Ivan Literak

University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic

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Publications (167)248.08 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 02/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n = 215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n = 15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23.
    Veterinary Microbiology 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though wild birds are not normally exposed to use of antimicrobial agents, they can acquire antibiotic resistant bacteria through the environment (1).…
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ticks were collected from wild birds at 3 locations in Paraguay during the South American winter in August and September 2012. In total, 480 birds belonging to 106 species were examined. Overall, 31 (6.5%) birds representing 21 species were found parasitized by ticks which were identified as Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (2 larvae, 20 nymphs), Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) (17 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma parvum Aragão (7 nymphs), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) (1 nymph), Amblyomma ovale Koch (1 nymph), Amblyomma tigrinum Koch (1 larva), and Amblyomma spp. (4 larvae). Ticks collected accidentally on humans at the study locations during field work included 1 nymph of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann and 54 nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius). Most ticks were individually tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing. Two (12%) out of 17 A. longirostre larvae were found infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 (33%) out of 6 A. parvum nymphs were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in Paraguayan ticks.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 11/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the vanA-carrying vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from American crows in the United States during the winter 2011/2012. Faecal samples from crows were cultured selectively for VRE and characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine epidemiological relationships of vanA-containing VRE. Isolates were tested in vitro for their ability to horizontally transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 15 (2.5%) of 590 crows samples, from which we obtained 22 different isolates. Enterococcal species were Enterococcus faecium (14) and E. faecalis (8). One, two and 19 isolates originated from Kansas, New York State and Massachusetts, respectively. Based on MLST analysis, E. faecium isolates were grouped as ST18 (6 isolates), ST555 (2), and novel types ST749 (1), ST750 (3), ST751 (1), ST752 (2). Enterococcus faecalis isolates belonged to ST6 (1), ST16 (3) and ST179 (4). All isolates were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait via filter mating with very high transfer range. Clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene occur in faeces of wild American crows throughout the United States. These migrating birds may contribute to the dissemination of VRE in environment over large distances.
    Environmental Microbiology 07/2013; · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1) ) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1) ) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid MLST and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by PFGE. The genes blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology 05/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until now, four species of the eye trematodes have been found in South America. Of them, Philophthalmus lucipetus (synonymized with P. gralli) displays a broad host spectrum, with at least 30 bird species (prevalently large water birds), five mammal species and humans serving as definitive hosts, and with snails Fagotia (Microcolpia) acicularis, Amphimelania holandri, and Melanopsis praemorsa and M. tuberculata serving as intermediate hosts. When examining a total of 50 birds of ten species in the wetland of Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Peru in July 2011, eye trematodes were identified visually in the oedematous conjunctival sac of 11 (48%) out of 23 resident many-colored rush tyrants Tachuris rubrigastra. Based on morphometric characteristics, the trematodes were identified as Philophthalmus lucipetus. ITS2 and CO1 gene of the examined specimens combined showed a 99% similarity to an Iranian isolate of Philophthalmus sp. from the intermediate host Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive freshwater snail, suggesting that these two isolates represent the same species with a wide geographical range. Moreover, the prevalence of infection with the philophthalmid cercariae was 31% in 744 Melanoides tuberculata examined in Pantanos de Villa in 2010. It is evident that P. lucipetus occurs throughout the world as well as locally, including Eurasia and South America. Here we report this trematode for the first time in Peru, and we were the first to sequence any of the South American eye trematodes. Low host specificity of P. lucipetus and the invasive character of Melanoides tuberculata as a competent intermediate host suggest that eye trematodosis caused with P. lucipetus may emerge frequently in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Increase of the zoonotic potential of the P. lucipetus associated with this invasive snail spreading across the world is predictable and should be of interest in further research.
    Parasitology International 04/2013; 62(4):390-396. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Only a few reports exist on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in zoo animals. Therefore, an isolation of multiresistant Escherichia coli from the lungs of a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) lead to its characterization and further investigation of samples from animals inhabiting the same paddock and from the shared environment. The tapir suffered from an intermandibular abscess and pneumonia and was euthanatized after unsuccessful therapy, including administration of antibiotics. The authors performed selective isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli strains and identification of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction. Seven multiresistant, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained, all belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group and showing identical profile on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates carried several resistance genes, including the gene bla(CTX-M-15). This case demonstrates the transmission of related epidemiologically important E. coli isolates whose potential transmission to other animals and zoo staff can be assumed.
    Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2013; 44(1):173-5. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated from the cloaca of common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis). Repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)5 primer grouped these isolates into a single cluster separated from all known enterococcal species. Both strains revealed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences placing them within the genus Enterococcus with Enterococcus aquimarinus as the closest relative (97.14% similarity). Further taxonomic investigation using sequencing of the genes for the superoxide dismutase (sodA), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) as well as application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping, and extensive phenotyping confirmed that both strains belong to the same species. Based on the polypahsic data, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus alcedinis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L34T (= CCM 8433T = LMG 27164T).
  • Petr Heneberg, Ivan Literák
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    ABSTRACT: Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz, 1831) is a monostome digenetic trematode with unknown life cycle. On its definitive bird host, C. faba occurs in pairs within a subcutaneous cyst, the location of which on the host body is the base for differentiating three ecotypes of C. faba. Here we examined the hypothesis connecting strong host-specificity of the ecotypes with the possible existence of cryptic speciation among C. faba. Analysis of conserved nuclear ribosomal DNA regions rejected the cryptic speciation hypothesis. Analyses of the variable ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed that, despite some differentiation between the ecotypes, several large-scale indels occur in multiple ecotypes. Individuals from multiple cysts affecting each host individual differed in their ITS1 sequences, suggesting the individuals infecting a single host did not have common parents. Since we were the first to sequence C. faba, we attempted to verify its position in the current taxonomic system (Plagiorchiida: Gorgoderoidea). We found that C. faba segregates with the superfamily Microphalloidea (in order of maximum likelihood phylogeny: Prosthogonimidae, Pleurogenidae and Microphallidae) instead of any species of the superfamily Gorgoderoidea, as proposed in the past. The results necessitate reclassification of the family Collyriclidae as a member of Microphalloidea.
    Parasitology International 01/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androlaelaps fahrenholzi is a common, cosmopolitan mite constituting a species complex. This mite is found in nests or on mammal hosts and occasionally on birds. The specific host association between A. fahrenholzi-like mites and Premnoplex brunnescens in Costa Rica is reported here. Adults (females and males), deutonymphs and protonymphs were found on 14 P. brunnescens examined (prevalence was 100 %) with mean abundance 42 (2-222). The nest environment plays an important role in the evolution of parasites and could explain the evolutionary path of Laelapinae towards parasitism. We hypothesize that the colonization of P. brunnescens took place in this context quite recently, from sympatrically living rodents. Morphology and ecology of A. fahrenholzi from P. brunnescens may constitute at least a new variation of A. fahrenholzi, and possibly a new species.
    Experimental and Applied Acarology 01/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in children with malignancies hospitalised at a paediatric oncology department in the Czech Republic were investigated. From June 2009 to January 2010, a total of 50 ESBL-producing faecal isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were obtained from 28 patients. These isolates were characterised with regard to ESBL enzymes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and plasmids conferring resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. ESBL-producing isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=36), Escherichia coli (n=7), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=3), Enterobacter cloacae (n=2) and Citrobacter freundii (n=2). Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonged to 7 MLST types, including sequence types ST280, ST321, ST323 and ST416 as well as the novel types ST626, ST627 and ST628. The multiresistant epidemic clone E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 was detected in one patient. The gene bla(CTX-M-15) was found on large conjugative IncFII(K) plasmids along with bla(TEM-1), bla(OXA-1), qnrB1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, strA, sul2, aac(3')-II and tet(A) genes in most isolates. Dissemination of IncFII(K) plasmids among various Enterobacteriaceae isolates was considered an important aspect of nosocomial colonisation in the wards by Enterobacteriaceae species producing ESBLs. This is the first study documenting multiple antibiotic resistance elements, including qnr genes, in IncFII(K) plasmids in various bacterial species isolated in a single hospital department. The results highlight the evolution of IncFII(K) plasmids into new variants containing novel antibiotic resistance elements and their important role in spreading ESBL-producing bacteria among hospitalised patients.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 10/2012; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South Africa has nearly 850 bird species and South Africa’s northernmost province, the Limpopo province, boasts with more than 600 recorded bird species (approximately 420 breeding resident spp). Despite previous reports of Myrsidea spp. from South African birds, there has not been any proper study of this louse genus, and from all the bird fauna of South Africa, only 20 (belonging to 13 families) are known to be hosts of 17 species of Myrsidea (Price et al. 2003). The aim of this study is to present new data on the distribution of this genus in South Africa, including description of three new species. A total of 145 individuals of 46 bird species (from 20 families) were captured with mist nets, checked by visual examination and the fumigation chamber method for chewing lice. Samplings were done from November 2011 to March 2012 at five study sites in the Limpopo Province. These sites were: Golwe in the north-east of the province, Polokwane Nature Reserve, De Loskop near Mogwadi, Woodbush forest and the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus. A total of 19 birds representing 8 species were parasitised by 8 species of Myrsidea. Three of them were recently described. The new species and their type hosts are: Myrsidea aynazae ex Phyllastrephus flavostriatus (Sharpe) (Pycnonotidae), Myrsidea eslamii ex Zoothera gurneyi (Hartlaub) (Turdidae) and Myrsidea mariquensis ex Bradornis mariquensis Smith (Muscicapidae). Records of new host-louse associations are: Phyllastrephus terrestris Swainson (Pycnonotidae) for Myrsidea sp., Ploceus intermedius Ruppell (Ploceidae) for Myrsidea sp., and Turdus libonyanus (Smith) (Turdidae) for Myrsidea sp. Following lice genera were also found on the examined birds and are currently undergoing identification to species level, e.g. Brueelia, Menacanthus, Penenirmus, Philopterus, Ricinus and Sturnidoecus.
