[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need for effective "broad spectrum" therapies for metastatic melanoma which would be suitable for all patients. The objectives of Phase Ia/Ib studies were to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry, and antitumor activity of (188)Re-6D2, a 188-Rhenium-labeled antibody to melanin. Stage IIIC/IV metastatic melanoma (MM) patients who failed standard therapies were enrolled in both studies. In Phase Ia, 10 mCi (188)Re-6D2 were given while unlabeled antibody preload was escalated. In Phase Ib, the dose of (188)Re-6D2 was escalated to 54 mCi. SPECT/CT revealed (188)Re-6D2 uptake in melanoma metastases. The mean effective half-life of (188)Re-6D2 was 12.4 h. Transient HAMA was observed in 9 patients. Six patients met the RECIST criteria for stable disease at 6 weeks. Two patients had durable disease stabilization for 14 weeks and one for 22 weeks. Median overall survival was 13 months with no dose-limiting toxicities. The data demonstrate that (188)Re-6D2 was well tolerated, localized in melanoma metastases, and had antitumor activity, thus warranting its further investigation in patients with metastatic melanoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the term has been coined recently, the concepts underlying theranosis have been applied in patient care for more than one-half century. However, advanced technologies are used now. Theranosis describes processes used to tailor therapy for a patient. It is the use of diagnostic tests to identify those patients better-suited for a drug (or drugs) or to determine how well a drug is working. (131)I-iodide for imaging and for therapy of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer is an excellent example of personalized theranosis and has withstood challenge for more than 50 years. Radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a more recent example of theranosis. Either of 2 anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, one labeled with indium for imaging or (90)Y for radiotherapy or a second labeled with (131)I for both imaging and radiotherapy, is used for salvage and first-line therapy of multifocal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The efficacy of these drugs is greater than that of alternative therapies. To mimic the molecular specificity and cell selectivity of a monoclonal antibody, smaller molecules that also bind to proteins upregulated by malignant cells can be used to transport cytotoxic agents to the malignant cells. Smaller carrier molecules like peptides, aptamers, affibodies, and selective, high-affinity ligands facilitate intensification of therapy because of their size. Personalized genomics, proteomics, and molecular imaging are among technologies currently used for theranosis. Molecular emission tomographic imaging with radiolabeled drugs has been used to examine the pharmacology of anticancer therapies and their effectiveness. Increased glycolysis, a molecular phenotype of many malignancies, can be imaged using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). Tomographic imaging using FDG allows stratification of patients into those responding and likely to respond to the therapy and those better treated in another manner. Prediction of therapeutic response avoids useless therapy so that FDG imaging is included in official response evaluation criteria. Although a fixed approach to therapy may be more practical, an individualized approach is more likely to ensure that each patient receives an effective drug and drug dose that has acceptable and definable tissue effects. Drugs that work in one individual may be ineffective or cause adverse events in others.
Seminars in nuclear medicine 05/2012; 42(3):147-50. · 3.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most patients with locoregional cancer are cured by surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combinations thereof, those with distant metastases are not despite systemic chemotherapy. These patients respond to local radiotherapy but generally need systemic therapy. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) provides a paradigm for the role of molecular targeted radiotherapy (MTRT) because these patients have multifocal disease in most cases. Although patients with NHL achieve remissions after multiple cycles of chemotherapy, less than one half of those with aggressive NHL are cured and almost none of those with low grade NHL. Furthermore, NHL, like other cancers, becomes chemoresistant, yet remains responsive to radiotherapy. MTRT, radiation targeted by molecules, is a good strategy for the treatment of multifocal and radiosensitive cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an MTRT approach using MAbs, or parts thereof, to target the radionuclide that delivers radiation. Two anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), one labeled with (111)In for imaging or (90)Y for therapy and a second labeled with (131)I for imaging and therapy, have proven effective and safe for MTRT for NHL patients. The importance of the radiation is demonstrated in the data from the randomized pivotal trial of (90)Y-ibritumomab; response rates were distinctly better in the (90)Y-ibritumomab arm than in the rituximab arm. Furthermore, the efficacy of (131)I-tositumomab was greater than that of the same MAb alone in another pivotal trial. Although hematologic toxicity is dose limiting for MTRT, febrile neutropenia is uncommon. MTRT is also not associated with mucositis, hair loss, or persistent nausea or vomiting, unlike chemotherapy. Randomized trials of MTRT in different strategies have not been conducted, but there is evidence of better outcomes, particularly for strategies that provide dose intensification, such as pretargeted MTRT, multiple dosing ("fractionation"), and MTRT with stem cell transplantation (SCT). Pretargeted RIT separates delivery of the targeting molecule from radionuclide delivery, provides dose escalation, and is more effective than direct one-step RIT, although more complicated to implement. Improved drugs and strategies for MTRT have documented potential for better patient outcomes. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as those used for pretargeted MTRT, should be incorporated into the management of patients with NHL and other cancers soon after the patients have proven incurable. Expected improvements using better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem likely to make MTRT integral in the management of many patients with cancer and likely to lead to cures of NHL.
