[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early perturbations in vascular health can be detected by imposing subjects to a high fat (HF) challenge and measure response capacity. Subtle responses can be determined by assessment of whole-genome transcriptional changes. We aimed to magnify differences in health by comparing gene-expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) towards a high MUFA or SFA challenge between subjects with different cardiovascular disease risk profiles and to identify fatty-acid specific gene-expression pathways.
In a cross-over study, 17 lean and 15 obese men (50-70y) received two 95g fat shakes, high in SFAs or MUFAs. PBMC gene-expression profiles were assessed fasted and 4h postprandially. Comparisons were made between groups and shakes. During fasting, 294 genes were significantly different expressed between lean and obese. The challenge increased differences to 607 genes after SFA and 2516 genes after MUFA. In both groups, SFA decreased expression of cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake genes and increased cholesterol efflux genes. MUFA increased inflammatory genes and PPARα targets involved in β-oxidation.
Based upon gene-expression changes, we conclude that a HF challenge magnifies differences in health, especially after MUFA. Our findings also demonstrate how SFAs and MUFAs exert distinct effects on lipid handling pathways in immune cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating oxylipins may affect peripheral tissues and are assumed to play an important role in endothelial function. They are esterified in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are increased after a high-fat (HF) meal, depending on BMI and fatty acid (FA) type. Yet, it is unclear which oxylipins appear in circulation after HF meals differing in FA composition.
In a double-blind randomized crossover challenge study, we characterized the postprandial oxylipin response after different HF challenges in lean and obese men receiving HF milkshakes, either high in saturated FAs (SFA), monounsaturated FAs (MUFA), or omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA). Plasma oxylipin profiles were significantly altered at 2 and 4 h after shake consumption when compared to baseline. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins increased after n-3 PUFA shake consumption. MUFA shake consumption increased levels of cytochrome P450 mediated oxylipins. SFA shake consumption led to strong increases in linoleic acid (LA) derived HODEs. No differences were observed between lean and obese individuals at baseline and after any shake consumption.
We are the first demonstrating acute effects on circulating oxylipins after HF meal challenges. These changes were strongly influenced by different dietary FAs and may affect endothelial function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BMI and fatty acid type affect postprandial metabolic TG responses, but whether these factors also affect vascular, inflammatory, and leukocyte adherence responses remains unclear. We therefore compared those postprandial responses between lean and obese men after 3 high-fat challenges differing in fatty acid composition. In a crossover double-blind study, 18 lean (BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI >29 kg/m(2)) middle-aged men received 3 isocaloric high-fat milkshakes containing 95 g fat (88% of energy), either high in SFAs (54% of energy/total fat), MUFAs (83% of energy/total fat), or n3 (omega-3) PUFAs (40% of energy/total fat). Hemodynamics, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte cell surface adhesion markers, and plasma cytokines involved in vascular adherence, coagulation, and inflammation were measured before and after consumption of the milkshakes. In both groups and after all shakes were consumed, AIX decreased; plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) 1, sICAM3, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) 1, and interleukin-8 increased; monocyte CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; neutrophil CD11a, CD11b, and CD621 expression increased; and lymphocyte CD62l expression increased (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte CD11a and CD11b expression decreased in lean participants after consumption of all shakes but did not change in obese participants (P < 0.05). Obese participants had a less pronounced decrease in heart rate after the consumption of all shakes (P < 0.05). MUFA consumption induced a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure and AIX compared with the other milkshakes in both lean and obese participants (P < 0.05). High-fat consumption initiates an activated state of cellular adherence and an atherogenic milieu. This response was independent of fatty acid type consumed or of being lean or obese, despite the clear differences in postprandial TG responses between the groups and different milkshakes. These findings suggest that in addition to increased TGs, other mechanisms are involved in the high-fat consumption-induced activated state of cellular adherence.
Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; 143(6). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.174540 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.
In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y) consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA). Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic) and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma triglycerides (TAG), glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.
The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41388. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041388 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean (MED) diet is often considered health-promoting due to its high content of MUFA and polyphenols. These bioactive compounds can affect gene expression and accordingly may regulate pathways and proteins related to cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aimed to identify the effects of a MED-type diet, and the replacement of SFA with MUFA in a Western-type diet, on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression and plasma proteins. Abdominally overweight men and women (waist: women ≥80 cm, men ≥94 cm) were allocated to an 8-wk, completely controlled SFA diet (19% daily energy as SFA), a MUFA diet (20% daily energy MUFA), or a MED diet (21% daily energy MUFA). Concentrations of 124 plasma proteins and PBMC whole-genome transcriptional profiles were assessed. Consumption of the MUFA and MED diets, compared with the SFA diet, decreased the expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes, plasma connective tissue growth factor, and apoB concentrations. Compared with the MED and SFA diets, the MUFA diet changed the expression of genes involved in B-cell receptor signaling and endocytosis signaling. Participants who consumed the MED diet had lower concentrations of proinflammatory proteins at 8 wk compared with baseline. We hypothesize that replacement of SFA with MUFA may improve health, thereby reducing metabolic stress and OXPHOS activity in PBMC. The MED diet may have additional antiatherogenic effects by lowering proinflammatory plasma proteins.
