Adam Risch

National Cancer Institute (USA), Maryland, United States

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Publications (6)29.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds present in uncooked foods as well as in foods cooked at high temperatures. AGEs have been associated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in patients with diabetes. Dietary AGEs are an important contributor to the AGE pool in the body. N(ϵ)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) AGE is one of the major biologically and chemically well-characterized AGE markers. The consumption of red meat, which is CML-AGE rich, has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer in men. With the use of a published food CML-AGE database, we estimated the consumption of CML AGE in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and evaluated the association between CML-AGE consumption and pancreatic cancer and the mediating effect of CML AGE on the association between red meat consumption and pancreatic cancer. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for pancreatic cancer. During an average of 10.5 y of follow-up, we identified 2193 pancreatic cancer cases (1407 men and 786 women) from 528,251 subjects. With the comparison of subjects in the fifth and the first quintiles of CML-AGE consumption, we observed increased pancreatic cancer risk in men (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.93, P-trend = 0.003) but not women (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.72, P-trend = 0.42). Men in the highest quintile of red meat consumption had higher risk of pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.70), which attenuated after adjustment for CML-AGE consumption (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.53). Dietary CML-AGE consumption was associated with modestly increased risk of pancreatic cancer in men and may partially explain the positive association between red meat and pancreatic cancer. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at as NCT00340015. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2015; 101(1):126-34. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.098061 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 07/2012; 3(7):905-913. DOI:10.4236/fns.2012.37120
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies report positive associations between high-temperature cooked meat intake and pancreatic cancer. We assessed associations between dietary intake of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-mutagens formed in meat cooked at high temperatures-and incident exocrine pancreatic cancer in a prospective cohort. The 62 581 subjects randomized to screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Screening Trial (PLCO) who completed an initial dietary survey that assessed meat intake, cooking methods, and doneness preferences defined the cohort. Subjects were surveyed annually for incident cancers through 2007. A National Cancer Institute research database (CHARRED) was used to estimate HCA and BaP intake and a Mutagenic Activity Index (MAI) from survey data. Proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of pancreatic cancer were estimated from multi-variate Cox regression models by quintile of intake, with the lowest quintile as the referent. During follow-up (median: 10 yr), 248 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were confirmed. Preferences for well and very well done meat were generally associated with increased risks. Significant elevations in pancreatic cancer risk were found in upper quintiles of MAI, and individual mutagens 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Compared to the lowest quintile of MAI, the third and fifth quintiles brought HRs of 1.86 (1.22, 2.85) and 1.87 (1.16, 3.02), respectively. These three exposures exhibited significant (P-trend: 0.01-0.03) positive trends in risk as their levels increased Consuming well-done meat cooked at high temperatures, which contains high mutagen levels, appears to confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 01/2012; 51(1):128-37. DOI:10.1002/mc.20794 · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for estimating intake of mutagens formed in meats cooked at high temperatures (heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, nitrate, and nitrite. During 7 years of follow-up, 2,719 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained from a cohort of 300,948 men and women. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) comparing the fifth to the first quintile for both red (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42; P(trend) < 0.001) and processed meat (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P(trend) = 0.017) intakes indicated an elevated risk for colorectal cancer. The potential mechanisms for this relation include heme iron (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.29; P(trend) = 0.022), nitrate from processed meats (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32; P(trend) = 0.001), and heterocyclic amine intake [HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34; P(trend) < 0.001 for 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P(trend) <0.001 for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)]. In general, the elevated risks were higher for rectal cancer than for colon cancer, with the exception of MeIQx and DiMeIQx, which were only associated with colon cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association for red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer; heme iron, nitrate/nitrite, and heterocyclic amines from meat may explain these associations.
    Cancer Research 03/2010; 70(6):2406-14. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3929 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include quantitative recommendations for 2 eating patterns, the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, to promote optimal health and reduce disease risk. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been promoted for health benefits. Our objective was to determine whether adherence to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the DASH Eating Plan, or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, men and women aged 55-74 y were screened for colorectal cancer by sigmoidoscopy at 10 centers in the U.S. After adjusting for potential confounders, men who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had a 26% reduced risk of colorectal adenoma compared with men who least complied with the recommendations (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. <or=2 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64-0.85; P-trend < 0.001). Comparable results were found for men who had intakes most similar to the DASH Eating Plan or a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Women who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had an 18% reduced risk for colorectal adenoma, but subgroup analyses revealed protective associations only for current smokers (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. <or=2 = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31-0.89; P-trend < 0.01) or normal-weight women (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. <or=2 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.55-0.99; P-trend = 0.08). Following the current U.S. dietary recommendations or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma, especially in men.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2007; 137(11):2443-50. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is ample evidence from basic research and animal carcinogenicity studies that heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagens and carcinogens. However, there was a paucity of human data due to a lack of appropriate investigative tools. We developed the first validated cooked meat module within a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the United States of America and created databases to be used in conjunction with this FFQ to estimate intake of HCAs and benzo[a]pyrene, a marker of PAHs. It became clear that other aspects of meat may also contribute to carcinogenesis; in particular, we are pursuing two additional areas: processed meat and iron exposure in relation to cancer risk. To investigate these hypotheses, we have expanded the cooked meat module to include detailed information on processed meats and fish. In addition, we are developing two databases, one for total iron and heme iron in cooked meat and the other for nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitroso compounds in processed meats. In this report, we will outline the methods used to develop the meat questionnaires, the databases, a software package for generating the intake values, and the methods used to generate nutritional data from nationally representative samples.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 07/2005; 49(7):648-55. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200500018 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

267 Citations
29.39 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Nutritional Epidemiology
      Maryland, United States
    • Center for Information Services
      Miami, Florida, United States