    41st PARSA Conference; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: This study's aims were to assess the prevalence of, and to characterize, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from rooks (Corvus frugilegus) wintering in Europe during 2010/2011. Faeces samples were cultivated selectively for VRE and characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine epidemiologic relationships of vanA-containing VRE. The vanA-carrying VRE were tested in vitro for mobility of vancomycin resistance traits. VRE were found in 62 (6%) of 1073 rook samples. Enterococcal species diversity comprised Enterococcus gallinarum (48 isolates), followed by E. faecium (9) and E. faecalis (5). Eight VRE harboured the vanA and ermB genes. Seven vanA-carrying VRE originated from the Czech Republic and one from Germany. All vanA-carrying VRE were identified as E. faecium. Based on MLST analysis, six vanA-positive isolates were grouped as ST92 type, one isolate belonged to ST121, and the remaining one was described as a novel type ST671. Seven out of eight isolates were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait via filter mating with a transfer rate of 8.95 ± 3.25 × 10(-7) transconjugants per donor. In conclusion, wintering rooks in some European countries may disseminate clinically important enterococci and pose a risk for environmental contamination.
    Environmental Microbiology 09/2012; · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains. A total of 114 E. coli isolates were characterized regarding their antimicrobial resistance in a prospective study of 319 broilers from 12 slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic, a European Union member, during 2008. PCR-based assays to define ExPEC-associated traits were performed in resistant strains. Consumption of antimicrobial drugs by poultry in the Czech Republic was also analyzed. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 82% of isolates. Resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was predominant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnrB19 and qnrS1, were detected in 1 and 3 of 93 resistant isolates, respectively. Twenty-three percent of resistant isolates were considered as ExPEC. In total, 972 kg of flumequine, enrofloxacin, and difloxacin were used in poultry in the Czech Republic during 2008. High prevalence of broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates was linked to consumption of quinolones in poultry. Broilers may comprise an important vehicle for community-wide dissemination of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and ExPEC. Withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in chicken production should be seriously considered in the Czech Republic and the European Union as well.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 09/2012; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Zootaxa 08/2012; 3530:59-73. · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Zootaxa 08/2012; 3440:1-49. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In total, 142 birds, mostly passerines, belonging to 42 species were examined for the presence of ticks in 3 locations in Mato Grosso do Sul Brazil during 2006. Seven birds (5%) were infested with 4 nymphs of Amblyomma calcaratum (Ramphocelus carbo, 3 infested/12 examined) and 5 larvae of Amblyomma sp. (Furnarius rufus, 2/5; Turdus leucomelas, 1/6; and Paroaria capitata, 1/8). All 4 nymphs of A. calcaratum tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing were found to be infected with a Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. A. calcaratum infected with a rickettsial bacterium was found for the first time.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 08/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined 77 Ixodes ricinus ticks found on 33 out of 120 common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) sampled in the Czech Republic in 2008 for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. We detected Borrelia garinii (in 4% of ticks), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia helvetica (3%), a novel strain of Rickettsia sp. (sister taxon of R. bellii; 1%), and Babesia sp. EU1 (1%). Thus, we conclude that nightingales are unlikely to be important reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 07/2012; 3(4):265-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

862 Citations
248.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1947–2014
    • University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
      • • Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2013
    • Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores CEPAVE
      Eva Perón, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 2012–2013
    • University of São Paulo
      • Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health (VPS)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    • University of Nairobi
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
    • Metro Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2011–2013
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Zoological Institute
      Moscow, Moscow, Russia
    • BIC Brno
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2010
    • PRO.MED.CS Praha
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • University of Gdansk
      • Department of Vertebrate Zoology
      Gdańsk, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2007–2009
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Virology
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
  • 2008
    • Veterinary Research Institute, Brno
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 1998
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic