[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the toxicity and efficacy of salvage wide resection (SWR) with intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) or perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) in previously unirradiated patients (PUP) vs. previously irradiated patients (PIP) with isolated local recurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the extremities and the superficial trunk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To perform a joint analysis of data from 3 contributing centers within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT)-Spanish program, to determine the potential of IOERT as an anticipated boost before external beam radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric extremity soft-tissue sarcomas.
Methods and Materials
From June 1993 to May 2013, 62 patients (aged <21 years) with a histologic diagnosis of primary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing grossly resected surgery, external beam radiation therapy (median dose 40 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 10 Gy) were considered eligible for this analysis.
After a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 4-235 months), 10-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 85%, 76%, and 81%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, tumor size >5 cm (P=.04) and R1 margin status (P=.04) remained significantly associated with local relapse. In regard to overall survival only margin status (P=.04) retained association on multivariate analysis. Ten patients (16%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3).
An anticipated IOERT boost allowed for external beam radiation therapy dose reduction, with high local control and acceptably low toxicity rates. The combined radiosurgical approach needs to be tested in a prospective trial to confirm these results.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2014; 90(1):172–180. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To report the disease-free Grade ≥3 complication-free survival of a Phase II protocol of reirradiation with high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (ITB) in previously irradiated gynecologic cancer.
Methods and Materials
Fifteen patients with previously irradiated cervical (n = 6), endometrial (n = 6), and vulvovaginal tumors (n = 3) were treated with HDR-ITB alone to a median dose of 38 Gy in 8 b.i.d. fractions over 4 consecutive days. Prior treatments included surgery (n = 12; 80%), external irradiation (n = 15; 100%), and brachytherapy (n = 9; 60%). Average clinical target volume Size was 60.9 cc (range, 14.8–165.3 cc), and median time to reirradiation was 3.9 years (range, 0.4–22.7 years).
With a median followup of 2.8 years (range, 1.2–9.2 years), 3 patients (20.0%) developed Grade ≥3 toxicity consisting of Grade 3 intestinal obstruction (n = 1), Grade 4 rectovesical fistula (n = 1), and Grade 5 intestinal obstruction (n = 1). Six patients remain alive and without evidence of disease at last followup. Two patients are alive with disease progression, and 7 patients have died, 4 of them from disease progression and 3 from other causes. The 2-year disease-free Grade ≥3 complication-free survival was 40%.
HDR-ITB alone is a reasonable salvage treatment option in a significant number of patients with previously irradiated gynecologic tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity after salvage brachytherapy (BT) in prostate local recurrence after radiation therapy.Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2007, we retrospectively analyzed 56 consecutively patients (pts) undergoing salvage brachytherapy. After local biopsy-proven recurrence, pts received 145 Gy LDR-BT (37 pts, 66%) or HDR-BT (19 pts, 34%) in different dose levels according to biological equivalent doses (BED2Gy). By the time of salvage bqt, only 15 pts (27%) received ADT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control and toxicities. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCv3.0).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint analysis of data from three contributing centres within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) Spanish program was performed to investigate the main contributions of IORT to the multidisciplinary treatment of high-risk extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
Patients with an histologic diagnosis of primary extremity STS, with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing surgery with radical intent, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 45 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study.
From 1986-2012, a total of 159 patients were analysed in the study from three Spanish institutions. With a median follow-up time of 53 months (range 4-316 years), 5-year local control (LC) was 82 %. The 5-year IOERT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 86, 62 and 72 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only microscopically involved margin (R1) resection status retained significance in relation to LC (HR 5.20, p < 0.001). With regard to IOERT in-field control, incomplete resection (HR 4.88, p = 0.001) and higher IOERT dose (≥ 12.5 Gy; HR 0.32, p = 0.02) retained a significant association in multivariate analysis.
From this joint analysis emerges the fact that an IOERT dose ≥ 12.5 Gy increases the rate of IOERT in-field control, but DFS remains modest, given the high risk of distant metastases. Intensified local treatment needs to be tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neo- and adjuvant systemic therapy.
Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 04/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint analysis of data from centers within the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)-Spanish cooperative initiative was performed to investigate the main contributions of IORT to the multidisciplinary treatment of trunk-wall soft-tissue sarcoma (TW-STS).
Patients with a histologic diagnosis of TW-STS (primary tumor 53 %; locally recurrent 47 %) with absence of distant metastases, undergoing surgery with radical intent and IORT (median dose 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, all primary tumors received external-beam radiotherapy (median dose 50 Gy).
From 1986 to 2012, a total of 68 patients were analyzed in the study from three Spanish institutions. With a median follow-up time of 53 months (range 4-316), 5-year local control (LC) was 58 %. Five-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 70, 45 and 51 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only microscopically involved margin (R1) resection status retained significance in relation to LC (HR 3.97, p < 0.001). In regard to IORT in field control, incomplete resection (HR 3.23, p = 0.008) and recurrent disease status (HR 2.52, p = 0.04) retained a significant association in multivariate analysis.
From this joint analysis emerges the fact that margin and disease status influences local and central control, but DFS remains modest, given the high risk of distant metastases. Intensified local treatment needs to be tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neo-, and adjuvant systemic therapy.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 01/2014; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort of patients with advanced or recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who were treated with intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT).
Between 1985 and 2010, 98 patients received IORT for advanced or locally recurrent RCC at 9 institutions. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 3.5 years. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Chained imputation accounted for missing data, and multivariate Cox hazards regression tested significance.
IORT was delivered during nephrectomy for advanced disease (28%) or during resection of locally recurrent RCC in the renal fossa (72%). Sixty-nine percent of the patients were male, and the median age was 58 years. At the time of primary resection, the T stages were as follows: 17% T1, 12% T2, 55% T3, and 16% T4. Eighty-seven percent of the patients had a visibly complete resection of tumor. Preoperative or postoperative external beam radiation therapy was administered to 27% and 35% of patients, respectively. The 5-year OS was 37% for advanced disease and 55% for locally recurrent disease. The respective 5-year DSS was 41% and 60%. The respective 5-year DFS was 39% and 52%. Initial nodal involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 2.9-3.6, P<.01), presence of sarcomatoid features (HR 3.7-6.9, P<.05), and higher IORT dose (HR 1.3, P<.001) were statistically significantly associated with decreased survival. Adjuvant systemic therapy was associated with decreased DSS (HR 2.4, P=.03). For locally recurrent tumors, positive margin status (HR 2.6, P=.01) was associated with decreased OS.
We report the largest known cohort of patients with RCC managed by IORT and have identified several factors associated with survival. The outcomes for patients receiving IORT in the setting of local recurrence compare favorably to similar cohorts treated by local resection alone suggesting the potential for improved DFS with IORT.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach.
Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy).
From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03).
This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 01/2014; 88(1):143-150. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a simple clinical model predictive of locoregional failure after complete surgical resection followed by perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) and external beam irradiation (EBRT).
Patients (n=166) enrolled in several PHDRB prospective studies conducted at the University of Navarre were analyzed. PHDRB was given to total doses of 16 Gy/4 b.i.d. or 24 Gy/6 b.i.d. treatments for negative or close/positive margins along with 45Gy of EBRT.
After a median followup of 7.4 years (range, 3-12+), 50 patients have failed and 116 remain controlled at last followup. Tumor size, with a cutoff point set at 3cm (p=0.041) and margin status (positive and <1mm vs. negative ≥1mm, p=0.0001) were independent predictors of locoregional control. These two parameters were used to develop a four-tiered, hierarchical scoring system that stratified patients into low-risk (negative ≥1mm margins and size ≤3cm), intermediate-risk (negative ≥1mm margins, and size >3cm), high-risk (positive and <1mm margins and size ≤3cm), and very high-risk categories (positive and <1mm margins and size >3cm). This classification yields 5-year locoregional control rates of 92.3%, 78.0%, 65.5%, and 48.0% for low-, intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk categories, respectively. The predictive ability of the model is highly significant (p=0.0001) with an area under the curve of 0.72 (0.64-0.81).
The risk of locoregional failure after combined surgical resection, PHDRB, and EBRT is mainly determined by the number of residual clonogens, which is inversely proportional to the status of the surgical margins and directly related to the size of the resected tumor. These two parameters generate a four-tiered predictive model that seems to be valid for a number of different common tumors and clinical settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises 1% of primary bladder tumors and approximately 2% of prostate neoplasms. Metastatic disease at diagnosis is common, and survival outcomes are extremely poor. There is controversy about the ideal clinical management of these patients. The neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serum levels have never been studied in patients with small-cell carcinoma of the urinary tract (SCCUT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the clinical outcome of 12 consecutive SCCUT patients treated during the past 10 years. We also study the NSE levels at diagnosis and during treatment. RESULTS: Patients with limited disease (LD) experienced a non-significant longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with extensive disease (ED) subjects. Patients with bladder SCC showed a significantly higher median PFS compared with prostate SCCUT patients (22 vs. 6 months; P = .034), although that difference did not impact on a significant longer OS. NSE levels decreased during chemotherapy administration in all patients with ED and baseline high levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients showed a poor prognosis as described in previous studies. A better outcome for patients with bladder SCC compared with prostate SCC could be suggested. Serum NSE levels should be further evaluated to prove its potential use in early diagnosis and treatment monitoring during chemotherapy.
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 11/2012; · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.
Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years.
One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade ≥2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade ≥3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D(50) ≥1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade ≥2 urinary complications; age ≥70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade ≥3 urinary complications. Late Grade ≥2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade ≥3 in 1.5%. CTV size ≥35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D(100) ≥3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade ≥2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007).
Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2012; 82(3):e469-76. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test the safety of using perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) in resected head and neck cancer.
From 2000 to 2008, 97 patients received PHDRB after complete macroscopic resection. Group 1 (previously irradiated patients) received 32 to 40 Gray (Gy) of PHDRB in 8 to 10 twice-daily (bid) treatments (R0-R1 resections). Group 2 (unirradiated patients) received 16 to 24 Gy of PHDRB in 4 to 6 bid treatments (R0-R1 resections) followed by external beam irradiation (EBRT) of 45 Gy/25 daily fractions ± concomitant chemotherapy.
The median follow-up was 4.3 years. The cumulative hazard of 2-year grade ≥ 3 complications in group 1 was 45.9%, and the rate of grade ≥ 3 complications in group 2 was 24.6%. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 and 5 years for group 1 was 60.9% and for group 2, 84.1% and 79.4%.
Complications and locoregional failure rates were similar to those reported in the reference standards despite a much smaller treatment volume.
Head & Neck 01/2012; 34(8):1081-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate tolerance and pathological complete response rate (pCR) of a 4-week preoperative course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
Patients with T3 to T4 and/or N+ rectal cancer received preoperative IMRT (47.5 Gy in 19 fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) b.i.d., Monday to Friday) and oxaliplatin (60 mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, and 15). Surgery was scheduled 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Primary end points were toxicity and pathological response rate. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed.
A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Grade 1 to 2 proctitis was observed in 73 patients (73%). Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 9% of the patients. Grade 3 proctitis in 18% of the first 50 patients led to reduction of the dose per fraction to 47.5 Gy in 20 treatments. The rate of Grade 3 proctitis decreased to 4% thereafter (odds ratio, 0.27). A total of 99 patients underwent surgery. A pCR was observed in 13% of the patients, major response (96-100% of histological response) in 48%, and pN downstaging in 78%. An R0 resection was performed in 97% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 55 months, the LC, DFS, and OS rates were 100%, 84%, and 87%, respectively.
Preoperative CAPOX-IMRT therapy (47.5 Gy in 20 fractions) is feasible and safe, and produces major pathological responses in approximately 50% of patients.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2011; 83(2):587-93. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main goals of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) in rectal cancer are to achieve pathological response and to ensure tumor control with functional surgery when possible. Assessment of the concordance between clinical and pathological responses is necessary to make decisions regarding alternative conservative procedures. The present study evaluates the patterns of response after a preoperative CHRT regimen, and the value of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in assessing response.
A total of 51 EUS-staged T3 to T4 and/or N0 to N+ rectal cancer patients received preoperative CHRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy and capecitabine/oxaliplatin (XELOX) followed by radical resection. Clinical response was assesed by EUS. Rates of pathological tumor regression grade (TRG) and lymph node (LN) involvement were determined in the surgical specimen. Clinical and pathological responses were compared, and the accuracy of EUS in assessing response was calculated.
Twenty-four patients (45%) achieved a major pathological response (complete or >95% pathological response (TRG 3+/4)). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of EUS in predicting pathological T response after preoperative CHRT were 77.8%, 37.5%, 60%, and 58%, respectively. The EUS sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for nodal staging were 44%, 88%, 88%, and 44%, respectively. Furthermore, EUS after CHRT accurately predicted the absence of LN involvement in 7 of 7 patients (100%) with major pathological response of the primary tumor.
Preoperative IMRT with concomitant XELOX induces favorable rates of major pathological response. EUS has a limited ability to predict primary tumor response after preoperative CHRT, but it is useful for accurately determining LN status. EUS may have a potential value in identifying patients with a very low risk of LN involvement in association with a good pathological response as potential candidates for conservative local surgical protocols.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2011; 81(2):439-44. · 4.59 Impact Factor