Seminars in nuclear medicine 03/2010; 40(2):136-44. · 3.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of arginine-rich peptide sequences similar to those found in viral proteins have been conjugated to other molecules to facilitate their transport into the cytoplasm and nucleus of targeted cells. The selective high affinity ligand (SHAL) (DvLPBaPPP)2LLDo, which was developed to bind only to cells expressing HLA-DR10, has been conjugated to one of these peptide transduction domains, hexa-arginine, to assess the impact of the peptide on SHAL uptake and internalization by Raji cells, a B-cell lymphoma.
An analog of the SHAL (DvLPBaPPP)2LLDo containing a hexa-arginine peptide was created by adding six D-arginine residues sequentially to a lysine inserted in the SHAL's linker. SHAL binding, internalization and residualization by Raji cells expressing HLA-DR10 were examined using whole cell binding assays and confocal microscopy. Raji cells were observed to bind two fold more 111In-labeled hexa-arginine SHAL analog than Raji cells treated with the parent SHAL. Three fold more hexa-arginine SHAL remained associated with the Raji cells after washing, suggesting that the peptide also enhanced residualization of the 111In transported into cells. Confocal microscopy showed both SHALs localized in the cytoplasm of Raji cells, whereas a fraction of the hexa-arginine SHAL localized in the nucleus.
The incorporation of a hexa-D-arginine peptide into the linker of the SHAL (DvLPBaPPP)2LLDo enhanced both the uptake and residualization of the SHAL analog by Raji cells. In contrast to the abundant cell surface binding observed with Lym-1 antibody, the majority of (DvLPBaPPP)2LArg6AcLLDo and the parent SHAL were internalized. Some of the internalized hexa-arginine SHAL analog was also associated with the nucleus. These results demonstrate that several important SHAL properties, including uptake, internalization, retention and possibly intracellular distribution, can be enhanced or modified by conjugating the SHALs to a short polypeptide.
Molecular Cancer 05/2009; 8:25. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like rituximab, monoclonal antibodies reactive with human leukocyte antigen have potent antilymphoma activity. However, size limits their vascular and tissue penetration. To mimic monoclonal antibody binding, nanomolecules have been synthesized, shown specific for the beta subunit of HLA-DR10, and selective for cells expressing this protein. Selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) containing the 3-(2-([3-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy)-anilino)-3-oxopropanionic acid (Ct) ligand residualized and had antilymphoma activity against expressing cells. Herein, we show the extraordinary potency in mice with human lymphoma xenografts of a tridentate SHAL containing this ligand. After titrating antilymphoma activity in cell culture, a randomized preclinical study of a tridentate SHAL containing the Ct ligand was conducted in mice with established and aggressive human lymphoma xenografts. Mice having HLA-DR10 expressing Raji B- or Jurkat's T-lymphoma xenografts were randomly assigned to receive either treatment with SHAL at a dose of 100 ng i.p. weekly for 3 consecutive weeks, or to be untreated. Primary end-points were cure, overall response rates and survival. Toxicity was also evaluated in these mice, and a USFDA general safety study was conducted in healthy Balb/c mice. In Raji cell culture, the threshold and IC50 concentrations for cytotoxic activity were 0.7 and 2.5 nmol (pm/ml media), respectively. When compared to treated Jurkat's xenografts or untreated xenografts, Raji xenografts treated with the SHAL showed an 85% reduction in hazard of death (P=0.014; 95% confidence interval 32-95% reduction). There was no evidence for toxicity even after i.p. doses 2000 times greater than the treatment dose associated with cure of a majority of the mice with Raji xenografts. When compared with control groups, treatment selectively improved response rates and survival in mice with HLA-DR10 expressing human lymphoma xenografts at doses not associated with adverse events and readily achievable in patients.