Journal of Nutrition 05/2012; 142(7):1219-25. DOI:10.3945/jn.111.155283 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Biomarkers that allow detection of the onset of disease are of high interest since early detection would allow intervening with lifestyle and nutritional changes before the disease is manifested and pharmacological therapy is required. Our study aimed to improve the phenotypic characterization of overweight but apparently healthy subjects and to identify new candidate profiles for early biomarkers of obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
In a population of 56 healthy, middle-aged overweight subjects Body Mass Index (BMI), fasting concentration of 124 plasma proteins and insulin were determined. The plasma proteins are implicated in chronic diseases, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic signaling. Random Forest was applied to select proteins associated with BMI and plasma insulin. Subsequently, the selected proteins were analyzed by clustering methods to identify protein clusters associated with BMI and plasma insulin. Similar analyses were performed for a second population of 20 healthy, overweight older subjects to verify associations found in population I. In both populations similar clusters of proteins associated with BMI or insulin were identified. Leptin and a number of pro-inflammatory proteins, previously identified as possible biomarkers for obesity-related disease, e.g. Complement 3, C Reactive Protein, Serum Amyloid P, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor clustered together and were positively associated with BMI and insulin. IL-3 and IL-13 clustered together with Apolipoprotein A1 and were inversely associated with BMI and might be potential new biomarkers.
We identified clusters of plasma proteins associated with BMI and insulin in healthy populations. These clusters included previously reported biomarkers for obesity-related disease and potential new biomarkers such as IL-3 and IL-13. These plasma protein clusters could have potential applications for improved phenotypic characterization of volunteers in nutritional intervention studies or as biomarkers in the early detection of obesity-linked disease development and progression.
PLoS ONE 12/2010; 5(12):e14422. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0014422 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in dietary fat composition could lower the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue is an interesting tissue in this respect because of its role in lipid metabolism and inflammation.
Our objective was to investigate the effect of a saturated fatty acid (SFA)- and a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and gene expression profiles of adipose tissue in subjects at risk of metabolic syndrome.
A parallel controlled-feeding trial was conducted in 20 abdominally overweight subjects. Subjects received an SFA diet or a MUFA diet for 8 wk. Plasma and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained, and insulin sensitivity was measured by using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Adipose tissue samples underwent whole-genome microarray and histologic analysis. Plasma and adipose tissue fatty acid composition and concentrations of serum cholesterol and plasma cytokine were determined.
Consumption of the SFA diet resulted in increased expression of genes involved in inflammation processes in adipose tissue, without changes in morphology or insulin sensitivity. The MUFA diet led to a more antiinflammatory gene expression profile, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations and an increase in plasma and adipose tissue oleic acid content.
Consumption of an SFA diet resulted in a proinflammatory "obesity-linked" gene expression profile, whereas consumption of a MUFA diet caused a more antiinflammatory profile. This suggests that replacement of dietary SFA with MUFA could prevent adipose tissue inflammation and may reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00405197.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2009; 90(6):1656-64. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27792 · 6.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and low amounts of meat and dairy products, which may also play a role. We compared the effects of a high MUFA-diet with a diet high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the additional effect of a Mediterranean diet on insulin sensitivity and serum lipids.
A randomized parallel controlled-feeding trial was performed, in 60 non-diabetics (40-65 y) with mild abdominal obesity. After a two week run-in diet high in SFA (19 energy-%), subjects were allocated to a high MUFA-diet (20 energy-%), a Mediterranean diet (MUFA 21 energy-%), or the high SFA-diet, for eight weeks. The high MUFA and the Mediterranean diet did not affect fasting insulin concentrations. The high MUFA-diet reduced total cholesterol (-0.41 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.74, -0.09) and LDL-cholesterol (-0.38 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.65, -0.11) compared with the high SFA-diet, but not triglyceride concentrations. The Mediterranean diet increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (+0.09 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.0, 0.18) and reduced the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.39, 95% CI -0.62, -0.16) compared with the high MUFA-diet.
Replacing a high SFA-diet with a high MUFA or a Mediterranean diet did not affect insulin sensitivity, but improved serum lipids. The Mediterranean diet was most effective, it reduced total and LDL-cholesterol, and also increased HDL-cholesterol and reduced total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of plasma lipoprotein levels may increase the risk for atherosclerosis. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4, also known as fasting-induced adipose factor Fiaf, was uncovered as a novel modulator of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Here we take advantage of the fasting-dependent phenotype of Angptl4-transgenic (Angptl4-Tg) mice to better characterize the metabolic function of Angptl4.
In 24-hour fasted mice, Angptl4 overexpression increased plasma triglycerides (TG) by 24-fold, which was attributable to elevated VLDL-, IDL/LDL- and HDL-TG content. Angptl4 overexpression decreased post-heparin LPL activity by stimulating conversion of endothelial-bound LPL dimers to circulating LPL monomers. In fasted but not fed state, Angptl4 overexpression severely impaired LPL-dependent plasma TG and cholesteryl ester clearance and subsequent uptake of fatty acids and cholesterol into tissues. Consequently, hepatic cholesterol content was significantly decreased, leading to universal upregulation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis pathways and increased rate of cholesterol synthesis.
The hypertriglyceridemic effect of Angptl4 is attributable to inhibition of LPL-dependent VLDL lipolysis by converting LPL dimers to monomers, and Angptl4 upregulates cholesterol synthesis in liver secondary to inhibition of LPL- and HL-dependent hepatic cholesterol uptake.