[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parasites with wide host spectra provide opportunities to study the ecological parameters of speciation, as well as the process of the evolution of host specificity. The speciose and cosmopolitan louse genus Menacanthus comprises both multi-host and specialised species, allowing exploration of the ecological and historical factors affecting the evolution of parasites using a comparative approach. We used phylogenetic analysis to reconstruct evolutionary relationships in 14 species of Menacanthus based on the sequences of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. The results allowed us to validate species identification based on morphology, as well as to explore host distribution by assumed generalist and specialist species. Our analyses confirmed a narrow host use for several species, however in some cases, the supposed host specialists had a wider host spectrum than anticipated. In one case a host generalist (Menacanthuseurysternus) was clustered terminally on a clade almost exclusively containing host specialists. Such a clade topology indicates that the process of host specialisation may not be irreversible in parasite evolution. Finally, we compared patterns of population genetic structure, geographic distribution and host spectra between two selected species, M. eurysternus and Menacanthus camelinus, using haplotype networks. Menacanthus camelinus showed limited geographical distribution in combination with monoxenous host use, whereas M. eurysternus showed a global distribution and lack of host specificity. It is suggested that frequent host switching maintains gene flow between M. eurysternus populations on unrelated hosts in local populations. However, gene flow between geographically distant localities was restricted, suggesting that geography rather than host-specificity is the main factor defining the global genetic diversity of M. eurysternus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Focusing upon chewing lice parasitizing blackcaps in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host-specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those observed in various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new species of the feather mite family Gabucinidae (Acari: Astigmata) are described from birds of the family Troglodytidae (Passeriformes) from Central America: Piciformobia cinnycerthiae sp. nov. from Cinnycerthia unirufa (Lafresnaye) in Ecuador, and P. henicorhinae sp. nov. from Henicorhina leucosticte (Cabanis) in Costa Rica. These are the first records of mites of the genus Piciformobia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 from passerine hosts. A renewed diagnosis of the genus Piciformobia and key to all known species are provided.
Acta parasitologica / Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Warszawa, Poland. 10/2014; 59(4):568-79.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collyriclum faba (Plagiochiida: Collyriclidae) adults occur strictly in pairs within subcutaneous cysts. Here we tested the extensive C. faba infrapopulation for five DNA loci known to display variability among Central European C. faba individuals. The infrapopulation tested shared 100% similarity in four of the five mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci tested. Contrariwise, the ITS1 loci in all but one individual differed from each other. We found only 0.0-1.5 base substitutions per 1000 sites within the cysts, while we found 0.7-9.0 substitutions between the cysts of the single host and 3.0-9.0 substitutions when comparing individuals between different host individuals. We observed the most of the ITS1 variability within 48bp repetitive sequences featured by the chi-like sequence 5’- GCTTGTCTGCC-3’ at their beginning. Similarly to the extensive C. faba infrapopulation examined, we determined the presence of highly variable number of repetitive sequences within the ITS1 locus of C. faba isolated from multiple host species and from various geographic locations. While similar variability was observed earlier in mutually unrelated specimens of several Schistosomatidae and Microphallidae species, here we for the first time document it among multiple individuals of a single infracommunity possessing single mitochondrial haplotype. Lower ITS1 evolutionary divergence rates observed between individuals within the cysts when compared to those between the cysts suggest that the recombination occurs at multiple stages of the life cycle. We propose DNA recombination involving chi-like sequences to serve as a general feature shared by multiple families of digenetic trematodes to increase genetic diversity of their polyembryonic populations infecting their definitive hosts.
Parasitology Research 09/2014; 113(9):3211-3220. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 6564 individuals of 482 species of passerine birds were examined between the years 2004 and 2013 at various locations in central Europe, Africa, the Neotropical Region and Vietnam. A total of 663 birds (10.1%) of 141 species were parasitized with 3648 chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (mean intensity was 5.5 lice per bird). Myrsidea was found as eudominant genus with a total dominance of 24.3% (a total of 15030 lice were determined). Dominance of Myrsidea ranged between 0.9% (central Europe) and 51.8% (Neotropical Region). We suggest that Myrsidea is probably less tolerant to arid conditions compared to other chewing louse genera.
A total of 93 (66%, n=141) records represent new host-louse associations. We found examples of bird species harbouring two different species of Myrsidea. In these cases, each species was found either in a different geographical location or in the same location but on different host individuals. Conversely, we found also examples of one species of Myrsidea parasitizing two different host species. Such host-switching events between unrelated hosts are possible on condition that different bird species share similar behaviour and ecology.