International Journal of Oncology 03/2009; 34(2):511-6. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promise of hyperthermia has yet to be realized, but the fundamental idea and the effects of heat on (cancer) cells are well known. Cell death from exposure to heat is a function of both the intensity of the heat and the length of the exposure. Cells die by necrosis and by apoptosis. Sublethal heat doses sensitize cancer cells to radiation and drugs. Because of advances in chemistry and physics, harnessing the power of heat to kill cancer cells seems achievable now! Using novel systems embodied in the combination of molecular-targeted nanoparticles and hysteretic heating of the nanoparticles with "focused" alternating magnetic frequencies (AMFs), heat delivery can be better controlled. Importantly, hyperthermia does not damage, and may actually enhance, the immune system. Trials in patients are needed to settle the clinical role of new thermal treatment.
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 12/2008; 23(6):671-80. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To mimic the molecular specificity and cell selectivity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding while decreasing size, nanomolecules (selective high-affinity ligands; SHALs), based on in silico modeling, have been created to bind to human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR10), a signaling receptor protein upregulated on the malignant B-lymphocytes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SHALs were synthesized with a biotin or DOTA chelate (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid), using a solid-phase lysine-polyethyleneglycol backbone to link sets of ligands shown previously to bind to HLA-DR10. Using cell-binding and death assays and confocal microscopy, SHAL uptake, residualization, and cytocidal activity were evaluated in HLA-DR10 expressing and nonexpressing live, human lymphoma cell lines. All of the SHALs tested were selective for, and accumulated in, expressing cells. Reflecting binding to HLA-DR10 inside the cells, SHALs having the Ct ligand (3-(2-([3-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy)-anilino)-3-oxopropanionic acid) residualized in expressing cells greater than 179 times more than accountable by cell-surface membrane HLA-DR10. Confocal microscopy confirmed the intracellular residualization of these SHALs. Importantly, SHALs with a Ct ligand had direct cytocidal activity, similar in potency to that of Lym-1 mAb and rituximab, selectively for HLA-DR10 expressing lymphoma cells and xenografts. The results show that SHALs containing the Ct ligand residualize intracellularly and have cytocidal effects mediated by HLA-DR10. These SHALs have extraordinary potential as novel molecules for the selective targeting of lymphoma and leukemia for molecular therapy and imaging. Further, these SHALs can be used to transport and residualize cytotoxic agents near critical sites inside these malignant cells.
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 12/2008; 23(6):783-96. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a method for selectively delivering radionuclides to cancer cells while reducing the radiation dose to normal tissues. However, because of slow clearance of MAbs, normal tissues also received radiotoxicity. One of the promising strategies is linking on-demand cleavable (ODC) peptides between radiometal chelates and the tumor targeting agents. We have tested this proof-of-concept by using ODC peptides that are designed to be cleaved only by TNKase and are resistant to cleavage by enzymes present in the plasma and the tumor. TNKase-specific peptide linkers using l- and d-amino acids were screened by OBOC combinatorial peptide libraries. One of the best peptides was linked to radiometal chelate and ChL6-MAb to prepare radioimmunoconjugate (RIC). Optimization and characterization of the linker conjugation to MAb show (a) 1-2 peptides linked to each MAb; (b) immunoreactivity >80%; (c) specific activity of the RIC 0.7-1 microCi/microg; (d) RIC stable over 7 days in human plasma; and (e) radiometal-chelated ODC peptide cleaved from the RIC in plasma by TNKase at clinical dose levels of 10 microg/ml. The percent release of radiochelate from RIC was 50% at 24h and 85% over 7 2h in vitro. This novel ODC-linked RIC could be a potential molecule for RIT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: dvances in imaging technology have made it possible to view molecular pathways within living individuals as never before. However, molecular imaging and therapy have existed for more than a half-century and are based on long-established concepts and methods (see sug- gested references for support for statements made in this commentary).Asmoleculartechniquescometotheforefront in medicine, it has become clear that, just as a diversity of scientists is required to advance basic knowledge in thefield, we will need physicians from multiple disciplines, cross- disciplinary training, and a commitment to cooperative ex- ploration if the potential of molecular imaging therapy is to be fulfilled. In the middle of the last century, scientists capitalized on tracer methodologies using radionuclides to investigate disease. These scientists had a variety of academic back- grounds,andthosewithmedicaldegreeswerefromarangeof disciplines, including pathology, surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, and radiology (which included radiotherapy). They shared a common passion to understand health and disease, an understanding of the new field of radionuclide technology, and the access and ability to work with tracer technologies. Recognizing that medical technology should influence patient care, they developed therapeutic and diagnostic methods, some of which continue to be useful today (although often improved by better technology). To share information, small gatherings were organized. ThesemeetingsledtoformalizationoftheSocietyofNuclear Medicine (SNM), with its first meeting in 1953 and first journal in 1961. SNM and The Journal of Nuclear Medicine became international vehicles for communication of scien- tific developments in the field. Twenty years later, a remark- able group of individuals identified the need to formalize a medical discipline around clinical and research procedures based on the use of radionuclides for molecular applications. The proposal was met with enthusiasm by organized medicine. Formal support for a new specialty board in nuclearmedicineinitiallycamefromtheAmericanBoardsof Internal Medicine (ABIM), Radiology (ABR), and Pathol- ogy (ABP) and from SNM. Belated opposition from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and ABR led the American Board of Medical Specialties to approve a com- promise: a conjoint board, the American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM), cosponsored by ABIM, ABR, ABP, and SNM. Each of these cosponsoring organizations would appoint 3 individuals to the ABNM board of directors. The initial board, appointed in 1971, included Joseph Kriss, MD, Richard Peterson, MD, and Joseph Ross, MD, from ABIM;
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2008; 49(9):40N-42N, 44N. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytocidal potency of a molecule can be augmented by conjugating a radionuclide for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy (MTRT) for cancer. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) should be incorporated into the management of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) soon after the patients have proven incurable. Better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem certain to make RIT integral to the management of patients with NHL and likely to lead to a cure of the currently incurable NHL. These improved drugs, strategies, and combinations thereof also offer opportunities for RIT to become part of the management of solid malignancies, including epithelial cancers. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as those used for pretargeted strategies, provide dose intensification. The potential of pretargeted RIT to improve patient outcomes is striking.
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 09/2008; 23(4):383-97. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.
Medical Physics 08/2008; 35(7):3062-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dextran and PEG-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NP), when suitably modified to enable conjugation with molecular targeting agents, provide opportunities to target cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies, scFv, and peptides conjugated to 20 nm NP have been reported to target cancer for imaging and alternating magnetic field (AMF) therapy. The physical characteristics of NPs can affect their in vivo performance. Surface morphology, surface charge density, and particle size are considered important factors that determine pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and biodistribution. New NanoFerrite (NF) particles having improved specific AMF absorption rates and diameters of 30 and 100 nm were studied to evaluate the variation in their in vitro and in vivo characteristics in comparison to the previously studied 20 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) NP. SPIO NP 20 nm and NF NP 30 and 100 nm were conjugated to (111)In-DOTA-ChL6, a radioimmunoconjugate. Radioimmunoconjugates were conjugated to NPs using 25 microg of RIC/mg of NP by carbodiimide chemistry. The radioimmunonanoparticles (RINP) were purified and characterized by PAGE, cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE), live cell binding assays, and pharmacokinetics in athymic mice bearing human breast cancer (HBT 3477) xenografts. RINP (2.2 mg) were injected iv and whole body; blood and tissue data were collected at 4, 24, and 48 h. The preparations used for animal study were >90% monomeric by PAGE and CAE. The immunoreactivity of the RINP was 40-60% compared to (111)In-ChL6. Specific activities of the doses were 20-25 microCi/2.2 mg and 6-11 microg of mAb/2.2 mg of NP. Mean tumor uptakes (% ID/g +/- SD) of each SPIO 20 nm, NF 30 nm, and 100 nm RINP at 48 h were 9.00 +/- 0.8 (20 nm), 3.0 +/- 0.3 (30 nm), and 4.5 +/- 0.8 (100 nm), respectively; the ranges of tissue uptakes were liver (16-32 +/- 1-8), kidney (7.0-15 +/- 1), spleen (8-17 +/- 3-8), lymph nodes 5-6 +/- 1-2), and lung (2.0-4 +/- 0.1-2). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that 100 nm NF NP could be conjugated to (111)In-mAb so that the resulting RINP had characteristics suitable for AMF therapy. Although 100 nm RINP targeted tumor less than 20 nm SPIO RINP, their heating capacity is typically 6 times greater, suggesting the 100 nm NF RINP could still deliver better therapy with AMF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently there is no satisfactory treatment for metastatic melanoma. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the antigen-antibody interaction to deliver lethal radiation to target cells. Recently we established the feasibility of targeting melanin in tumors with 188-Rhenium ((188)Re)-labeled 6D2 mAb to melanin. Here we carried out pre-clinical development of (188)Re-6D2 to accrue information necessary for a Phase I trial in patients with metastatic melanoma.
TCEP proved to be effective in generating a sufficient number of -SH groups on 6D2 to ensure high radiolabeling yields with (188)Re and preserved its structural integrity. (188)Re-6D2 was quickly cleared from the blood with the half-life of approximately 5 hrs and from the body--with the half-life of 10 hr. The doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mCi significantly (p < 0.05) slowed down A2058 tumor growth in nude mice, also causing release of melanin into the extracellular space which could provide additional target for repeated treatments. Transient effects of RIT on WBC and platelet counts resolved by Day 14 post-treatment.
Tris(2-Carboxyethyl) Phosphine Hydrochloride (TCEP) was evaluated as potential agent for generation of -SH groups on 6D2 mAb. TCEP-treated 6D2 mAb was radiolabeled with (188)Re and its radiochemical purity and stability was measured by ITLC and HPLC and its immunoreactivity--by melanin-binding ELISA. The pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and acute hematologic toxicity studies were performed in nude mice bearing lightly pigmented A2058 human metastatic melanoma tumors.
We have developed radiolabeling and quality control procedures for melanin-binding (188)Re-6D2 mAb which made possible currently an on-going Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Cancer biology & therapy 05/2008; 7(7):1116-27. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle thermotherapy (NPTT) uses monoclonal antibody-linked iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (bioprobes) for the tumor-specific thermotherapy of cancer by hysteretic heating of the magnetic component of the probes through an externally applied alternating magnetic field (AMF). The present study investigated the effect of NPTT on a human prostate cancer cell line, DU145. The concept of total heat dose (THD) as a measure for NPTT was validated on a cellular level and THD was correlated to cell death in vitro. The study, furthermore, explored the potential enhancement of the NPTT effect through added external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), because both forms of treatment have a different, and potentially complementary, mechanism of causing cell death.
Using carbodiimide, (111)In-DOTA-ChL6 was conjugated to dextran iron oxide 20-nm particles with polyethylene glycol COOH groups on the surface and purified as (111)In-bioprobes. NPTT and EBRT were applied alone and combined to cells labeled with the bioprobes. Cell response was monitored by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a product of cytolysis, in the medium. This distinct focus on the response to NPTT was possible, since we found in previous studies that the LDH assay was relatively insensitive to the response of cells (without bioprobes) to EBRT in the dose levels given here.
NPTT showed a significantly increased cell death at a total calculated heat dose of 14.51 and 29.02 J/g cells (50% and 100% AMF duty, 350 Oe, 136 kHz, 12 cycles, 20 minutes total), compared with AMF exposure in the absence of bioprobes. Adding EBRT to NPTT did not increase cell death, as measured by LDH. However, EBRT given to cells labeled with bioprobes caused significant cell death at radiation doses of 10 Gy and higher.
In human prostate cancer cell cultures, NPTT applied as a single modality caused cell death that correlated with THD estimation; complete cell death occurred at 14.51 J/g cells. Consequently, enhancement of the NPTT effect through the addition of EBRT could not be addressed. Interestingly, EBRT induced cell death on bioprobe-labeled cells at EBRT levels that did not show cell death in the absence of bioprobes; this phenomenon is worth investigating further.
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 05/2008; 23(2):265-71. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noninvasive, focused hyperthermia can be achieved by using an externally applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) if effective concentrations of nanoparticles can be delivered to the target cancer cells. Targeting agents, for example, monoclonal antibodies or peptides, linked to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP), represent a promising strategy to target cancer cells and hyperthermia.
We have developed a new radioconjugate NP ((111)In-DOTA-di-scFv-NP), using recombinantly generated antibody fragments, di-scFv-c, for the imaging and therapy of anti-MUC-1-expressing cancers, because aberrant MUC-1 is abundantly expressed on the majority of human epithelial cancers. Anti-MUC-1 di-scFv-c (50 kDa) were engineered, generated, and selected to link maleimide functionalized nanoparticles (NP-M). DOTA chelate was conjugated with di-scFv-c for radionuclide chelation to trace the radioimmunonanoparticles (RINPs) in vivo.
Heat-inducing NP-M were prepared with maleimide density >15 per particle for site-specific thiolation. The specific activity of the RINP was 4-5 microCi (111)In/mg with >10 molecules of di-scFv per NP. We characterized the RINP by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography, and tumor-cell binding. RINP had a >90% di-scFv conjugated to NP and an immunoreactivity >80% relative to unmodified di-scFv-c on HBT 3477 and DU145 tumor cells. Pharmacokinetics and whole-body autoradiography studies demonstrated that a 5% injected dose was targeted in tumor after 24 hours.
Further development of this new preparation of RINP may provide uniquely high tumor-targeting NP for AMF-driven tumor hyperthermia with less spleen and kidney accumulation.
Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 02/2008; 23(1):82-91. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising approach to increase the therapeutic index of RIT for malignant solid tumors. For pretargeted RIT of epithelial cancers, such as breast and prostate, mucin 1 (MUC1), the epithelial mucin, was chosen as a target antigen (Ag). Overexpression, hypoglycosylation and loss of apical distribution on the cellular membrane distinguish the tumor associated MUC1 from normal MUC1. These characteristics of MUC1, best known in breast cancer, were validated in prostate cancer. The multivalent bispecific MUC1 pretargeting molecule under development consists of a tumor binding module and a radioactive hapten capturing module. The building blocks of each module were chosen as single chain antibody fragments (scFv) to be covalently attached to a multifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) scaffold. PEGylation studies with scFvs selected from anti-MUC1 libraries and engineered with a free thiol for site-specific conjugation showed that highest reaction yields were obtained with short monofunctional PEG molecules. To accommodate the use of a bifunctional PEG for covalent assembly of binding and capturing modules, the MUC1 binding module was developed into a di-scFv-SH format and optimized for linker length and location of the free thiol in respect to Ag binding and site-specific conjugation. Approaches under study to improve PEGylation yields with bifunctional PEG molecules include alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Assembly efficiencies, through PEGylation, of the binding and capturing modules and pharmacokinetics will influence the final valency of the MUC1 pretargeting molecule: anti-MUC1 di-scFv-PEG- anti-radioactive hapten scFv or di-scFv-PEG-anti-radioactive hapten di-scFv.
The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of... 01/2008; 51(4):304-13. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their large size, antibodies have proven to be suitable radioisotope carriers to deliver systemic radiotherapy, often molecular image-based, for lymphoma and leukemia. To mimic antibody (Ab) targeting behavior while decreasing size by 50-100x, a combination of computational and experimental methods were used to generate molecules that bind to unique sites within the HLA-DR epitopic region of Lym-1, an Ab shown effective in patients. Lym-1 Ab mimics (synthetic high afinity ligands; SHALs) were generated and studied in vitro, using live cell binding assays, and/or pharmacokinetic studies over 24 h in xenografted mice given 1 or 20 microg SHAL doses i.v. Multimilligram amounts of each of the dimeric (bis) SHALs were synthesized at high purity, and labeled with indium-111 at high specific activity and purity. These SHALs were selective for HLA-DR and HLA-DR expressing malignant cells and had functional affinities that ranged from 10(-9) M (nanomolar) to 10(-10) M. Blood clearances ranged from 3.6 to 9.5 h and body clearances ranged from 15.2 to 43.0 h for the 6 bis DOTA-SHALs studied in a mouse model for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). While localization was shown in Raji NHL xenografts, biodistribution was influenced by 'sinks' for individual ligands of the SHALs. Highly pure, dimeric mimics for HLA-DR Ab were synthesized, biotinylated and radiolabeled, and showed selectivity in vitro. Pharmacokinetic behavior in mice was influenced by the ligands and by the linker length of the dimeric SHALs. Nanomolar or better functional affinity was observed when a suitably long linker was used to connect the two bidentate SHALs. The concept and methodology are of interest because applicable for targeting most proteins; the SHAL synthetic platform is highly efficient and adaptive.
International Journal of Oncology 11/2007; 31(4):729-40. · 2.66 Impact Factor