Kalliopi Petraki

Victoria University Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (17)46.19 Total impact

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    Benedict von Harling, Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV. We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 139 TeV for dark matter consisting of Dirac fermions.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. Here we instead examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2 <-> 2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1 <-> 2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.
    07/2014;
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    Kalliopi Petraki, Lauren Pearce, Alexander Kusenko
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    ABSTRACT: Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds. We discuss the interplay between these bounds, the DM self-interaction in haloes and the requirement for efficient DM annihilation in the early universe.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 03/2014; 2014(07). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Kalliopi Petraki, Raymond R. Volkas
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    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric dark matter models are based on the hypothesis that the present-day abundance of dark matter has the same origin as the abundance of ordinary or visible matter: an asymmetry in the number densities of particles and antiparticles. They are largely motivated by the observed similarity in the mass densities of dark and visible matter, with the former observed to be about five times the latter. This review discusses the construction of asymmetric dark matter models, summarizes cosmological and astrophysical implications and bounds, and touches on direct detection prospects and collider signatures.
    International Journal of Modern Physics A 05/2013; 28(19). · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inverse seesaw mechanism allows the neutrino masses to be generated by new physics at an experimentally accessible scale, even with O(1) Yukawa couplings. In the inverse seesaw scenario, the smallness of neutrino masses is linked to the smallness of a lepton number violating parameter. This parameter may arise radiatively. In this paper, we study the cosmological implications of two contrasting radiative inverse seesaw models, one due to Ma and the other to Law and McDonald. The former features spontaneous, the latter explicit lepton number violation. First, we examine the effect of the lepton-number violating interactions introduced in these models on the baryon asymmetry of the universe. We investigate under what conditions a pre-existing baryon asymmetry does not get washed out. While both models allow a baryon asymmetry to survive only once the temperature has dropped below the mass of their heaviest fields, the Ma model can create the baryon asymmetry through resonant leptogenesis. Then we investigate the viability of the dark matter candidates arising within these models, and explore the prospects for direct detection. We find that the Law/McDonald model allows a simple dark matter scenario similar to the Higgs portal, while in the Ma model the simplest cold dark matter scenario would tend to overclose the universe.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 04/2013; 2013(07). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Nicole F. Bell, Andrew Melatos, Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: It has been argued that the existence of old neutron stars excludes the possibility of non-annihilating light bosonic dark matter, such as that arising in asymmetric dark matter scenarios. If non-annihilating dark matter is captured by neutron stars, the density will eventually become sufficient for black hole formation. However, the dynamics of collapse is highly sensitive to dark-matter self-interactions. Repulsive self-interactions, even if extremely weak, can prevent black hole formation. We argue that self-interactions will necessarily be present, and estimate their strength in representative models. We also consider co-annihilation of dark matter with nucleons, which arises naturally in many asymmetric dark matter models, and which again acts to prevent black hole formation. We demonstrate how the excluded region of the dark-matter parameter space shrinks as the strength of such interactions is increased, and conclude that neutron star observations do not exclude most realistic bosonic asymmetric dark matter models.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 01/2013; 87(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Pangenesis is the mechanism for jointly producing the visible and dark matter asymmetries via Affleck-Dine dynamics in a baryon-symmetric universe. The baryon-symmetric feature means that the dark asymmetry cancels the visible baryon asymmetry and thus enforces a tight relationship between the visible and dark matter number densities. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the general dynamics of this scenario in more detail and to construct specific models. After reviewing the simple symmetry structure that underpins all baryon-symmetric models, we turn to a detailed analysis of the required Affleck-Dine dynamics. Both gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking are considered, with the messenger scale left arbitrary in the latter, and the viable regions of parameter space are determined. In the gauge-mediated case where gravitinos are light and stable, the regime where they constitute a small fraction of the dark matter density is identified. We discuss the formation of Q-balls, and delineate various regimes in the parameter space of the Affleck-Dine potential with respect to their stability or lifetime and their decay modes. We outline the regions in which Q-ball formation and decay is consistent with successful pangenesis. Examples of viable dark sectors are presented, and constraints are derived from big bang nucleosynthesis, large scale structure formation and the Bullet cluster. Collider signatures and implications for direct dark matter detection experiments are briefly discussed. The following would constitute evidence for pangenesis: supersymmetry, GeV-scale dark matter mass(es) and a Z' boson with a significant invisible width into the dark sector.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 01/2012; 2012(05). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Kalliopi Petraki, Mark Trodden, Raymond R. Volkas
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    ABSTRACT: The similar cosmological abundances observed for visible and dark matter suggest a common origin for both. By viewing the dark matter density as a dark-sector asymmetry, mirroring the situation in the visible sector, we show that the visible and dark matter asymmetries may have arisen simultaneously through a first-order phase transition in the early universe. The dark asymmetry can then be equal and opposite to the usual visible matter asymmetry, leading to a universe that is symmetric with respect to a generalised baryon number. We present both a general structure, and a precisely defined example of a viable model of this type. In that example, the dark matter is atomic as well as asymmetric, and various cosmological and astrophysical constraints are derived. Testable consequences for colliders include a Z' boson that couples through the B-L charge to the visible sector, but also decays invisibly to dark sector particles. The additional scalar particles in the theory can mix with the standard Higgs boson and provide other striking signatures.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 11/2011; 2012(02). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The similarity of the visible and dark matter abundances indicates that they may originate via the same mechanism. If both the dark and the visible matter are charged under a generalized baryon number which remains always conserved, then the asymmetry of the visible sector may be compensated by an asymmetry in the dark sector. We show how the separation of baryonic and antibaryonic charge can originate in the vacuum, via the Affleck-Dine mechanism, due to the breaking of a symmetry orthogonal to the baryon number. Symmetry restoration in the current epoch guarantees the individual stability of the two sectors.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 05/2011; 84.
