índices e a performance nas corridas. Observou-se uma correlação significante somente da vVO 2 max com o tempo nas distâncias de 1,5 km (r = -0,78) e 3 km (r = -0,81). Dessa forma, pode-se sugerir a inclusão de sessões de treinamento em intensidade próxima ou superior à vVO 2 max na periodização semanal dos corredores. Com base nesses achados, foi possível concluir que a predição da performance por meio de índices de potência aeróbia e da capacidade aeróbia depende da distância e duração da prova. Palavras-chave: Corredores. Lactato. Índices fisiológicos. Performance. Physiological indices associated with aerobic performance in the distances of 1,5 km, 3 km and 5 km
    Motriz. Revista de Educação Física 10/2012; 18(4):690-698. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    Talita Grossl, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Kristopher Mendes de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
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    ABSTRACT: The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) represents a submaximal intensity that may be important in prescribing both continuous and interval endurance training. This study compared time to exhaustion (TTE) at MLSS in continuous and intermittent (i.e., with pauses) exercise, investigating whether physiological variables differ between these exercise modes. Fourteen trained male cyclists volunteered for this investigation and performed an incremental test, several 30-min tests to determine two MLSS intensities (continuous and discontinuous protocol), and two randomized tests until exhaustion at MLSS intensities on a cycle ergometer. The intermittent or discontinuous protocol was performed using 5 min of cycling, with an interval of 1 min of passive rest. TTE at intermittent MLSS was 24% longer than TTE at continuous exercise (67.8 ± 14.3 min vs. 54.7 ± 10.9 min; p < 0.05; effect sizes = 1.04), even though the absolute power output of intermittent MLSS was higher than continuous (268 ± 29 W vs. 251 ± 29 W; p < 0.05). Additionally, the total mechanical work done was significantly lower at continuous exercise than at intermittent exercise. Likewise, regarding cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, we observed greater responses during intermittent exercise than during continuous exercise at MLSS. Thus, for endurance training prescription, this is an important finding to apply in extensive interval sessions at MLSS. This result suggests that interval sessions at discontinuous MLSS should be used instead of continuous MLSS, as discontinuous MLSS allows for a larger amount of total work during the exhaustion trial.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 08/2012; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare anaerobic threshold (AT) as determined by four different methods with maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in endurance run-ners. Nine moderately trained runners performed the following tests on different days: a maximal incremental exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), velocity at VO 2 max (vVO 2 max), and blood lactate response; and two to five 30-min constant load tests to determine MLSS. Based on the incremental test, four methods of AT determination were used: AT1 – velocity at 3.5 mmol.L -1 blood lactate; AT2 – velocity corresponding to the minimum lactate-velocity equivalent plus 1.5 mmol.L -1 ; AT3 – ve-locity at Dmax; and AT4 – velocity before the second consecutive blood lactate increase greater than 0.5 mmol.L -1 . There were no significant differences between MLSS and AT as determined by four different methods. However, the Bland-Altman analysis showed the extent of disagreement between variables when the subjects were analyzed individually. MLSS was significantly correlated with AT1 (r=0.68; p=0.04) and AT2 (r=0.79; p=0.01). Thus, although no significant differences were found between AT methods and MLSS, one should be cautious about using these methods interchangeably. Resumo – O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar e comparar o limiar anaeróbio (LAn) obtido por quatro diferentes métodos com o máximo estado estável de lactato (MLSS) em corredores de endurance. Nove corredores moderadamente treinados realizaram, em diferentes dias, os seguintes testes: um teste incremental máximo para determinação do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO 2 max), velocidade correspondente ao VO 2 max (vVO 2 max) e resposta do lactato sanguíneo e; dois a cinco testes de intensidade constante, com 30 min de duração, para determinação do MLSS. A partir do teste incremental, foram utilizados quatro métodos de determinação do LAn: LAn1 -velocidade correspondente a [La] fixa de 3,5 mmol.L -1 ; LAn2 -velocidade referente a [La] do menor equivalente [La]-velocidade somado com 1,5 mmol.L -1 ; LAn3 -velocidade correspondente ao Dmax; LAn4 -velocidade anterior ao segundo incremento consecutivo de [La] maior que 0,5 mmol.L -1 . Não existiram diferenças significativas entre o MLSS e o LAn determinado pelos quatro métodos estudados. Entretanto, a análise de Bland-Altman expressou a extensão da discordância entre as variáveis quando os sujeitos foram analisados individualmente. Houve correlações significativas entre MLSS e LAn1 (r = 0,68; p = 0,04) e entre MLSS e o LAn2 (r = 0,79; p = 0,01). Assim, apesar de não haver diferença significativa entre os métodos de determinação do LAn com o MLSS, deve-se ter cautela para utilizá-los de forma intercambiável. Palavras-chave: Corrida; Exercício aeróbio; Lactato sanguíneo.
    Brazilian Journal of Kinantropometry and Human Performance. 05/2012; 14(3):264-275.
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    Talita Grossl, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Kristopher Mendes de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
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    ABSTRACT: The lactate anaerobic threshold (AT) determined during an incremental test has been used generally to estimate the maximal lactate steady-state intensity (MLSSint) in several sports. Furthermore, this index could be useful to predict the time-trial cycling performance and also to prescribe training intensity to enhance aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to compare three different ATestimations with actual MLSSint in trained cyclists. Fourteen trained cyclists participated in this study. They had previously performed a maximal incremental cycling test (35 W increments each 3 min) in a laboratory followed by three to five visits to measure the MLSSint (30-min tests). Blood lactate concentration ([La]), oxygen uptake (V˙O2), and heart rate (HR) were measured during all tests. Based on the incremental test, we calculated three ATs using different proposed methods: AT1-intensity corresponds to fixed [La]; AT2-minimum equivalent of the blood lactate-power output relationship plus 1.5 mmol�L�1; AT3-power output of the stage antecedent to the second lactate increase of at least 0.5 mmol�L�1 above the previous values, where the second increase was greater than the first. The MLSSint was determined for each participant as the highest power output that could be maintained with [La] fluctuating less than 1 mmol�L�1 during the final 20 min of the steady-state tests. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare physiological variables in the different methods. The relationship between the MLSSint and the power output of AT1, AT2, and AT3 was analysed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. In addition, we calculated the bias and limits of agreement between the three different methods with actual MLSSint. The mean9s values of power output related to MLSSint, AT1, AT2, and AT3 were 247933 W, 258939 W, 248935 W, and 230936 W, respectively. The results showed that AT3 underestimated (PB0.05) the MLSSint for most of the participants and provided lower mean values compared with AT1 and AT2. Furthermore, AT2 seems to be more accurate to estimate MLSSint than other methods here verified when we analysed the mean values, correlation coefficient (r�0.94), and Bland-Altman limits of agreement (99.5%). The AT1 also provided good prediction values, although it presented with a trend to overestimate MLSSint. Therefore, considering the methods analysed in the current study and the importance of this submaximal aerobic index to flat time-trials and prolonged uphill cycling performance, the AT2 method could be used with good accuracy by coaches and athletes.
    European Journal of Sport Science 03/2012; 12(2):161-167. · 1.15 Impact Factor