[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sprouty and Spred proteins have been widely implicated in the negative regulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. In considering the functional role of these proteins, we explored their effects on ERK activation induced by cyclopentenone prostanoids, which bind to and activate Ras proteins. We therefore found that ectopic overexpression in HeLa cells of human Sprouty2, or human Spred1 or 2, inhibits ERK1/2 and Elk-1 activation triggered by the cyclopentenone prostanoids PGA(1) and 15d-PGJ(2). Furthermore, we found that in HT cells that do not express Sprouty2 due to hypermethylation of its gene-promoter, PGA(1)-provoked ERK activation was more intense and sustained compared to other hematopoietic cell lines with unaltered Sprouty2 expression. Cyclopentenone prostanoids did not induce Sprouty2 tyrosine phosphorylation, in agreement with its incapability to activate tyrosine-kinase receptors. However, Sprouty2 Y55F, which acts as a defective mutant upon tyrosine-kinase receptor stimulation, did not inhibit cyclopentenone prostanoids-elicited ERK pathway activation. In addition, Sprouty2 did not affect the Ras-GTP levels promoted by cyclopentenone prostanoids. These results unveil both common and differential features in the activation of Ras-dependent pathways by cyclopentenone prostanoids and growth factors. Moreover, they provide the first evidence that Sprouty and Spred proteins are negative regulators of the ERK/Elk-1 pathway activation induced not only by growth-factors, but also by reactive lipidic mediators.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e16787. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sprouty2 has been widely implicated in the negative regulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Sprouty2 directly interacts with the adapter protein Grb2, member of the receptor tyrosine kinase-induced signaling pathways. In considering the functional role of Grb2, we investigated whether the interaction with this protein was responsible for ERK pathway inhibition. We found that the binding between Sprouty2 and Grb2 is constitutive, independent of Sprouty2 tyrosine phosphorylation, although it is increased when fibroblast growth factor receptor is activated. This connection is mediated by the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 and two Sprouty2 proline-rich stretches (residues 59-64 and 303-307). Most importantly, a double Sprouty2 mutant (hSpry2 P59AP304A), which is unable to bind Grb2, developed at a similar inhibition level of fibroblast growth factor receptor-ERK pathway than that which originated from Sprouty2 wt. These results are evidence that the Sprouty2 mechanism of ERK inhibition is independent of Grb2 binding.