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    Nicole F. Bell, Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: We calculate the neutrino signal resulting from annihilation of secluded dark matter in the Sun. In this class of models, dark matter annihilates first into metastable mediators, which subsequently decay into Standard Model particles. If the mediators are long lived, they will propagate out from the dense solar core before decaying. High energy neutrinos undergo absorption in the Sun. In the standard scenario in which neutrinos are produced directly in the centre of the Sun, absorption is relevant for E > 100 GeV, resulting in a significant suppression of the neutrino spectrum beyond E ~ 1 TeV. In the secluded dark matter scenario, the neutrino signal is greatly enhanced because neutrinos are injected away from the core, at lower density. Since the solar density falls exponentially with radius, metastable mediators have a significant effect on the neutrino flux, even for decay lengths which are small compared to the solar radius. Moreover, since neutrino detection cross sections grow with energy, this enhancement of the high energy region of the neutrino spectrum would have a large effect on overall event rates.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 02/2011; 4(04). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Ian M. Shoemaker, Kalliopi Petraki, Alexander Kusenko
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    ABSTRACT: Sterile neutrinos have been invoked to explain the observed neutrino masses, but they can also have significant implications for cosmology and accelerator experiments. We explore the collider signatures of a simple extension of the Standard Model, where sterile neutrinos acquire their mass after electroweak symmetry breaking, via their coupling to a real singlet Higgs. In this model, heavy sterile neutrinos can be produced in accelerators from decays of the Higgs bosons. Their own decay can yield distinct signals, suggesting both the presence of an extended Higgs sector and the coupling of the singlet fermions to the latter. In the same scenario, a relic matter abundance arises from the decay of the singlet Higgs into weakly coupled keV sterile neutrinos. The coupling of the Higgs doublet to particles outside the Standard Model relaxes the current experimental bounds on its mass. Comment: v2: JHEP accepted version, 19 pages, 9 figures
    Journal of High Energy Physics 06/2010; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    Nicole F. Bell, Ahmad J. Galea, Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a class of late-decaying dark-matter models, in which a dark matter particle decays to a heavy stable daughter of approximately the same mass, together with one or more relativistic particles which carry away only a small fraction of the parent rest mass. Such decays can affect galactic halo structure and evolution, and have been invoked as a remedy to some of the small scale structure-formation problems of cold dark matter. There are existing stringent limits on the dark matter lifetime if the decays produce photons. By considering examples in which the relativistic decay products instead consist of neutrinos or electron-position pairs, we derive stringent limits on these scenarios for a wide range of dark matter masses. We thus eliminate a sizable portion of the parameter space for these late decay models if the dominant decay channel involves Standard Model final states.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 04/2010; 82(2).
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    Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of neutrino masses implies the existence of new particles, the sterile neutrinos. These particles can have important implications for cosmology and astrophysics. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for the dark matter of the universe. Its relic abundance can be produced via different mechanisms. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge-singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce relic keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. This mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. The resulting dark matter is "colder" than the one produced via oscillations. This property changes the small-scale structure formation limits. Heavier sterile neutrinos can be produced in supernova cores and affect the thermal evolution of the star. Being short-lived, they decay inside the envelope and facilitate the energy transport from the core to the vicinity of the supernova shock. This enhances the probability for a successful explosion. Comment: 8 pages, to appear in ASP conference Series (SnowPAC 2009 Proceedings)
    06/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the effect on the evolution of the early universe and on the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) process of massive sterile neutrinos (rest masses
    10/2008;
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    George M. Fuller, Alexander Kusenko, Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: We consider sterile neutrinos with rest masses ~0.2 GeV. Such sterile neutrinos could augment core collapse supernova shock energies by enhancing energy transport from the core to the vicinity of the shock front. The decay of these neutrinos could produce a flux of very energetic active neutrinos, detectable by future neutrino observations from a galactic supernova. The relevant range of sterile neutrino masses and mixing angles can be probed in future laboratory experiments. Comment: 5 pages
    Physics Letters B 06/2008; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    Kalliopi Petraki
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    ABSTRACT: We calculate the free-streaming length and the phase space density of dark-matter sterile neutrinos produced from decays, at the electroweak scale, of a gauge singlet in the Higgs sector. These quantities, which depend on the dark-matter production mechanism, are relevant to the study of small-scale structure formation and may be used to constrain or rule out dark-matter candidates.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 02/2008;
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    Kalliopi Petraki, Alexander Kusenko
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    ABSTRACT: Sterile neutrino with mass of several keV can be the cosmological dark matter, can explain the observed velocities of pulsars, and can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. We describe the production of sterile neutrinos in a model with an extended Higgs sector, in which the Majorana mass term is generated by the vacuum expectation value of a gauge-singlet Higgs boson. In this model the relic abundance of sterile neutrinos does not necessarily depend on their mixing angles, the free-streaming length can be much smaller than in the case of warm dark matter produced by neutrino oscillations, and, therefore, some of the previously quoted bounds do not apply. The presence of the gauge singlet in the Higgs sector has important implications for the electroweak phase transition, baryogenesis, and the upcoming experiments at the Large Hadron Collider and a Linear Collider.
    Physical Review D 12/2007; · 4.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

258 Citations
46.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011
    • University of Melbourne
      • School of Physics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007–2008
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, California, United States