P. Beirao

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (19)98.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The [CII] 157.74 $\mu$m transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [CII] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [CII] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGN). The uncertainty of the $\Sigma_{\rm [CII]}-\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ calibration is $\pm$0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted $\Sigma_{\rm[CII]}-\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ correlation is valid over almost 5 orders of magnitude in $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [CII] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [CII] finds that heating efficiencies are $1\%-3\%$ in normal galaxies.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: NGC 2146, a nearby luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), presents evidence for outflows along the disk minor axis in all gas phases (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular). We present an analysis of the multi-phase starburst driven superwind in the central 5 kpc as traced in spatially resolved spectral line observations, using far-IR Herschel PACS spectroscopy, to probe the effects on the atomic and ionized gas, and optical integral field spectroscopy to examine the ionized gas through diagnostic line ratios. We observe an increased ~250 km/s velocity dispersion in the [OI] 63 micron, [OIII] 88 micron, [NII] 122 micron and [CII] 158 micron fine-structure lines that is spatially coincident with high excitation gas above and below the disk. We model this with a slow ~200 km/s shock and trace the superwind to the edge of our field of view 2.5 kpc above the disk. We present new SOFIA 37 micron observations to explore the warm dust distribution, and detect no clear dust entrainment in the outflow. The stellar kinematics appear decoupled from the regular disk rotation seen in all gas phases, consistent with a recent merger event disrupting the system. We consider the role of the superwind in the evolution of NGC 2146 and speculate on the evolutionary future of the system. Our observations of NGC 2146 in the far-IR allow an unobscured view of the wind, crucial for tracing the superwind to the launching region at the disk center, and provide a local analog for future ALMA observations of outflows in high redshift systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 790(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the far infrared spectrum of NGC 1266, a S0 galaxy that contains a massive reservoir of highly excited molecular gas. Using the SPIRE-FTS, we detect the $^{12}$CO ladder up to J=(13-12), [C I] and [N II] lines, and also strong water lines more characteristic of UltraLuminous IR Galaxies (ULIRGs). The 12CO line emission is modeled with a combination of a low-velocity C-shock and a PDR. Shocks are required to produce the H2O and most of the high-J 12CO emission. Despite having an infrared luminosity thirty times less than a typical ULIRG, the spectral characteristics and physical conditions of the ISM of NGC 1266 closely resemble those of ULIRGs, which often harbor strong shocks and large-scale outflows.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2013; 779(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metal content of a galaxy is a key property for distinguishing between viable galaxy evolutionary scenarios, and it strongly influences many of the physical processes in the interstellar medium. An absolute and robust determination of extragalactic metallicities is essential in constraining models of chemical enrichment and chemical evolution, however, current gas phase abundance determinations from optical fine-structure lines are uncertain to 0.8 dex as conversion of these optical line fluxes to abundances is strongly dependent on the electron temperature of the ionized gas. In contrast, the far-IR emission lines can be used to derive an O++ abundance that is relatively insensitive to temperature, while the ratio of the optical to far-IR lines provides a consistent temperature to be used in the derivation of an O$^+$ abundance. We present observations of the [O III] 88 \micron\ fine-structure line in NGC 628 that were obtained as part of the KINGFISH program. These data are combined with optical IFU data to derive oxygen abundances for seven HII regions. We find the abundance of these regions to all lie between the high and low values of strong line calibrations and in agreement with estimates that assume temperature fluctuations are present in the HII regions.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 777(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far infrared (FIR) [CII]158um and [OI]63um lines and mid-infrared H2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS, and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158um+[OI]63um)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7um PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158{\mu}m/PAH(5.5 - 14um) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158um and [OI]63um emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. SED modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G0 ~ 10^2.3 and nH ~ 10^3.5 cm^-3 in the ring. For these values of G0 and nH PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H2 emission. Much of the the H2 emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse ISM that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 751(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physical state of interstellar gas and dust is dependent on the processes which heat and cool this medium. To probe heating and cooling of the interstellar medium over a large range of infrared surface brightness, on sub-kiloparsec scales, we employ line maps of [C II] 158 μm, [O I] 63 μm, and [N II] 122 μm in NGC 1097 and NGC 4559, obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer on board Herschel. We matched new observations to existing Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data that trace the total emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We confirm at small scales in these galaxies that the canonical measure of photoelectric heating efficiency, ([C II] + [O I])/TIR, decreases as the far-infrared (far-IR) color, νf ν(70 μm) νf ν(100 μm), increases. In contrast, the ratio of far-IR cooling to total PAH emission, ([C II] + [O I])/PAH, is a near constant ~6% over a wide range of far-IR color, 0.5 < νf ν(70 μm) νf ν(100 μm) 0.95. In the warmest regions, where νf ν(70 μm) νf ν(100 μm) 0.95, the ratio ([C II] + [O I])/PAH drops rapidly to 4%. We derived representative values of the local ultraviolet radiation density, G 0, and the gas density, n H, by comparing our observations to models of photodissociation regions. The ratio G 0/n H, derived from fine-structure lines, is found to correlate with the mean dust-weighted starlight intensity, U, derived from models of the IR spectral energy distribution. Emission from regions that exhibit a line deficit is characterized by an intense radiation field, indicating that small grains are susceptible to ionization effects. We note that there is a shift in the 7.7/11.3 μm PAH ratio in regions that exhibit a deficit in ([C II] + [O I])/PAH, suggesting that small grains are ionized in these environments.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 747(1):81. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New far-infrared and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500 μm emission shows evidence for a submillimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photodissociation regions is found to be (21 ± 4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine & Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust temperatures inherent to any galaxy. The discrepancy is largest for galaxies exhibiting the coolest far-infrared colors.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 745(1):95. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The KINGFISH project (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) is an imaging and spectroscopic survey of 61 nearby (d < 30 Mpc) galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of galaxy properties and local interstellar medium (ISM) environments found in the nearby Universe. Its broad goals are to characterize the ISM of present-day galaxies, the heating and cooling of their gaseous and dust components, and to better understand the physical processes linking star formation and the ISM. KINGFISH is a direct descendant of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), which produced complete Spitzer imaging and spectroscopic mapping and a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength ancillary observations for the sample. The Herschel imaging consists of complete maps for the galaxies at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 microns. The spectal line imaging of the principal atomic ISM cooling lines ([OI]63um, [OIII]88um, [NII]122,205um, and [CII]158um) covers the subregions in the centers and disks that already have been mapped in the mid-infrared with Spitzer. The KINGFISH and SINGS multi-wavelength datasets combined provide panchromatic mapping of the galaxies sufficient to resolve individual star-forming regions, and tracing the important heating and cooling channels of the ISM, across a wide range of local extragalactic ISM environments. This paper summarizes the scientific strategy for KINGFISH, the properties of the galaxy sample, the observing strategy, and data processing and products. It also presents a combined Spitzer and Herschel image atlas for the KINGFISH galaxies, covering the wavelength range 3.6 -- 500 microns. All imaging and spectroscopy data products will be released to the Herschel user generated product archives.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 11/2011; 123(910). · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have mapped the key mid-IR diagnostics in eight major merger systems of the Toomre Sequence (NGC4676, NGC7592, NGC6621, NGC2623, NGC6240, NGC520, NGC3921, and NGC7252) using the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). With these maps, we explore the variation of the ionized-gas, PAH, and warm-gas (H_2) properties across the sequence and within the galaxies. While the global PAH interband strength and ionized gas flux ratios ([Ne III]/[Ne II]) are similar to those of normal star forming galaxies, the distribution of the spatially resolved PAH and fine structure line flux ratios is significant different from one system to the other. Rather than a constant H_2/PAH flux ratio, we find that the relation between the H_2 and PAH fluxes is characterized by a power law with a roughly constant exponent (0.61+/-0.05) over all merger components and spatial scales. While following the same power law on local scales, three galaxies have a factor of ten larger integrated (i.e. global) H_2/PAH flux ratio than the rest of the sample, even larger than what it is in most nearby AGNs. These findings suggest a common dominant excitation mechanism for H_2 emission over a large range of global H_2/PAH flux ratios in major mergers. Early merger systems show a different distribution between the cold (CO J=1-0) and warm (H_2) molecular gas component, which is likely due to the merger interaction. Strong evidence for buried star formation in the overlap region of the merging galaxies is found in two merger systems (NGC6621 and NGC7592) as seen in the PAH, [Ne II], [Ne III], and warm gas line emission, but with no apparent corresponding CO (J=1-0) emission. Our findings also demonstrate that the variations of the physical conditions within a merger are much larger than any systematic trends along the Toomre Sequence.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2011; 197(2). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abridged: Using free-free emission measured in the Ka-band (26-40GHz) for 10 star-forming regions in the nearby galaxy NGC6946, including its starbursting nucleus, we compare a number of SFR diagnostics that are typically considered to be unaffected by interstellar extinction: i.e., non-thermal radio (i.e., 1.4GHz), total infrared (IR; 8-1000um), and warm dust (i.e., 24um) emission, along with the hybrid (obscured + unobscured) indicators of H\alpha+24um and UV+IR. The 33GHz free-free emission is assumed to provide the most accurate measure of the current SFR. Among the extranuclear star-forming regions, the 24um, H\alpha+24um and UV+IR SFR calibrations are in good agreement with the 33GHz free-free SFRs. However, each of the SFR calibrations relying on some form of dust emission overestimate the nuclear SFR by a factor of ~2. This is more likely the result of excess dust heating through an accumulation of non-ionizing stars associated with an extended episode of star formation in the nucleus rather than increased competition for ionizing photons by dust. SFR calibrations using the non-thermal radio continuum yield values which only agree with the free-free SFRs for the nucleus, and underestimate the SFRs from the extranuclear star-forming regions by a factor of ~2. This result likely arises from the CR electrons decaying within the starburst region with negligible escape compared to the young extranuclear star-forming regions. Finally, we find that the SFRs estimated using the total 33GHz emission agree well with the free-free SFRs due to the large thermal fractions present at these frequencies even when local diffuse backgrounds are not removed. Thus, rest-frame 33GHz observations may act as a reliable method to measure the SFRs of galaxies at increasingly high redshift without the need of ancillary radio data to account for the non-thermal emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2011; 737(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of extended (~30 kpc^2) dust emission in the tidal \hi\ arm near NGC 3077 (member of the M\,81 triplet) using SPIRE on board Herschel. Dust emission in the tidal arm is typically detected where the \hi\ column densities are >10^21 cm^-2. The SPIRE band ratios show that the dust in the tidal arm is significantly colder (~13 K) than in NGC 3077 itself (~31 K), consistent with the lower radiation field in the tidal arm. The total dust mass in the tidal arm is ~1.8 x 10^6 M_sun (assuming beta=2), i.e. substantially larger than the dust mass associated with NGC 3077 (~2 x 10^5 M_sun). Where dust is detected, the dust-to-gas ratio is 6+/-3 x 10^-3, consistent within the uncertainties with what is found in NGC 3077 and nearby spiral galaxies with Galactic metallicities. The faint HII regions in the tidal arm can not be responsible for the detected enriched material and are not the main source of the dust heating in the tidal arm. We conclude that the interstellar medium (atomic HI, molecules and dust) in this tidal feature was pre-enriched and stripped off NGC 3077 during its recent interaction (~3 x 10^8 yr ago) with M 82 and M 81. This implies that interaction can efficiently remove heavy elements and enriched material (dust, molecular gas) from galaxies. As interactions were more frequent at large lookback times, it is conceivable that they could substantially contribute (along with galactic outflows) to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: NGC 1097 is a nearby SBb galaxy with a Seyfert nucleus and a bright starburst ring. We study the physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the ring using spatially resolved far-infrared spectral maps of the circumnuclear starburst ring of NGC 1097, obtained with the PACS spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. In particular, we map the important ISM cooling and diagnostic emission lines of [OI] 63 μm, [OIII] 88 μm, [NII] 122 μm, [CII] 158 μm and [NII] 205 μm. We observe that in the [OI] 63 μm, [OIII] 88 μm, and [NII] 122 μm line maps, the emission is enhanced in clumps along the NE part of the ring. We observe evidence of rapid rotation in the circumnuclear ring, with a rotation velocity of ~220 km s-1 (inclination uncorrected) measured in all lines. The [OI] 63 μm/[CII] 158 μm ratio varies smoothly throughout the central region, and is enhanced on the northeastern part of the ring, which may indicate a stronger radiation field. This enhancement coincides with peaks in the [OI] 63 μm and [OIII] 88 μm maps. Variations of the [NII] 122 μm/[NII] 205 μm ratio correspond to a range in the ionized gas density between 150 and 400 cm-3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar density and bar strength should affect the temperatures of the cool (T ~ 20-30 K) dust component in the inner regions of galaxies, which implies that the ratio of temperatures in the circumnuclear regions to the disk should depend on Hubble type. We investigate the differences between cool dust temperatures in the central 3 kpc and disk of 13 nearby galaxies by fitting models to measurements between 70 and 500 microns. We attempt to quantify temperature trends in nearby disk galaxies, with archival data from Spitzer/MIPS and new observations with Herschel/SPIRE, which were acquired during the first phases of the Herschel observations for the KINGFISH (key insights in nearby galaxies: a far-infrared survey with Herschel) sample. We fit single-temperature modified blackbodies to far-infrared and submillimeter measurements of the central and disk regions of galaxies to determine the temperature of the component(s) emitting at those wavelengths. We present the ratio of central-region-to-disk-temperatures of the cool dust component of 13 nearby galaxies as a function of morphological type. We find a significant temperature gradient in the cool dust component in all galaxies, with a mean center-to-disk temperature ratio of 1.15 +/- 0.03. The cool dust temperatures in the central ~3 kpc of nearby galaxies are 23(+/-3)% hotter for morphological types earlier than Sc, and only 9(+/-3)% hotter for later types. The temperature ratio is also correlated with bar strength, with only strongly barred galaxies having a ratio over 1.2. The strong radiation field in the high stellar density of a galactic bulge tends to heat the cool dust component to higher temperatures, at least in early-type spirals with relatively large bulges, especially when paired with a strong bar. Comment: Accepted for publication on the A&A Herschel Special Issue
    05/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new mid-infrared ($5 - 35\mu$m) and ultraviolet (1539 -- 2316 \AA) observations of the interacting galaxy system Arp 143 (NGC 2444/2445) from the Spitzer Space Telescope and GALEX. In this system, the central nucleus of NGC 2445 is surrounded by knots of massive star-formation in a ring-like structure. We find unusually strong emission from warm H$_2$ associated with an expanding shock wave between the nucleus and the western knots. At this ridge, the flux ratio between H$_2$ and PAH emission is nearly ten times higher than in the nucleus. Arp 143 is one of the most extreme cases known in that regard. From our multi-wavelength data we derive a narrow age range of the star-forming knots between 2 Myr and 7.5 Myr, suggesting that the ring of knots was formed almost simultaneously in response to the shock wave traced by the H$_2$ emission. However, the knots can be further subdivided in two age groups: those with an age of 2--4 Myr (knots A, C, E, and F), which are associated with $8\mu$m emission from PAHs, and those with an age of 7-8 Myr (knots D and G), which show little or no $8\mu$m emission shells surrounding them. We attribute this finding to an ageing effect of the massive clusters which, after about 6 Myr, no longer excite the PAHs surrounding the knots.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 693(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high spatial resolution (~ 35 parsec) 5-38 um spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths of key diagnostic features, such as the [NeII]12.8um, [NeIII]15.5um, and H_2 S(1)17.03um lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analysed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18um PAH complex is very prominent, and its equivalent width is enhanced outwards from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3um PAH feature and the H_2 S(1) line correlate closely, and we conclude that shocks in the outflow regions have no measurable influence on the H_2 emission. The [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio is on average low at ~0.18, and shows little variations across the plane, indicating that the dominant stellar population is evolved (5 - 6 Myr) and well distributed. There is a slight increase of the ratio with distance from the galactic plane of M82 which we attribute to a decrease in gas density. Our observations indicate that the star formation rate has decreased significantly in the last 5 Myr. The quantities of dust and molecular gas in the central area of the galaxy argue against starvation and for negative feedback processes, observable through the strong extra-planar outflows. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures, 3 tables, ApJ, emulateapj
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2007; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Spitzer IRS Mid-IR spectroscopy of a sub-set of collisional ring galaxies from a larger sample being observed with the imaging cameras on Spitzer, and in the UV with Galex. The paper will concentrate on three systems that have been studied in detail: Arp 143, LT 41 and NGC 985. In Arp 143 and LT 41 we investigate the variations in PAH strength with underlying UV/opt/IR continuum, and discuss the discovery of powerful molecular hydrogen emission from the nucleus and inter-ring region in Arp 143. In the X-ray luminous Seyfert I ring galaxy NGC 985, we present evidence for anomalously strong emission from the 16-20 micron PAH "plateau" as compared with the PAH feature at 11.2 microns. We suggest that the large ratio of this emission ( L(16-20)/L(11.2)= 5.5), the largest yet seen in any galaxy nucleus, is the result of shocks, perhaps relating to a circumnuclear wind colliding with infalling molecular material--as suggested by previous BIMA, ISO, UV absorption line and XMM observations. Strong molecular hydrogen emission is also seen which may also have an origin in shocks.
    12/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of extended (∼30 kpc 2) dust emission in the tidal H i arm near NGC 3077 (member of the M 81 triplet) using SPIRE on board Herschel. Dust emission in the tidal arm is typically detected where the H i column densities are >10 21 cm −2 . The SPIRE band ratios show that the dust in the tidal arm is significantly colder (∼13 K) than in NGC 3077 itself (∼31 K), consistent with the lower radiation field in the tidal arm. The total dust mass in the tidal arm is ∼1.8 × 10 6 M (assuming β = 2), i.e., substantially larger than the dust mass associated with NGC 3077 (∼2 × 10 5 M). Where dust is detected, the dust-to-gas ratio is (6 ± 3) × 10 −3 , consistent within the uncertainties with what is found in NGC 3077 and nearby spiral galaxies with Galactic metallicities. The faint H ii regions in the tidal arm cannot be responsible for the detected enriched material and are not the main source of the dust heating in the tidal arm. We conclude that the interstellar medium (atomic H i, molecules, and dust) in this tidal feature was pre-enriched and stripped off NGC 3077 during its recent interaction (∼3 × 10 8 yr ago) with M 82 and M 81. This implies that interaction can efficiently remove heavy elements and enriched material (dust and molecular gas) from galaxies. As interactions were more frequent at large look-back times, it is conceivable that they could substantially contribute (along with galactic outflows) to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2006; 726:11-6. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Spitzer Space Telescope data on the nearby, low-metallicity starburst galaxy NGC 5253, from the Infrared Array Camera IRAC and the Infrared Spectrograph IRS. The mid-IR luminosity profile of NGC 5253 is clearly dominated by an unresolved cluster near the center, which outshines the rest of the galaxy at longer wavelengths. We find that the [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio decreases from $\sim8.5$ at the center to $\sim2.5$ at a distance of $\sim250$ pc. The [SIV]/[SIII] follows the [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio remarkably well, being about 4-5 times lower at all distances. Our spectra reveal for the first time PAH emission feature at 11.3$\mu$m and its equivalent width increases significantly with distance from the center. The good anti-correlation between the PAH strength and the product between hardness and luminosity of the UV radiation field suggests photo-destruction of the PAH molecules in the central region. The high-excitation [OIV]25.91$\mu$m line was detected at $0.42\times10^{-20}$W cm$^{-2}$. Our results demonstrate the importance of spatially resolved mid-IR spectroscopy. Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJL
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2006; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201014592.

Publication Stats

89 Citations
98.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006–2012
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands