Paolo Ranalli

CRA Inc., Radnor, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (57)40.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Plant growth regulators are involved in the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber dormancy. Evidence concerning the role of IAA is controversial; we therefore investigated its role by analyzing two cultivars with varying lengths of dormancy. We examined the time course of free and conjugated IAA in tuber tissue isolates from the final stages of tuber growth to the end of dormancy, the distribution of free IAA in tuber tissues by in situ analysis, and the biosynthesis of the hormone by feeding experiments. The time course of free IAA showed marked differences between the examined cultivars, although the concentration of the auxin generally was the highest at the early stages of tuber dormancy. Immunodetection showed a similar pattern of IAA distribution in both genotypes: in dormant buds from freshly harvested tubers, the free hormone accumulated mostly in apical meristem, leaf and lateral bud primordia, and differentiating vascular tissues underlying the apical meristem, while at the end of the storage period only axillary bud primordia from growing buds displayed appreciable auxin levels. Feeding experiments indicated that changes in IAA biosynthesis rate were a major cause of auxin variation in buds. In both cultivars, dormancy apparently ceased when free IAA fell below a threshold value. Despite this, our data led us to conclude that IAA would not be directly responsible for inhibiting sprouting. Instead, auxin might shorten dormancy, in a cultivar-dependent manner, by enhancing early developmental processes in buds, ultimately leading to dormancy termination.
    Journal of plant physiology 04/2009; 166(10):1023-33. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    01/2009; in : - Le(Avenue Media):capitolo 1, 1-20.
  • M. BIZARRI, L. BORGHI, P. RANALLI
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to compare hormone-free medium with media with regulator substances (activated charcoal, cytokinins, polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor and chlorocholine chloride) used for microtuber induction and development. Explants of cvs Monalisa, Primura and Spunta were multiplied subculturing nodal segments on plant growth regulator-free Murashige & Skoog (1962) (MS) medium. When the plantlets had 6–8 nodes, single-node stem segments were excised and transferred to eight tuberisation media, each consisting of MS basal components supplemented with sucrose (8% w/v) and various regulator substances. The control was a regulator-free medium including only sucrose. Results were expressed as the number and weight of microtubers per nodal explant.The cultivars showed wide variations in the mean weight of microtubers, ranging from 44.6 mg (Primura) to 77.5 mg (Spunta), and nearly all plants produced tubers. Medium containing activated charcoal gave the highest rate of tuberisation and the largest microtubers. It thus played a role in optimising conditions for rapid, mass tuberisation of these cultivars, and produced large microtubers for field planting.
    Annals of Applied Biology 02/2008; 127(1):175 - 181. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • P RANALLI, M BIZARRI, L BORGHI, M MARI
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    ABSTRACT: Microtubers of 13 cultivars, largely grown in Italy and other European countries, were induced. They were stored in the dark at 3°C for different periods (28, 56, 84 and 105 days), prior to being transferred to 20°C for between 4 and 17 weeks. Following removal to room temperature, sprouting was recorded and dormancy duration quantified. Dormancy decreased from 28.1 to 19.9, 11.1 and 7.8 days with reduced time of storage. Cvs Arsy, Nicola and Jaerla took consistently more time for dormancy release. The dormancy duration was linearly and inversely correlated with the length of storage. After sprouting, tubers were held at 20°C for various intervals and a range of physiological ages (0, 368, 720 and 1008 degree days) were accumulated. The field comparison of microtubers evidenced a plant growth response and tuber yield/plant affected by the cultivar and physiological age. In early cultivars (Jaerla), a better performance was shown by younger tubers; the opposite trend was noted in Alpha (a later cultivar) with an increase in stems/plant, tubers/plant and tuber yield/plant for tubers with greater physiological age. Like conventional seed tubers, microtubers showed differences in optimum physiological age associated with cultivar earliness. This study has provided some indications on how to enhance emergence and haulm development of plants from microtubers.
    Annals of Applied Biology 02/2008; 125(1):161 - 172. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as beta-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as beta-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene-associated genes. Our Global Match File strategy proved critical for accurately interpretating heterologous datasets, and suggests that similar approaches may be fruitful for other species. Transcript profiling of early events associated with CIS revealed a complex network of events involving sugars, redox and hormone signalling which may be either linked serially or act in parallel. The identification, at a sequence level, of various enzymes long known as having a role in CIS provides molecular tools for further understanding the phenomenon.
    BMC Genomics 02/2008; 9:176. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: In an investigation of the best storage techniques for consumer potatoes, the response of 27 cultivars and clones to prolonged cold storage was studied. The technique most commonly used is storage at 5.5-6.5C for potatoes for direct consumption and at 9-12C for industrial potatoes, combined in both cases with treatment with chlorpropham or CIPC to prevent sprouting. In this experiment, glufosinate ammonium at label rates was applied when the basal leaves changed colour. The harvested tubers were cured for 7-8 days at 15C and cold stored without anti-sprouting treatment. They were examined for signs of sprouting and softening after 180 days in cold store and again after 270 days; results are presented in a table. Of recently introduced varieties, Belana, Melba and Agnes proved best suited to the Bologna area, where the trial took place. Equally good in all respects except their esthetic appearance were Artemis, Red Fantasy and 3 new Italian varieties: Teznis, Isci 96/25-101 and Isci 151/92 Me. Shortening the storage period could prevent the unacceptable glucose levels found in cv. Finka and Lanorma. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling dormancy should be sought by breeders. It is stressed that these are only preliminary results.
    01/2008; 64(46):37-40.
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    ABSTRACT: I n Italia le patate destinate ai diversi segmenti della trasformazione in-dustriale a uso umano ammonta-no a oltre 240.000 t annue (Ismea, 2007). Di questi, circa il 75% è assorbito da due soli segmenti: chips-snack e sur-gelati. I due segmenti citati sono quelli che hanno avuto nel recente passato una forte espansione conseguente alle mu-tate esigenze che il consumatore anda-va esprimendo (diff usione dei fast food, aumento dei pasti consumati fuori casa, comodità dei prodotti a preparazione intermedia). Mentre l'industria delle chips trasfor-ma, in modo ormai consolidato, oltre il 65% di materia prima italiana, quella delle french fries (bastoncini prefritti e surgelati) supera anche l'80% di prodotto nazionale utilizzato. Tale fenomeno è da attribuire al fatto che alla preparazione di bastoncini prefritti è più facile riorien-tare produzioni di varietà cosiddette «a doppia attitudine» (principalmente da mercato fresco), che si prestano bene an-che all'ottenimento di tali prodotti. Ciò non è possibile nel settore delle chips, ove è richiesta una materia prima con elevato peso specifi co dei tuberi rinvenibile solo in specifi che cultivar. Il sistema della patata da industria in Italia presenta vari fattori di debolezza, tra cui quelli più seri sono a carattere agronomico. Infatti, così come è vero che le condizioni pedoclimatiche italia-ne sono favorevoli alle produzioni ex-trastagionali (primaticcie e bisestili), è altrettanto vero che lo sono meno per le produzioni da industria. Infatti l'indu-stria di trasformazione utilizza prevalen-temente cultivar da medio-tardive a tar-dive che vanno incontro alle condizioni critiche di siccità del periodo estivo, fatto che tende a peggiorare la qualità tecno-logica dei tuberi. Addolcimento: cos'è, come si riduce Nel settore delle cultivar da industria l'Italia è sempre stata ampiamente di-pendente dal breeding di altri Paesi (Sta-ti Uniti, Canada, Paesi Bassi, Germania, Francia, Regno Unito). Solo dall'ini-zio degli anni 90 un breeding italiano a ciò fi nalizzato muoveva i primi passi, anche se poi il panorama varietale ita-liano nel settore delle chips è rimasto ferma a cultivar datate come Hermes (1973) ed Erntestolz (1976), ancora ben diff use nonostante i non pochi proble-mi produttivi.
    informatore agrario. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Italy is contracted to process potatoes at a rate of 160 000 t/year in 2008-2011 according to a professional agreement. The industry has a problem with quality, particularly in the case of deep frozen French fries, which often present discoloration due to excessive levels of sugars and acryl amides. The levels can be somewhat lowered by keeping the tubers at 15C for 2 weeks before cold storage and storing at a temperature no lower than 9C. Recently tests in Campania and Emilia Romagna with some new selections have shown promising results, with reduced acryl amide levels; one selection has been entered on the Register under the name of Megara. To improve the prospects for the processing industry, producers need to cooperate together and with the processors, and programmes of research into dormancy and the development of an unacceptable sweet flavour should be launched.
    01/2008; 64(46):42-46.
  • Paolo Ranalli, Mario Di Candilo
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    ABSTRACT: In the next 10 to 15 years a number of future biofuels might potentially come on the market. In this paper we will discuss the supply chains of the most promising biofuels, i.e. Ethanol and ETBE from lignocellulosic (woody) biomass; Fischer-Tropsch diesel from lignocellulosic biomass; HTU diesel. Compared with current biofuels, these new products are expected to show superior performance in terms of cost, environmental impact and socio-economic effects.
