Ivan Literak

University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic

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Publications (207)325.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.06.009 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the presence of borreliae and rickettsiae bacteria in ticks from wild passerine birds on three islands of the Archipelago of the Azores, the westernmost region of Palearctic. A total of 266 birds belonging to eight species from seven families were examined on São Miguel, Santa Maria and Graciosa islands in 2013. Ticks collected from these birds consisted of 55 Ixodes frontalis (22 larvae, 32 nymphs, 1 adult female) and 16 Haemaphysalis punctata nymphs. Turdus merula and Erithacus rubecula were the birds most infested with both tick species. Three T. merula in Santa Maria were infested with 4 I. frontalis infected with Borrelia turdi. No rickettsiae were found in the ticks. We report for the first time the presence of I. frontalis and B. turdi on the Azores islands and we showed that the spatial distribution reaches further west than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.05.003 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 04/2015; 6(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.03.016 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coraciiform birds hoopoe (Upupa epops), common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) and European roller (Coracius garrulus) were examined for enterococci in their cloacae and uropygial glands. The enterococcal isolates were identified at the species level using several genomic and proteomic methods, screened for antibiotic susceptibility and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Clonality of isolates from the common kingfisher was also assessed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Using selective media, putative enterococcal isolates (n = 117) were recovered from 74 % (32 out of a total of 43) of the bird samples and 114 isolates were confirmed as enterococci. Overall, among the total of 6 different species detected, Enterococcus faecalis was dominant (59 %) in all three bird species. The second most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus casseliflavus (32 %). PFGE revealed great diversity of strains from different bird species and anatomic location. Closely related strains were found only from nestlings from the same nest. No genes conferring resistance to vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1 and van C2/C3) or erythromycin (erm A, ermB and mefA/E) were detected. MLST analysis and eBURST clustering revealed that sequence types of E. faecalis from the common kingfisher were identical to those of isolates found previously in water, chickens, and humans.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 03/2015; 107(5). DOI:10.1007/s10482-015-0422-6 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 03/2015; 6(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.02.006 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. © P. Rodrigues et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
    Parasite 02/2015; 22:8. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2015009 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The cutaneous monostome trematode Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz, 1831) is a bird parasite with a hitherto unknown life cycle and highly focal occurrence across the Holarctic and Neotropic ecozones. Methods: Representative specimens of benthic organisms were sampled at multiple sites and dates within the known foci of C. faba occurrence in Slovakia. A combined approach involving detailed morphological examination and sequencing of two independent DNA loci was used for their analysis. Results: We elucidated the complete life cycle of C. faba, which we determined to include the aquatic gastropod mollusk Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857) as the first intermediate host, the mayflies of the family Heptageniidae, Ecdyonurus venosus (Fabricius, 1775) and Rhithrogena picteti Sowa, 1971 x iridina (Kolenati, 1839), as the second intermediate hosts, and birds (primarily but not exclusively passeriform birds) as the definitive hosts. Bythinella austriaca is a least concern species, which occurs focally in the springs of tributaries of the Danube in the Alpine-Carpathian region. The restricted distribution of B. austriaca explains the highly focal distribution of C. faba noticed previously in spite of the broad distribution of its second intermediate and definitive host species. Utilization of both larval and adult Ephemeroptera spp. as the second intermediate hosts explains the known spectrum of the definitive host species, with the highest prevalence in species feeding on larvae of Ephemeroptera, such as Cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Motacilla cinerea Tunstall, 1771, or adults of Ephemeroptera, such as Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Regulus regulus (Linnaeus, 1758). In this study, we also determine the prevalence and DNA sequences of other immature trematode specimens found in the examined benthic organisms (particularly the families Microphallidae, Troglotrematidae and Nanophyetidae and Euryhelmis zelleri, Heterophyidae), and describe cercariae of C. faba. Conclusions: We determined the full life cycle of the Central European populations of C. faba. We speculate that other species of Bythinella and the closely related genus Amnicola may serve as first intermediate hosts in other parts of the distribution range of C. faba. Similarly, other Ephemeroptera of the family Heptageniidae may serve as the second intermediate hosts of C. faba in the Americas.
    Parasites & Vectors 02/2015; 8(1):85. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0646-3 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parasites with wide host spectra provide opportunities to study the ecological parameters of speciation, as well as the process of the evolution of host specificity. The speciose and cosmopolitan louse genus Menacanthus comprises both multi-host and specialised species, allowing exploration of the ecological and historical factors affecting the evolution of parasites using a comparative approach. We used phylogenetic analysis to reconstruct evolutionary relationships in 14 species of Menacanthus based on the sequences of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. The results allowed us to validate species identification based on morphology, as well as to explore host distribution by assumed generalist and specialist species. Our analyses confirmed a narrow host use for several species, however in some cases, the supposed host specialists had a wider host spectrum than anticipated. In one case a host generalist (Menacanthuseurysternus) was clustered terminally on a clade almost exclusively containing host specialists. Such a clade topology indicates that the process of host specialisation may not be irreversible in parasite evolution. Finally, we compared patterns of population genetic structure, geographic distribution and host spectra between two selected species, M. eurysternus and Menacanthus camelinus, using haplotype networks. Menacanthus camelinus showed limited geographical distribution in combination with monoxenous host use, whereas M. eurysternus showed a global distribution and lack of host specificity. It is suggested that frequent host switching maintains gene flow between M. eurysternus populations on unrelated hosts in local populations. However, gene flow between geographically distant localities was restricted, suggesting that geography rather than host-specificity is the main factor defining the global genetic diversity of M. eurysternus.
    International Journal for Parasitology 01/2015; 45(1):63-73. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.09.001 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113548. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113548 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing and plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) strains of Escherichia coli were investigated in wintering rooks (Corvus frugilegus) from eight European countries. 1073 feces samples from rooks wintering in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Switzerland were examined. Resistant isolates obtained from selective cultivation were screened for ESBL, AmpC and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing were performed to reveal their clonal relatedness. In total, 152 (14%, nsamples=1073) cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates and 355 (33%, nsamples=1073) E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were found. Eighty-two (54%) of these cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates carried ESBL genes as follow: blaCTX-M-1 (n=39), blaCTX-M-15 (25), blaCTX-M-24 (4), blaTEM-52 (4), blaCTX-M-14 (2), blaCTX-M-55 (2), blaSHV-12 (2), blaCTX-M-8 (1), blaCTX-M-25 (1), blaCTX-M-28 (1), and one not specified. Forty-seven (31%) cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates encoded AmpC beta-lactamases blaCMY-2. Sixty-two (17%) of E. coli isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were positive for the PMQR genes qnrS1 (n=54), qnrB19 (4), qnrS1+qnrB19 (2), qnrS2 (1) and aac(6' )-Ib-cr (1). Eleven isolates from the Czech Republic (8) and Serbia (3) were identified as CTX-M-15-producing E. coli clone B2-O25b-ST131. Ninety-one different sequence types (ST) among 191 ESBL, AmpC and PMQR E. coli isolates were determined, with ST58 (n=15), ST10 (14) and ST131 (12) predominating. Widespread occurrence of highly diverse ESBL-, AmpC- and PMQR-positive E. coli, including the clinically important multi-resistant ST69, ST95, ST117, ST131 and ST405 clones, was demonstrated in rooks wintering in various European countries. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 11/2014; 81(2). DOI:10.1128/AEM.02459-14 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Focusing upon chewing lice parasitizing blackcaps in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host-specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those observed in various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland.
    Journal of Parasitology 10/2014; 101(2). DOI:10.1645/14-601.1 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species of the feather mite family Gabucinidae (Acari: Astigmata) are described from birds of the family Troglodytidae (Passeriformes) from Central America: Piciformobia cinnycerthiae sp. nov. from Cinnycerthia unirufa (Lafresnaye) in Ecuador, and P. henicorhinae sp. nov. from Henicorhina leucosticte (Cabanis) in Costa Rica. These are the first records of mites of the genus Piciformobia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 from passerine hosts. A renewed diagnosis of the genus Piciformobia and key to all known species are provided.
    Acta Parasitologica 10/2014; 59(4):568-79. DOI:10.2478/s11686-014-0287-2 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collyriclum faba (Plagiochiida: Collyriclidae) adults occur strictly in pairs within subcutaneous cysts. Here we tested the extensive C. faba infrapopulation for five DNA loci known to display variability among Central European C. faba individuals. The infrapopulation tested shared 100% similarity in four of the five mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci tested. Contrariwise, the ITS1 loci in all but one individual differed from each other. We found only 0.0-1.5 base substitutions per 1000 sites within the cysts, while we found 0.7-9.0 substitutions between the cysts of the single host and 3.0-9.0 substitutions when comparing individuals between different host individuals. We observed the most of the ITS1 variability within 48bp repetitive sequences featured by the chi-like sequence 5’- GCTTGTCTGCC-3’ at their beginning. Similarly to the extensive C. faba infrapopulation examined, we determined the presence of highly variable number of repetitive sequences within the ITS1 locus of C. faba isolated from multiple host species and from various geographic locations. While similar variability was observed earlier in mutually unrelated specimens of several Schistosomatidae and Microphallidae species, here we for the first time document it among multiple individuals of a single infracommunity possessing single mitochondrial haplotype. Lower ITS1 evolutionary divergence rates observed between individuals within the cysts when compared to those between the cysts suggest that the recombination occurs at multiple stages of the life cycle. We propose DNA recombination involving chi-like sequences to serve as a general feature shared by multiple families of digenetic trematodes to increase genetic diversity of their polyembryonic populations infecting their definitive hosts.
    Parasitology Research 09/2014; 113(9):3211-3220. DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3982-x · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyalomma ticks are well-known vectors transmitting infectious agents, which can result in severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans. Migratory birds may carry infected ticks over long distances. Here, we report on records of ticks of the H. marginatum complex in birds from Central Europe during the spring migration in 2008–2012. A total of 1172 birds belonging to 32 species, 16 families, and 3 orders was examined for ticks. Sixteen individuals of 6 passerine species were found to transport 30 ticks, identified as individuals belonging to the H. marginatum species complex (consisting of H. isaaci, H. marginatum sensu stricto, H. rufipes, H. turanicum, and H. glabrum) during 5 spring seasons. Infested bird species included the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, the Eurasian reed warbler A. scirpaceus, the marsh warbler A. palustris, the sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus, Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, and the common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. All of these Central European breeders are migratory species wintering in Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to record ticks of the H. marginatum complex on the great reed warbler and Savi's warbler.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 09/2014; 5(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.03.002 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 6564 individuals of 482 species of passerine birds were examined between the years 2004 and 2013 at various locations in central Europe, Africa, the Neotropical Region and Vietnam. A total of 663 birds (10.1%) of 141 species were parasitized with 3648 chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (mean intensity was 5.5 lice per bird). Myrsidea was found as eudominant genus with a total dominance of 24.3% (a total of 15030 lice were determined). Dominance of Myrsidea ranged between 0.9% (central Europe) and 51.8% (Neotropical Region). We suggest that Myrsidea is probably less tolerant to arid conditions compared to other chewing louse genera. A total of 93 (66%, n=141) records represent new host-louse associations. We found examples of bird species harbouring two different species of Myrsidea. In these cases, each species was found either in a different geographical location or in the same location but on different host individuals. Conversely, we found also examples of one species of Myrsidea parasitizing two different host species. Such host-switching events between unrelated hosts are possible on condition that different bird species share similar behaviour and ecology. Our findings highlight the need to (1) carefully examine each louse specimen when identifying new samples of Myrsidea, (2) compare them with species of Myrsidea from the same and related host families, and (3) compare them with species of Myrsidea from unrelated hosts living in the same geographical region.
    5th International Conference on Phthiraptera (ICP5), Park Coty, Utah, USA; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: It is well understood that Salmonella is carried by animals and in majority of cases as asymptomatic hosts. Surveillance efforts have focused on the role of agriculture and contamination points along the food chain as the main source of human infection; however, very little attention has been paid to the contribution of wildlife in the dissemination of Salmonella and what effect anthropogenic sources have on the circulation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella serovars in wildlife species. A purposive survey was taken of large corvids roosting yearly between November and March in Europe and North America. Two thousand and seven hundred and seventy-eight corvid faecal specimens from 11 countries were submitted for Salmonella spp. culture testing. Presumptive positive isolates were further serotyped, susceptibility tested and analysed for antibiotic resistance genes. Overall, 1.40% (39/2778) (CI = 1.01, 1.90) of samples were positive for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar followed by S. Infantis, S. Montevideo and S. Typhimurium. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in the proportion of Salmonella recovered in Europe versus North America. The most variability of serovars within a site was in Kansas, USA with five different serovars recovered. European sites were significantly more likely to yield Salmonella resistant to more than one antibiotic (OR 71.5, P < 0.001, CI = 3.77, 1358) than North American sites, where no resistance was found. Resistance to nalidixic acid, a quinolone, was recovered in nine isolates from four serovars in four different sites across Europe. Large corvids contribute to the transmission and dissemination of Salmonella and resistance genes between human and animal populations and across great distances. This information adds to the knowledge base of zoonotic pathogen prevalence and antibiotic resistance ecology in wild birds.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 08/2014; 62(4). DOI:10.1111/zph.12149 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n = 215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n = 15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2014; 171(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.015 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    Ivan Literak, Andre V. Bochkov, S. Franco
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    ABSTRACT: Three mite species of the genus Neharpyrhynchus (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) were recorded on wild birds represented by new hosts in Paraguay: Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus ex Chlorostilbon lucidus (=aureoventris) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), Neharpyrhynchus tangara ex Paroaria capitata and P. coronata (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), and Neharpyrhynchus aff. spinus ex Setophaga (=Parula) pitiayumi (Passeriformes: Parulidae). Records from C. aureoventris, P. capitata, P. coronata and P. pitiayumi represent new host-parasite associations. Mites of this genus were recorded in Paraguay for the first time.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we focused on spreading of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) to the environment. We studied that weather crows in Canada may be carriers and potentially reservoirs of VRE with vanA gene. We have found one multi-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium sequence type (ST) 448 with vanA gene on Prince Edward Island. This study is the first report of VRE in Canadian wildlife.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 06/2014; 6(3). DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12141 · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
325.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2015
    • University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
      • • Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2001–2011
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Virology
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
  • 2010
    • University of Gdansk
      • Department of Vertebrate Ecology and Zoology
      Danzig, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2008
    • Veterinary Research Institute, Brno
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Zoological Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2005
    • University of Trnava
      • Department of Biology
      Nagyszombat, Trnavský, Slovakia