Anil Goswami

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (14)6.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Globally, World health statistics 2012 have reported that one in three adults has raised blood pressure and one in ten adults have diabetes. Present study is a community based cross sectional study, carried out in an urban resettlement colony in Dakshinpuri Extension of South Delhi during the months of March and April 2010 with household as the sampling unit. A total of 389 households were studied. An interview schedule was developed and pre tested consisting of socio-demographic profile and knowledge and practices KAP component. A total of 389 individuals were interviewed. Of the total, 57 % were females and 43% were males. Mean age of the study participants was 40.05 (S.D±15.2 years) with a median per capita income of Rs. 900 per month. More than 80 % of the study participants had heard of the words diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Most of the respondents considered that lifestyle plays a role in the development of NCDs. Less than 40 % of the respondents know about the role of nutrition in the development of NCDs. Nearly half of the respondents regarded diabetes and hypertension as a serious illness. According to 68.3 %, 57 % and 69 % of study participants, medical treatment is appropriate for hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease. The rest resorted to untrained health care providers. Prevalence of self reported diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease were 13.5 %, 20.6 % and 3.9 % respectively.
    The Indian journal of nutrition and dietetics 10/2014; 51:429.
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    ABSTRACT: An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world’s largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family size being 5.5 (SD±2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD}631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p≤0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p≤0.04) were associated with lesser chance/odds of being food-insecure. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of food insecurity in the marginalized section of the urban society. The Government of India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem.
    Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 06/2014; 32(2):227-36. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 05/2013; 44(3):523-33. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2013; 63(suppl 1):858. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Poor oral health and untreated oral diseases can have a significant impact on the quality of life of the elderly. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of dental caries among the elderly persons in India in the past two decades. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. Six community-based articles were included in this review. The selected studies were screened by using STROBE checklist for observational studies. All studies were found to contain the required essentials of observational studies. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was calculated. Trend was generated using Microsoft Excel program. The prevalence of dental caries experience ranged from 31.5 to 100%. Weighted prevalence of dental caries experience was 83.6% and 82.3% for 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, respectively. There is a high burden of dental caries in the elderly population. Treatment and restorative services need to be provided to alleviate this problem.
    Indian journal of public health 01/2012; 56(2):129-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies from 4% to 20% in different Asian nations. Prevalence of IBS in native North Indian community is not known. Between November 2008 to December 2009, we estimated the prevalence of IBS in a rural community of Ballabgarh block, located in Haryana state. A structured questionnaire based on Rome III module was used to collect symptoms related to IBS from all the participants in a door to door survey. A Rome III criterion was used for diagnosis of IBS. IBS was further classified based on predominance of symptoms as constipation predominant, diarrhea predominant, mixed and unspecified based on Rome III module. There were 4,767 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.8, males 50%). Overall, 555 (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.7-12.5) had constipation, 542 (11.4%; 95% CI, 10.5-12.3) diarrhea and 823 (17.3%; 95% CI, 16.2-18.4) abdominal pain. The overall prevalence of IBS was 4% (95% CI, 3.5-4.6). The prevalence of constipation predominant IBS was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.16-0.49), diarrhea predominant IBS 1.5% (95% CI, 1.18-1.90), mixed IBS 1.7% (95% CI, 1.35-2.11) and unsubtyped IBS 0.5% (95% CI, 0.32-0.75). The prevalence of IBS was significantly higher in females compared with males (4.8% vs 3.2%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference between males and females in the prevalence of different subtypes of IBS. The prevalence increased with age. The prevalence of IBS in a North Indian community is 4%. IBS poses a significant burden on the rural adults.
    Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 01/2011; 17(1):82-7.
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    ABSTRACT: While celiac disease is estimated to affect about 1% of the world's population, it is thought to be uncommon not only in India but in Asia also. There is a lack of studies on the prevalence of celiac disease from Asian nations. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of celiac disease in the community. In a cross sectional study, we estimated the prevalence of celiac disease in urban and rural populations in the National Capital Region, Delhi, India. A structured questionnaire was administered, by door-to-door visits, to all participants to collect socio-demographic data and to screen for features of celiac disease, namely chronic or recurrent diarrhea and, anemia. In children, additional features, namely short stature (linear height below 5th percentile for age) and failure to thrive/gain weight were also used. All respondents who were screen positive (any one of above) and 10% of screen negative individuals were called for serological testing, which is anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody. All serologically positive respondents were invited to undergo further evaluation including endoscopic biopsy. Celiac disease was diagnosed on the basis of a positive serology, the presence of villous atrophy and/or response to gluten free diet. Among 12,573 contacted, 10,488 (83.4%) (50.6% male) agreed to participate. Based on screening, 5622 (53.6%) participants were screen positive. Of all those screen positive, 2167 (38.5%) agreed for serological testing; additionally 712 (14%) negatives were also tested. The overall sero-prevalence of celiac disease was 1.44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 1.69) and the overall prevalence of celiac disease was 1.04% (95% CI 0.85 1.25). The prevalence of celiac disease in this north Indian community is 1 in 96. Celiac disease is more common than is recognized in India.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2010; 26(5):894-900. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study attempts to assess the community perception and client satisfaction of primary health care services provided by mobile health clinics. To assess the awareness of the community about mobile health clinic services and its utilization in an urban area and to assess the client satisfaction of those who have utilized the services. A cross-sectional community-based study. Dr. Ambedkar Nagar, urban resettlement colony of New Delhi. July 2006 and September 2006. For exit interviews, patients who have utilized the mobile health clinic; for community interviews, an adult member present in the family. For the community survey, two blocks were randomly chosen and the interview was carried out by house visits. For exit interviews, patients were selected randomly from those attending the mobile health clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis. A total of 377 interviews were conducted (295 community interviews and 82 exit interviews). It was seen that 82% were aware of the mobile health clinic but more than two-thirds preferred private practitioners; reasons given were that they have more trust in private practitioners, convenient timings, and less waiting time. Approximately two-thirds to three-fourths of the clients were satisfied with the mobile health clinic services. Client satisfaction is an important measure of the quality of health care and needs to be addressed in order to improve the utilization of primary health care services in urban areas.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 10/2008; 33(4):250-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Research Question: This study attempts to assess the community perception and client satisfaction of primary health care services provided by mobile health clinics. Objectives: To assess the awareness of the community about mobile health clinic services and its utilization in an urban area and to assess the client satisfaction of those who have utilized the services. Study Design: A cross-sectional community-based study. Setting: Dr. Ambedkar Nagar, urban resettlement colony of New Delhi. Study Period: July 2006 and September 2006. Participants: For exit interviews, patients who have utilized the mobile health clinic; for community interviews, an adult member present in the family. Materials and Methods: For the community survey, two blocks were randomly chosen and the interview was carried out by house visits. For exit interviews, patients were selected randomly from those attending the mobile health clinic. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical analysis. Results and Conclusions: A total of 377 interviews were conducted (295 community interviews and 82 exit interviews). It was seen that 82% were aware of the mobile health clinic but more than two-thirds preferred private practitioners; reasons given were that they have more trust in private practitioners, convenient timings, and less waiting time. Approximately two-thirds to three-fourths of the clients were satisfied with the mobile health clinic services. Client satisfaction is an important measure of the quality of health care and needs to be addressed in order to improve the utilization of primary health care services in urban areas.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years) and in the elderly (60 years and above) in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 ± 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 ± 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026). The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.
    Indian Journal of Dental Research 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco and alcohol use are serious health problems. Studies focusing on problems associated with tobacco and alcohol use in the elderly are limited. To find out the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among rural elderly population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive field practice area of the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project in Ballabgarh in Faridabad, Haryana, a rural field practice area of the Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The sample was selected using stratified random cluster sampling. The participants were >/=60 years of age at the time of interview. Data on tobacco and alcohol use pattern of 1117 elderly were collected during the interview. The prevalence of smoking was 71.8% in men (n=490) and 41.4% in women (n=497). Among men smokers, 41.5% were light smokers (</=5 beedis/day), 42.9% were moderate smokers (6-20 beedis/day) and 15.6% were heavy smokers (>20 beedis/day). Among women smokers, 71.8% were light smokers, 23.8% were moderate smokers and 4.4% were heavy smokers. Regular alcohol intake was seen in 16.3% of the men compared with 0.8% of the women. The finding of a high prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among men in this rural population of India is of serious concern and therefore needs remedial measures.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2005; 47(4):192-7.
  • Puneet Misra, Anil Goswami, Pandav C. S
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    ABSTRACT: Research questions: (1) What is the level of awareness of a slum community regarding injection safety. Objectives: To study the awareness and knowledge of the community regarding safe injection use. Study design: Cross-sectional, community-based. Participants: Adults above 18 years of age in a slum community of Delhi. Sample size: 363 families. Statistical analysis: Done using Epi info 6.x2 test of proportions was used to find the difference between the two proportions Results: A total of 363 families were interviewed. About 11.4% received one injection in the last three months. In children below 5 years. 72.8% of injections were preventive. The major proportion (66%) of therapeutic injections was provided by unqualified practitioners. In 52% of injection use, disposable syringes were used. Average cost per injection was found to be Rs. 22.60. Conclusion: It is important to create awareness among the slum dwellers and the local practitioners about the importance of disposable syringes and injectables.
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years) and in the elderly (60 years and above) in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those > or =60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 +/- 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 +/- 9.6 in the > or =60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026). The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.
    Indian Journal of Dental Research 19(2):95-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The feasibility of using mobile health clinics (MHCs) to deliver health services in urban poor areas has to be explored as the health needs of the residents are not sufficiently addressed by the existing primary health care delivery system in India. Objective: To estimate the cost of providing primary health care services and the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) incurred, while utilizing these services provided through the MHC based Urban Health Program of a Medical College in North India for the year 2008-2009. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study to estimate OOPE was conducted among 330 subjects selected from patients attending the mobile health care facility. For estimation of provider cost, 5 steps process involving identification of cost centres, measurement of inputs, valuing of inputs, assigning of inputs to cost centers, and estimation of unit cost were carried out. Results: Total annual cost of providing services under Urban Health Program in the year 2008-2009 was Rs. 7,691,943 Unit cost of providing outpatient curative care, antenatal care, and immunization were Rs. 107.74/visit, Rs. 388/visit and Rs. 66.14 per immunization, respectively. The mean OOPE incurred was Rs. 29.50/visit, while utilizing outpatient curative services and Rs. 88.70/visit for antenatal services. Conclusion: The MHC can be considered as a viable option to provide services to urban poor.
    Indian journal of public health 58(2):100-5.