Marcus R Makowski

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (54)248.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. • Targeted MR-probes allow the characterization of atherosclerosis on a molecular level. • Molecular MRI can identify in vivo markers for the differentiation of stable and unstable plaques. • Visualization of early molecular changes has the potential to improve patient-individualized risk-assessment.
    European Radiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3881-2 · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 04/2015; 187(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1551243 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different techniques for magnetic resonance-guided lumbar interventions have been introduced in recent years. Appropriate pulse sequence design is crucial since high spatial resolution often comes at the cost of lower temporal resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of accelerated reduced field of view (ZOOM)-based imaging sequences for lumbar interventions. ZOOM imaging was used in 31 interventions (periradicular, facet joint, epidural infiltrations, and discography) performed in 24 patients (10 women, 14 men; age 43±13.3 years). Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined and retrospectively compared with standard preinterventional (T2 weighted), peri-interventional (proton density), and postinterventional (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery [SPIR]) imaging. Needle artifacts were assessed by direct measurement as well as with parallel and perpendicular needle profiles. Puncture times were compared to similar interventions previously performed in our department. No significant differences in signal intensities (standard/ZOOM: 152.0/151.6; p=0.136) and CNR values (2.0/4.0; p=0.487) were identified for T2-weighted sequences. The needle artifact signal intensity was comparable (648.1/747.5; p=0.172) for peri-interventional imaging. Standard interventional (fat needle: 43.8/23.4; p<0.001; muscle needle: 6.2/2.4; p<0.001) and SPIR sequences (43.3/13.9; p=0.010) showed a higher CNR than corresponding ZOOM sequences did. Needle artifacts were larger in ZOOM (2.4 mm/2.9 mm; p=0.005). The profiles revealed that ZOOM imaging delivers more overall signal intensity. The turning points of both profiles were comparable. ZOOM reduced intervention times significantly (329.1 s/228.5 s; p=0.026). ZOOM imaging is a feasible interactive sequence for lumbar interventions. It ameliorates the tradeoff between image quality and temporal resolution. Moreover, the sequence design reduces intervention times significantly.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 04/2015; DOI:10.1515/bmt-2014-0118 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 01/2015; 187(02). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1385451 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study is to compare the performance of 2D time-resolved phase-contrast (PC) MRI prior to and after the administration of an intravascular (gadofosveset-trisodium) and extravascular (gadopentetate-dimeglumine) contrast agent in the same patient in the cardiovascular system. This study was approved by the ethics committee (Study-Number-07/Q0704/2) and registered with the MedicinesAndHealthcareProductsRegulatoryAgency (MHRA-Study-Number-28482/0002/001-0001, EudraCT-Number-2006-007042). All patients signed an informed consent. 20 patients were examined using a 1.5T MR-scanner and 32-channel-coil-technology. Gadopentetate-dimeglumine (GdD) and gadofosveset-trisodium (GdT) were administered in the same patient on consecutive days. Image quality, velocity-to-noise-ratios (VNRs) and standard-deviation of blood-flow-velocities (phase-noise) were compared between GdT, GdD and non-contrast-enhanced imaging. On both days pre- and post-contrast-scans were performed. The administration of GdT significantly improved the delineation of the perfused lumen and the VNR compared to GdD and non-contrast-enhanced imaging. Standard deviations of through-plane and in-plane velocity-measurements (phase-noise) were significantly reduced after GdT administration (p < 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were measured regarding absolute flow values prior to and after the administration of GdD and GdT. PC flow imaging benefits from the administration of an intravascular contrast agent by improving the delineation of the perfused lumen and reducing phase noise in flow measurements.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s10554-014-0565-y · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has increased during the last decades. However, there is still controversy regarding the management of medium-sized AAAs. Therefore novel biomarkers, besides aneurysmal diameter, are needed to assess aortic wall integrity and risk of rupture. Elastin is the key protein for maintaining aortic wall tensile strength and stability. The progressive breakdown of structural proteins, in particular medial elastin, is responsible for the inability of the aortic wall to withstand intraluminal hemodynamic forces. Here we evaluate the usefulness of elastin-specific molecular MR-imaging for the in vivo characterization of AAAs.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 05/2014; 7(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.113.001131 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 04/2014; 186(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1373479 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 03/2014; 25(3):S110. DOI:10.1016/j.jvir.2013.12.305 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2014; 16(Suppl 1):O13. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-16-S1-O13 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in prevention, risk assessment and treatment, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. The lion's share is due to acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which are predominantly triggered by plaque rupture or erosion and subsequent coronary thrombosis. As the majority of vulnerable plaques does not cause a significant stenosis, due to expansive remodeling, and are rather defined by their composition and biological activity, detection of vulnerable plaques with x-ray angiography has shown little success. Non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection by identifying biological features that have been associated with plaque progression, destabilization and rupture may therefore be more appropriate and may allow earlier detection, more aggressive treatment and monitoring of treatment response. MR molecular imaging with target specific molecular probes has shown great promise for the noninvasive in vivo visualization of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level in animals and humans. Compared to other imaging modalities; MRI can provide excellent spatial resolution; high soft tissue contrast and has the ability to simultaneously image anatomy; function as well as biological tissue composition and activity.
    Molecules 11/2013; 18(11):14042-14069. DOI:10.3390/molecules181114042 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Marcus R Makowski · René M Botnar
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world and developing countries. In clinical practice, in vivo characterization of atherosclerotic lesions causing myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and other complications remains challenging. Imaging methods, limited to the assessment luminal stenosis, are the current reference standard for the assessment of clinically significant coronary and carotid artery disease and the guidance of treatment. These techniques do not allow distinction between stable and potentially vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a modality well suited for visualization and characterization of the relatively thin arterial vessel wall, because it allows imaging with high spatial resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast. In clinical practice, atherosclerotic plaque components of the carotid artery and aorta may be differentiated and characterized by using unenhanced vessel wall MR imaging. Additional information can be gained by using clinically approved nonspecific contrast agents. With the advent of targeted MR contrast agents, which enhance specific molecules or cells, pathologic processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this article, the pathophysiologic changes of the arterial vessel wall underlying the development of atherosclerosis will be first reviewed. Then basic principles and properties of molecular MR imaging contrast agents will be introduced. Additionally, recent advances in preclinical molecular vessel wall imaging will be reviewed. Finally, the clinical feasibility of arterial vessel wall imaging at unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced MR imaging of the aortic, carotid, and coronary vessel wall will be discussed. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material:
    Radiology 10/2013; 269(1):34-51. DOI:10.1148/radiol.13102336 · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 09/2013; 128(11):1244-1255. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002681 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of 3.0 Tesla (3T) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging with a dual radiofrequency source to detect functional relevant coronary artery disease (CAD), using coronary angiography and invasive pressure-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) as reference standard. We included 116 patients with suspected or known CAD, who underwent 3T adenosine myocardial perfusion CMR (resolution 2.97 × 2.97 mm) and coronary angiography plus FFR measurements in intermediate lesions. Image quality of myocardial perfusion CMR was graded on a 4-point scale (1 = poor to 4 = excellent). Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by ROC analyses using a 16-myocardial segment-based summed perfusion score (0 = normal to 3 = transmural perfusion defect) and by determining sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value on the coronary vessel territory and the patient level. Diagnostic image quality was achieved for all stress myocardial perfusion CMR studies with an average quality score of 2.5, 3.1, and 3.0 for LAD, LCX, and RCA territories. The ability of the myocardial perfusion CMR perfusion score to detect significant coronary artery stenosis yielded an area under the curve of 0.93 on ROC analysis. Values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value on a vessel territory level and the patient level were 89, 95, 87, 96% and 85, 87, 77, 92%, respectively. In patients with suspected or known significant CAD, 3T myocardial perfusion CMR with standard perfusion protocols provides consistently high image quality and an excellent diagnostic performance.
    European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2013; 14(12). DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jet074 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chest pain associated with cocaine use represents an increasing problem in the emergency department (ED). Cocaine use has been linked to the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We used coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) to evaluate the prevalence, severity and composition of atherosclerotic lesions in cocaine users. We studied 78 patients with non-occasional cocaine use (52 men, 44 ± 7 years, 23 under the acute influence) and acute chest pain but without ACS, who had undergone cCTA in the ED. Patients were matched one-to-one by gender, race, symptoms, and risk-factors with a control cohort (n = 78; 52 men, 45 ± 6 years) not using cocaine. Each coronary segment was evaluated for the presence and composition (calcified, non-calcified, partially calcified) of atherosclerotic plaque and for stenosis. The prevalence of coronary stenosis was not significantly different between patients with and without cocaine use (13% versus 5%, P > 0.05). However, cocaine users on average had significantly more atherosclerotic plaques (0.44 ± 0.88 versus 0.29 ± 0.83, P < 0.05) and a tendency towards more calcified (0.64 ± 1.23 versus 0.55 ± 1.22, P > 0.05) and non-calcified plaques (0.26 ± 0.63 versus 0.17 ± 0.57, P > 0.05), yet not reaching statistical significance. Furthermore, cocaine users had significantly more partially calcified plaques (0.41 ± 0.61 versus 0.17 ± 0.41, P < 0.05) and higher partially calcified plaque volume (59.7 ± 33.3 mm(3) versus 25.6 ± 12.6 mm(3), P < 0.05). Thus, cocaine users tend to have more pronounced coronary atherosclerosis compared to patients without cocaine use at the time of presentation with acute chest pain.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2013; 229(2):443-8. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.05.032 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Performance evaluation of a fully automated system for calculating computed tomography (CT) coronary artery calcium scores from contrast medium-enhanced coronary CT angiography (cCTA) studies. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients (58 ± 11 years, 71 men) who had undergone cCTA as well as an unenhanced CT calcium scoring study where included. Calcium scores were computed from cCTA by an automated image processing algorithm and compared with calcium scores obtained by standard manual assessment of unenhanced CT calcium scoring studies. Results were compared vis-a-vis (1) absolute calcium score values, (2) age-, gender- and race-dependent percentiles, and (3) commonly used calcium score risk classification categories. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen out of 127 (93.7%) studies were successfully processed. Mean Agatston calcium score values obtained by traditional non-contrast CT calcium scoring studies and derived from contrast medium-enhanced cCTA did not significantly differ (235.6 ± 430.5 vs 262.0 ± 499.5; P > 0.05). Calcium score risk categories and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) percentiles showed very high correlation (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.97, P < 0.0001/0.95, P < 0.0001) between the two approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium score values automatically computed from cCTA are highly correlated with standard unenhanced CT calcium scoring studies. These results suggest a radiation dose- and time-saving potential when deriving calcium scores from cCTA studies without a preceding unenhanced CT calcium scoring study. KEY POINTS: • CT coronary calcium scoring is now widely used for cardiac risk stratification • Derivation of calcium scores from coronary CT angiography saves time and radiation • Automatically derived scores are comparable to conventional coronary artery calcium scores • Patient risk stratification is similar, whether using automatically derived or conventional scores.
    European Radiology 03/2013; 23(3):650-7. DOI:10.1007/s00330-012-2652-6 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2013; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-15-S1-O4 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a promising novel method for quantification of myocardial wall mechanics from standard steady-state free precession (SSFP) images. We sought to determine whether magnetic field strength affects the intra-observer reproducibility of CMR-FT strain analysis. METHODS: We studied 2 groups, each consisting of 10 healthy subjects, at 1.5T or 3T Analysis was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks using dedicated CMR-FT prototype software (Tomtec, Germany) to analyze standard SSFP cine images. Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (Ell(RV) and Ell(LV)) and LV long-axis radial strain (Err(LAX)) were derived from the 4-chamber cine, and LV short-axis circumferential and radial strains (Ecc(SAX), Err(SAX)) from the short-axis orientation. Strain parameters were assessed together with LV ejection fraction (EF) and volumes. Intra-observer reproducibility was determined by comparing the first and the second analysis in both groups. RESULTS: In all volunteers resting strain parameters were successfully derived from the SSFP images. There was no difference in strain parameters, volumes and EF between field strengths (p>0.05). In general Ecc(SAX) was the most reproducible strain parameter as determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) at 1.5T (CV 13.3% and 46% global and segmental respectively) and 3T (CV 17.2% and 31.1% global and segmental respectively). The least reproducible parameter was Ell(RV) (CV 1.5T 28.7% and 53.2%; 3T 43.5% and 63.3% global and segmental respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CMR-FT results are similar with reasonable intra-observer reproducibility in different groups of volunteers at 1.5T and 3T. CMR-FT is a promising novel technique and our data indicate that results might be transferable between field strengths. However there is a considerable amount of segmental variability indicating that further refinements are needed before CMR-FT can be fully established in clinical routine for quantitative assessment of wall mechanics and strain.
    European journal of radiology 12/2012; 82(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.11.012 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To evaluate the performance of first pass myocardial perfusion MRI using 3T multitransmit technology in patients with significant and intermediate coronary artery lesions using catheter angiography (CA) and invasive functional flow reserve (FFR)-measurements as the reference standard. METHOD AND MATERIALS With approval by our local IRB, 111 patients with suspected coronary artery stenosis underwent cardiac MRI myocardial perfusion imaging (CMRPI) on a 3T system (Achieva 3T Tx; Philips Healthcare; Best, The Netherlands). All MRI studies were performed within ±5 days of CA. A high dose adenosine stress/rest perfusion protocol was used (170 μg adenosine · kg-1 · min-1). Three minutes into adenosine infusion, perfusion studies were acquired using multitransmission technology with an in-plane spatial resolution of 2.97x 2.97 mm and a section thickness of 8 mm. In patients with intermediate (40-79%) coronary artery lesions, FFR measurements (St. Jude; St. Paul, MN) were performed to assess their functional relevance. Perfusion images were visually evaluated by two independent observers and interobserver disagreements were resolved by consensus in a joint session. RESULTS Diagnostic image quality was achieved for all stress CMRPI studies with an average quality score of 2.5, 3.1, and 3.0 for LAD, RCX, and RCA territories, respectively. 49 intermediate coronary lesions were measured by FFR. In 52 vessels, lesions were found that were either > 80% on CA or showed a pathological FFR <0.75. Adenosine induced stress perfusion deficits were detected in 92 % of these (sensitivity of 92 %). In 281 vessels without pathological FFR or lesion < 40 % on CA, a perfusion defect could be excluded in 98 % (specificity of 98 %). CONCLUSION Using 3T multitransmit technology we could demonstrate that CMPRI is an excellent modality to assess the functional relevance of significant and intermediate coronary artery stenosis with high specificity and sensitivity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION Adenosine MR perfusion imaging in patients with suspected coronary artery stenosis may be able to reduce the number of unnecessary coronary catheterizations.
    Radiological Society of North America 2012 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 11/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the current gold standard for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. Repeated breath-holds are needed for standard multi-slice 2D cine steady-state free precession sequences (M2D-SSFP). Accelerated single breath-hold techniques suffer from low contrast between blood pool and myocardium. In this study an intravascular contrast agent was prospectively compared to an extravascular contrast agent for the assessment of LV function using a single-breath-hold 3D-whole-heart cine SSFP sequence (3D-SSFP). LV function was assessed in fourteen patients on a 1.5 T MR-scanner (Philips Healthcare) using 32-channel coil technology. Patients were investigated twice using a 3D-SSFP sequence (acquisition time 18-25 s) after Gadopentetate dimeglumine (GdD, day 1) and Gadofosveset trisodium (GdT, day 2) administration. Image acquisition was accelerated using sensitivity encoding in both phase encoding directions (4xSENSE). CNR and BMC were both measured between blood and myocardium. The CNR incorporated noise measurements, while the BMC represented the coeffiancy between the signal from blood and myocardium [1]. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR), blood to myocardium contrast (BMC), image quality, LV functional parameters and intra-/interobserver variability were compared. A M2D-SSFP sequence was used as a reference standard on both days. All 3D-SSFP sequences were successfully acquired within one breath-hold after GdD and GdT administration. CNR and BMC were significantly (p < 0.05) higher using GdT compared to GdD, resulting in an improved endocardial definition. Using 3D-SSFP with GdT, Bland-Altman plots showed a smaller bias (95% confidence interval LVEF: 9.0 vs. 23.7) and regression analysis showed a stronger correlation to the reference standard (R2 = 0.92 vs. R2 = 0.71), compared to 3D-SSFP with GdD. A single-breath-hold 3D-whole-heart cine SSFP sequence in combination with 32-channel technology and an intravascular contrast agent allows for the accurate and fast assessment of LV function. The study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Study No. 07/Q0704/2) and was registered with the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA Study No. 28482/0002/001-0001, EudraCTnumber 2006-007042).
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2012; 14(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-14-53 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution 3-dimensional aortic vessel wall imaging using a novel elastin-specific magnetic resonance contrast agent (ESMA) in a large animal model. The thoracic aortic vessel wall of 6 Landrace pigs was imaged using a novel ESMA and a nonspecific control agent. On day 1, imaging was performed before and after the administration of a nonspecific control agent, gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA; Bayer Schering AG, Berlin, Germany). On day 3, identical scans were repeated before and after the administration of a novel ESMA (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, Massachusetts). Three-dimensional inversion recovery gradient echo delayed-enhancement imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the thoracic aortic vessel wall were performed on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Achieva; Philips Medical Systems, the Netherlands). The signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast-to-noise ratio of arterial wall enhancement, including the time course of enhancement, were assessed for ESMA and Gd-DTPA. After the completion of imaging sessions, histology, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy were performed to localize and quantify the gadolinium bound to the arterial vessel wall. Administration of ESMA resulted in a strong enhancement of the aortic vessel wall on delayed-enhancement imaging, whereas no significant enhancement could be measured with Gd-DTPA. Ninety to 100 minutes after the administration of ESMA, significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio could be measured compared with the administration of Gd-DTPA (45.7 ± 9.6 vs 13.2 ± 3.5, P < 0.05 and 41.9 ± 9.1 vs 5.2 ± 2.0, P < 0.05). A significant correlation (0.96; P < 0.01) between area measurements derived from ESMA scans and aortic MR angiography scans could be found. Electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy confirmed the colocalization of ESMA with elastic fibers. We demonstrate the feasibility of aortic vessel wall imaging using a novel ESMA in a large animal model under conditions resembling a clinical setting. Such an approach could be useful for the fast 3-dimensional assessment of the arterial vessel wall in the context of atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, and hypertension.
    Investigative radiology 05/2012; 47(7):438-44. DOI:10.1097/RLI.0b013e3182588263 · 4.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

381 Citations
248.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2015
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • King's College London
      • Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2012
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2011
    • Technische Universität München
      • Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik
      München, Bavaria, Germany