    05/2007: pages 307-334;
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of parameters discriminating organic and conventional produce should help prevent misconduct and could provide a firm basis for comparative assessment of the two types of produce. In this report, we compare for selected markers organically versus conventionally grown tubers in four separate field trials. Within each field trial, organic and conventional tubers were subjected to the same pedoclimatic conditions as they were grown in adjacent plots. In all sites and in both cultivars tested, irrespective of environment, organic tubers exhibited a significant enrichment in 15N‰ when compared to their conventional counterparts. Also, the sum of all samples from the four sites (organic versus conventional) showed higher δ15N‰ (7.17 ± 48% versus 3.36 ± 38%; means ± CV%; n = 39; P < 0.001); furthermore, setting as threshold value for assignment in the organic group the lowest δ15N observed for organic samples (i.e. + 4.3‰), only 15% of conventional tubers were misclassified. On the other hand, further parameters selected on the basis of reports of alterations as a consequence of agricultural technique—ascorbic acid, protein content and dry matter—did not show consistent trends of variation throughout the four field trials. We conclude that, as opposed to other relevant parameters, 15N enrichment appears as a promising discriminative marker. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2007; 87(7):1330 - 1336. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • 01/2007; 8-14 giugn.
  • 01/2007; 6(3):145-152.
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    ABSTRACT: Among various features distinguishing organic from conventionally produced potatoes are DM content, total protein content and high levels of ascorbic acid, but these appear to be linked more closely to genetic and environmental factors than to agricultural techniques. The most reliable indicator of organic production appears to be 15N enrichment. This factor also occurs in organic carrots, tomatoes and lettuce. In combination with other markers it could offer the most reliable test for identifying organic vegetables.
    01/2007; 63(23):60-64.
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    01/2007;
  • V. Faeti, G. Mandolino, P. Ranalli
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    ABSTRACT: Random amplified polymorphic DN A (RAPD) markers were generated from 13 cultivars and accessions of Cannabis sativa L. Approximately 200 fragments generated by 10 primers of arbitrary sequence were used to assess the level of DNA variation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Dice coefficient of similarity and principal coordinate analysis. The grouping of the accessions according to the cluster analysis was in good agreement with their origin and lines with common ancestors were grouped together. Principal coordinates 1 and 2 revealed a clear separation of Italian and Hungarian germplasm and a third group, including a mixture of genotypes coming from different places; the third coordinate separated the Korean group which is probably the most divergent germplasm. Variability within the two cultivars ‘Carmagnola’ and ‘Fibranova1’ was also shown, suggesting good possibilities for long–term selection work. RAPD markers provide a powerful tool for the investigation of genetic variation in cultivars/accessions of hemp.
    Plant Breeding 04/2006; 115(5):367 - 370. · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • P. Ranalli, M. di Candilo, M. Bagatta
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    ABSTRACT: Six potato genotypes including ‘Desiree’ and five breeding clones (2/14, 95C, 125B, 3589, 4056) were grown in the field under well-watered and stress conditions. The stress response of leaf tissue was assessed 8 and 12 weeks after plant emergence (WAE) by measuring canopy temperature and chlorophyll α fluorescence induction kinetics in detached leaves. Under drought-stress conditions, chlorophyll α fluorescence dropped in clones 2/14 and 4056, remained constant in 95C and 125B and increased in clone 3589. The canopy temperature exhibited little difference between drought and irrigated treatments in clones 95C and 125B, and significant effects in the other genotypes. This performance was interpreted in terms of tolerance to drought stress, and the potential use of canopy temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence as tools for drought screening of potato germplasm and segregant generations is discussed. The physiological properties of 95C and 125B highlighted by this study need further investigation and, if confirmed, they could be recombined with other useful agronomic characters by crossing in a breeding programme.
    Plant Breeding 04/2006; 116(3):290 - 292. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis sativa is an interesting crop for several industrial uses, but the legislations in Europe and USA require a tight control of cannabinoid type and content for cultivation and subsidies release. Therefore, cannabinoid survey by gas chromatography of materials under selection is an important step in hemp breeding. In this paper, a number of Cannabis accessions were examined for their cannabinoid composition. Their absolute and relative content was examined, and results are discussed in the light of both the current genetic model for cannabinoid’s inheritance, and the legislation’s requirements. In addition, the effectiveness of two different types of markers associated to the locus determining the chemotype in Cannabis was evaluated and discussed, as possible tools in marker-assisted selection in hemp, but also for possible applications in the forensic and pharmaceutical fields.
    Molecular Breeding 03/2006; 17(3):257-268. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • L'Informatore Agrario. 01/2006; 11:45-48.
  • Agroindustria. 01/2006; 5:51-61.