Our findings highlight the need to (1) carefully examine each louse specimen when identifying new samples of Myrsidea, (2) compare them with species of Myrsidea from the same and related host families, and (3) compare them with species of Myrsidea from unrelated hosts living in the same geographical region.
5th International Conference on Phthiraptera (ICP5), Park Coty, Utah, USA; 08/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well understood that Salmonella is carried by animals and in majority of cases as asymptomatic hosts. Surveillance efforts have focused on the role of agriculture and contamination points along the food chain as the main source of human infection; however, very little attention has been paid to the contribution of wildlife in the dissemination of Salmonella and what effect anthropogenic sources have on the circulation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella serovars in wildlife species. A purposive survey was taken of large corvids roosting yearly between November and March in Europe and North America. Two thousand and seven hundred and seventy-eight corvid faecal specimens from 11 countries were submitted for Salmonella spp. culture testing. Presumptive positive isolates were further serotyped, susceptibility tested and analysed for antibiotic resistance genes. Overall, 1.40% (39/2778) (CI = 1.01, 1.90) of samples were positive for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar followed by S. Infantis, S. Montevideo and S. Typhimurium. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in the proportion of Salmonella recovered in Europe versus North America. The most variability of serovars within a site was in Kansas, USA with five different serovars recovered. European sites were significantly more likely to yield Salmonella resistant to more than one antibiotic (OR 71.5, P < 0.001, CI = 3.77, 1358) than North American sites, where no resistance was found. Resistance to nalidixic acid, a quinolone, was recovered in nine isolates from four serovars in four different sites across Europe. Large corvids contribute to the transmission and dissemination of Salmonella and resistance genes between human and animal populations and across great distances. This information adds to the knowledge base of zoonotic pathogen prevalence and antibiotic resistance ecology in wild birds.
Zoonoses and Public Health 08/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three mite species of the genus Neharpyrhynchus (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) were
recorded on wild birds represented by new hosts in Paraguay: Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus ex
Chlorostilbon lucidus (=aureoventris) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), Neharpyrhynchus tangara ex
Paroaria capitata and P. coronata (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), and Neharpyrhynchus aff. spinus
ex Setophaga (=Parula) pitiayumi (Passeriformes: Parulidae). Records from C. aureoventris, P.
capitata, P. coronata and P. pitiayumi represent new host-parasite associations. Mites of this
genus were recorded in Paraguay for the first time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we focused on spreading of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) to the environment. We studied that weather crows in Canada may be carriers and potentially reservoirs of VRE with vanA gene. We have found one multi-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium sequence type (ST) 448 with vanA gene on Prince Edward Island. This study is the first report of VRE in Canadian wildlife.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area.
Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 02/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n = 215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n = 15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyalomma ticks are well-known vectors transmitting infectious agents, which can result in severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans. Migratory birds may carry infected ticks over long distances. Here, we report on records of ticks of the H. marginatum complex in birds from Central Europe during the spring migration in 2008–2012. A total of 1172 birds belonging to 32 species, 16 families, and 3 orders was examined for ticks. Sixteen individuals of 6 passerine species were found to transport 30 ticks, identified as individuals belonging to the H. marginatum species complex (consisting of H. isaaci, H. marginatum sensu stricto, H. rufipes, H. turanicum, and H. glabrum) during 5 spring seasons. Infested bird species included the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, the Eurasian reed warbler A. scirpaceus, the marsh warbler A. palustris, the sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus, Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, and the common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. All of these Central European breeders are migratory species wintering in Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to record ticks of the H. marginatum complex on the great reed warbler and Savi's warbler.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 01/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 114 individuals of 14 wren species (Aves: Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) were examined. Nineteen birds (17 %) of six species were parasitised with 292 chewing lice (mean intensity = 15.4 lice per bird) belonging to three genera – Brueelia Kéler, 1936, Penenirmus Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) and Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae). Data on the occurrence of chewing lice on wrens, including geographical distributions and some parasitological parameters – such as prevalence and mean intensity – are updated and discussed. A description and illustrations are given for Myrsidea fasciata sp. nov. from Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Swainson, 1837) from Costa Rica. Penenirmus albiventris (Scopoli, 1763) is redescribed from Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) (from the Czech Republic and Slovakia) and from T. aedon Vieillot, 1809 (from Peru). Intraspeci c morphological variation of P. albiventris is discussed, and detailed gures are given. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was sequenced from some species of Myrsidea and Penenirmus in order to assess their relative genetic divergence. An updated list of all species of lice recorded from wrens, including their geographic distribution, and a host-louse list are also given.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ticks were collected from wild birds at 3 locations in Paraguay during the South American winter in August and September 2012. In total, 480 birds belonging to 106 species were examined. Overall, 31 (6.5%) birds representing 21 species were found parasitized by ticks which were identified as Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (2 larvae, 20 nymphs), Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) (17 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma parvum Aragão (7 nymphs), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) (1 nymph), Amblyomma ovale Koch (1 nymph), Amblyomma tigrinum Koch (1 larva), and Amblyomma spp. (4 larvae). Ticks collected accidentally on humans at the study locations during field work included 1 nymph of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann and 54 nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius). Most ticks were individually tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing. Two (12%) out of 17 A. longirostre larvae were found infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 (33%) out of 6 A. parvum nymphs were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in Paraguayan ticks.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 11/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the vanA-carrying vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from American crows in the United States during the winter 2011/2012. Faecal samples from crows were cultured selectively for VRE and characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine epidemiological relationships of vanA-containing VRE. Isolates were tested in vitro for their ability to horizontally transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 15 (2.5%) of 590 crows samples, from which we obtained 22 different isolates. Enterococcal species were Enterococcus faecium (14) and E. faecalis (8). One, two and 19 isolates originated from Kansas, New York State and Massachusetts, respectively. Based on MLST analysis, E. faecium isolates were grouped as ST18 (6 isolates), ST555 (2), and novel types ST749 (1), ST750 (3), ST751 (1), ST752 (2). Enterococcus faecalis isolates belonged to ST6 (1), ST16 (3) and ST179 (4). All isolates were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait via filter mating with very high transfer range. Clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene occur in faeces of wild American crows throughout the United States. These migrating birds may contribute to the dissemination of VRE in environment over large distances.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1) ) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1) ) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid MLST and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by PFGE. The genes blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until now, four species of the eye trematodes have been found in South America. Of them, Philophthalmus lucipetus (synonymized with P. gralli) displays a broad host spectrum, with at least 30 bird species (prevalently large water birds), five mammal species and humans serving as definitive hosts, and with snails Fagotia (Microcolpia) acicularis, Amphimelania holandri, and Melanopsis praemorsa and M. tuberculata serving as intermediate hosts. When examining a total of 50 birds of ten species in the wetland of Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Peru in July 2011, eye trematodes were identified visually in the oedematous conjunctival sac of 11 (48%) out of 23 resident many-colored rush tyrants Tachuris rubrigastra. Based on morphometric characteristics, the trematodes were identified as Philophthalmus lucipetus. ITS2 and CO1 gene of the examined specimens combined showed a 99% similarity to an Iranian isolate of Philophthalmus sp. from the intermediate host Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive freshwater snail, suggesting that these two isolates represent the same species with a wide geographical range. Moreover, the prevalence of infection with the philophthalmid cercariae was 31% in 744 Melanoides tuberculata examined in Pantanos de Villa in 2010. It is evident that P. lucipetus occurs throughout the world as well as locally, including Eurasia and South America. Here we report this trematode for the first time in Peru, and we were the first to sequence any of the South American eye trematodes. Low host specificity of P. lucipetus and the invasive character of Melanoides tuberculata as a competent intermediate host suggest that eye trematodosis caused with P. lucipetus may emerge frequently in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Increase of the zoonotic potential of the P. lucipetus associated with this invasive snail spreading across the world is predictable and should be of interest in further research.
Parasitology International 04/2013; 62(4):390-396. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only a few reports exist on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in zoo animals. Therefore, an isolation of multiresistant Escherichia coli from the lungs of a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) lead to its characterization and further investigation of samples from animals inhabiting the same paddock and from the shared environment. The tapir suffered from an intermandibular abscess and pneumonia and was euthanatized after unsuccessful therapy, including administration of antibiotics. The authors performed selective isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli strains and identification of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction. Seven multiresistant, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained, all belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group and showing identical profile on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates carried several resistance genes, including the gene bla(CTX-M-15). This case demonstrates the transmission of related epidemiologically important E. coli isolates whose potential transmission to other animals and zoo staff can be assumed.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2013; 44(1):173-5. · 0.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated from the cloaca of common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis). Repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)5 primer grouped these isolates into a single cluster separated from all known enterococcal species. Both strains revealed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences placing them within the genus Enterococcus with Enterococcus aquimarinus as the closest relative (97.14% similarity). Further taxonomic investigation using sequencing of the genes for the superoxide dismutase (sodA), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) as well as application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping, and extensive phenotyping confirmed that both strains belong to the same species. Based on the polypahsic data, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus alcedinis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L34T (= CCM 8433T = LMG 27164T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 02/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor