P Kaiser

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (30)69.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human IL-1 family contains eleven genes encoded at three separate loci. Nine, including IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36RN), also known as IL-1F5, are present at a single locus on chromosome 2, whereas IL-18 and IL-33 lie on chromosomes 11 and 9 respectively. There are currently only three known orthologues in the chicken - IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-1RN - which are encoded on chromosomes 22, 24 and unplaced, respectively. A novel chicken IL-1 family sequence representing IL-36RN (IL-1F5) was initially identified from an expressed sequence tag (EST) library by its similarity to both chicken IL-1RN and chicken IL-1β. Following isolation of the cDNA from the liver of an uninfected bird, a number of unique sequence features were identified. The predicted protein has a longer NH(2)-terminus than the human protein; however, as in mammals, this region contains neither a prodomain nor a signal peptide. A putative nuclear export sequence is also apparent, yet a similar motif is absent in mammalian IL-36RN. Although chIL-36RN exhibits low homology with its mammalian orthologues, it encodes a predicted β-trefoil structure whose β-strands are conserved with those of the mouse sequence. Unlike in mammals, chIL-36RN expression was constitutive in all tissues and cell subsets examined. In response to viral infection, expression was significantly downregulated in a line of birds which are susceptible to the virus. Chicken IL-36RN, like chIL-1RN, is not encoded at the chIL-1β locus, further emphasising the genomic fragmentation of the large IL-1 gene cluster found in mammals. This suggests differential evolution of this cytokine family since the divergence of birds and mammals from a common ancestor, and underlines the difficulty of determining the full repertoire of chIL-1 family members.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2012; 38(1):136-47. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica infection remains a serious problem in a wide range of animals and in man. Poultry-derived food is the main source of human infection with the non-host-adapted serovars while fowl typhoid and pullorum disease are important diseases of poultry. We have assessed cecal colonization and immune responses of newly hatched and older chickens to Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Infantis, Gallinarum and Pullorum. S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis colonized the ceca more efficiently than S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum. Salmonella infection was also associated with increased staining for B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the cecal tonsils of infected birds. S. Enteritidis infection in newly hatched birds stimulated the expression of CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 chemokines in the cecal tonsils, while S. Gallinarum up-regulated the expression of LITAF. In older chickens, S. Enteritidis infection resulted in a significantly higher expression of CXCLi2, iNOS, LITAF and IL-10 while S. Pullorum appeared to down-regulate CXCLi1 expression in the cecal tonsils. Data from spleens showed either no expression or down-regulation of the tested genes.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 04/2012; 35(5):397-410. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • S Balu, L Rothwell, P Kaiser
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    ABSTRACT: Using genetic immunisation of mice, we produced antibodies against chicken interleukin-12p40 (chIL-12p40), also known as IL-12β. After a final injection with a recombinant chIL-12p40 protein, several stable hybridoma cell lines were established which secreted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to this component of the heterodimeric IL-12 cytokine. Specific binding of three of the mAbs to COS-7 cell-derived recombinant chIL-12p40 and the chIL-12p70 heterodimer was demonstrated in an indirect ELISA, and in dot blots. Two of the mAbs were used to develop a capture ELISA, suitable for detecting both recombinant protein (chIL-12p40 and the heterodimeric p70 protein) and native chIL-12. The mAbs were further characterised to show utility in immunocytochemistry.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2011; 140(1-2):140-6. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Salmonella-infected poultry products are a major source of human Salmonella infection. The prophylactic use of antimicrobials in poultry production was recently banned in the EU, increasing the need for alternative methods to control Salmonella infections in poultry flocks. Genetic selection of chickens more resistant to Salmonella colonization provides an attractive means of sustainably controlling the pathogen in commercial poultry flocks and its subsequent entry into the food chain. Analysis of different inbred chickens has shown that individual lines are consistently either susceptible or resistant to the many serovars of Salmonella that have been tested. In this study, two inbred chicken lines with differential susceptibility to Salmonella colonization (6(1) ((R)) and N((S))) were used in a backcross experimental design. Unlike previous studies that used a candidate gene approach or low-density genome-wide screens, we have exploited a high-density marker set of 1255 SNPs covering the whole genome to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Analysis of log-transformed caecal bacterial levels between the parental lines revealed a significant difference at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post-infection (P < 0.05). Analysis of the genotypes of the backcross (F(1) x N) population (n = 288) revealed four QTL on chromosomes 2, 3, 12 and 25 for the two traits examined in this study: log-transformed bacterial counts in the caeca and presence of a hardened caseous caecal core. These included one genome-wide significant QTL on chromosome 2 at 20 Mb and three additional QTL, on chromosomes 3, 12 and 25 at 96, 15 and 1 Mb, respectively, which were significant at the chromosome-wide level (P < 0.05). The results generated in this study will inform future breeding strategies to control these pathogens in commercial poultry flocks.
    Animal Genetics 06/2010; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium that has a significant impact on both human and animal health. It is one of the most common food-borne pathogens responsible for a self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans and a similar disease in pigs, cattle and chickens. In contrast, intravenous challenge with S. Typhimurium provides a valuable model for systemic infection, often causing a typhoid-like infection, with bacterial replication resulting in the destruction of the spleen and liver of infected animals. Resistance to systemic salmonellosis in chickens is partly genetically determined, with bacterial numbers at systemic sites in resistant lines being up to 1000-fold fewer than in susceptible lines. Identification of genes contributing to disease resistance will enable genetic selection of resistant lines that will reduce Salmonella levels in poultry flocks. We previously identified a novel resistance locus on Chromosome 5, designated SAL1. Through the availability of high-density SNP panels in the chicken, combined with advanced back-crossing of the resistant and susceptible lines, we sought to refine the SAL1 locus and identify potential positional candidate genes. Using a 6(th) generation backcross mapping population, we have confirmed and refined the SAL1 locus as lying between 54.0 and 54.8 Mb on the long arm of Chromosome 5 (F = 8.72, P = 0.00475). This region spans 14 genes, including two very striking functional candidates; CD27-binding protein (Siva) and the RAC-alpha serine/threonine protein kinase homolog, AKT1 (protein kinase B, PKB).
    Animal Genetics 12/2009; 40(6):871-7. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histomonosis is a disease of poultry caused by Histomonas meleagridis. Chickens usually recover while the mortality rate in turkeys is high. The immunological response of both species towards H. meleagridis was investigated. Parasites migrated in greater numbers to the turkey liver compared with that of chicken. Chicken mounted an effective caecal innate response, with increased expression of IL-1beta, CXCLi2 and IL-6 mRNA, resulting in control of parasite numbers. The turkey failed to mount such an effective innate response in the caecal tonsil, allowing greater numbers to migrate to the liver, where a sustained, uncontrolled immune response was mounted, evidenced by the upregulation of mRNA for IL-1beta, CXCLi2, IFN-gamma, IL-13, IL-4 and IL-10. Expression levels of mRNA of the chicken and turkey beta-defensin AvBD2 suggest that this response was not limited to the cytokines. There was an influx of CD4+, CD8alpha+, CD28+ and CD44+ cells into the livers of both species, coinciding with parasite movement. These influxes were more pronounced in the turkey, correlating with a decrease in numbers of the same cells in the spleen, which was not observed in the chicken. Antibody levels in the chicken increased more than those in the turkey, supporting evidence of an adaptive response.
    Parasite Immunology 07/2009; 31(6):312-27. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2009; 128(1-3-ISSN: 0165-2427):267-268. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to infection with enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be at many levels and include both non-immune and immune mechanisms. Immune resistance mechanisms can be specific, at the level of the adaptive immune response, or non-specific, at the level of the innate immune response. Whilst we can extrapolate to some degree in birds from what is known about immune responses to these pathogens in mammals, chickens are not "feathered mice", but have a different repertoire of genes, molecules, cells and organs involved in their immune response compared to mammals. Fundamental work on the chicken's immune response to enteric pathogens is therefore still required. Our studies focus particularly on the innate immune response, as responses of heterophils (the avian neutrophil equivalent) from commercial birds, and macrophages from inbred lines of chickens, correlate with resistance or susceptibility to Salmonella infection with a variety of Salmonella serovars and infection models. We work on two basic resistance mechanisms - resistance to colonization with Salmonella or Campylobacter, and resistance to systemic salmonellosis (or fowl typhoid). To map genes involved in resistance to colonization with Salmonella and Campylobacter, we are using a combination of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from microarray studies, allied with whole genome SNP arrays (WGA), a candidate gene approach and analysis of copy number variation across the genome. For resistance to systemic salmonellosis, we have refined the location ofa novel resistance locus on Chromosome 5, designated SAL1, using high density SNP panels, combined with advanced back-crossing of resistant and susceptible lines. Using a 6th generation backcross mapping population we have confirmed and refined the SAL1 locus to 8-00 kb of Chromosome 5. This region spans 14 genes, including two very striking functional candidates; CD27-binding protein (Siva) and the RAC-alpha serine/threonine protein kinase homologue, AKT1.
    Bulletin et memoires de l'Academie royale de medecine de Belgique 02/2009; 164(1-2):17-25; discussion 25-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Avian systemic salmonellosis is primarily caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum and serovar Pullorum causing the diseases Fowl Typhoid and Pullorum Disease respectively. During infection interaction with the immune system occurs in three main phases. First is invasion via the gastrointestinal tract. Infection with S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum does not cause substantial inflammation, unlike S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis. Through in vitro models it was found that S. Gallinarum does not induce expression of CXC chemokines or pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta or IL-6, whilst in an in vivo model S. Pullorum infection leads to down-regulation of CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 in the ileum. The absence of flagella in S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum means they are not recognised by TLR5, which is believed to play a key role in the initiation of inflammatory responses, though other pathogen-factors are likely to be involved. The second phase is establishing systemic infection. Salmonella invade macrophages and probably dendritic cells and are translocated to the spleen and liver, where replication occurs. Salmonella survival is dependent on the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system, which inhibits antimicrobial activity by preventing fusion of lysosymes with the phagocytic vacuole and by modulation of MHC and cytokine expression. Studies in resistant and susceptible chicken lines have shown that the interaction with macrophages is central to the progression of infection or immunological clearance. Primary macrophages from resistant animals are more efficient in killing Salmonella through respiratory burst and by induction of cytokine expression including the initiation of protective Th1 responses that leads to the third phase. Where replication of Salmonella is not controlled the death of the animal usually results. If the innate immune system is not able to control replication then cellular and humoral responses, primarily mediated through Th1-associated cytokines, are able to clear infection. In S. Pullorum a significant number of animals develop persistent infection of splenic macrophages. Here we show preliminary evidence of modulation of adaptive immunity away from a Th1 response to facilitate the development of the carrier state. In carrier animals persistence may lead to reproductive tract and egg infection associated with a decline in CD4+ T cell numbers and function associated with the onset of sexual maturity in hens.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 11/2008; 128(1-3):53-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to infection takes place at many levels, and involves both non-specific and specific immune mechanisms. The chicken has a different repertoire of immune genes, molecules, cells and organs compared to mammals. To understand the role of any disease resistance gene(s), it is therefore important to understand these different repertoires, and the bird's response to a particular pathogen. Our studies focus on the innate immune response, as responses of macrophages from inbred lines of chickens, and heterophils from commercial birds, correlate with resistance or susceptibility to Salmonella infection with a variety of Salmonella serovars and infection models. To map disease resistance genes, we are using a combination of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from microarray studies, allied with whole genome SNP arrays (WGA) and a candidate gene approach. There are over 500 human genes with the Gene Ontology term "innate immunity". We have identified over 400 of these genes in the chicken genome, and are actively identifying informative SNPs in them. The segregation of 6000 WGA SNPs across all of our inbred lines was also assessed, which should yield approximately 900 informative SNPs for a cross between any two lines. The initial focus of these studies is on mapping resistance genes in our inbred lines, but the studies will be extended to commercial flocks.
    Developments in biologicals 02/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Cell and cytokine responses during the development of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in growing turkeys were studied in a model system. The objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that FPD is an allergic response to the environmental materials. Hybrid female turkeys at 28 days of age were exposed to wet litter for 48 h in a randomized block experiment. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and CXCLi2) and signature Th1 (interferon-gamma), Th2 (IL-13) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines were measured in the foot pad tissues using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sections of foot pad tissue were stained for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and macrophages using antibodies that specifically recognize the relevant cell types in the turkey. In the footpads of birds suffering from FPD, there were large fold increases in mRNA expression levels for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta (+635), IL-6 (+65), and CXCLi2 (+1924), and interferon-gamma (+32), whereas there was only a small increase in IL-13 mRNA (+2) and no change in IL-10 mRNA expression levels. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were present in the footpads of more than 90% of birds housed on wet litter compared with 25% or less on dry litter. Macrophages were observed in the footpads of approximately 85% of birds housed on wet litter compared with none in birds housed on dry litter. B lymphocytes were not detected in tissue from any of the birds. The data suggest that FPD is associated with a rapidly occurring inflammatory response, rather than a Th2-mediated allergic reaction.
    Avian Pathology 01/2008; 36(6):453-9. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • P Kaiser, D Werling
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2007; 120(1-2):1-2. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • P Kaiser
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    ABSTRACT: Although in broad terms the avian immune response is remarkably similar to that of mammals, when one looks at specifics birds have a different repertoire of immune organs, cells and molecules compared to those characterized in mammals. Birds lack organized lymph nodes, yet have the Bursa of Fabricius. Birds lack neutrophils and functional eosinophils, yet have a distinct group of polymorphonuclear granulocytes known as heterophils. Birds also have a different repertoire of cytokines, chemokines, Toll-like receptors, defensins and integrins, as detailed in this review.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2007; 117(1-4):221-30. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of DNA vaccination delivered in ovo for protecting against challenge with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Using a plasmid expressing the beta-galactosidase gene, DNA was successfully delivered to the embryo after in ovo injection and localises to the proventriculus and thymus. The coding sequence for the immunogenic IBDV protein, VP2, was cloned into pCI-neo, creating pCI-Vp2. Complete protection against IBDV was obtained by priming in ovo with pCI-Vp2, followed by boosting with the fowlpox recombinant, fpIBD1, also expressing the VP2 gene. This complete protection was not evident with either of the experimental vaccines on their own. An antibody response was not detected after the prime-boost vaccination, even after chicks had been challenged with IBDV, implying that the DNA prime delivered in ovo stimulated a protective cellular immune response.
    Vaccine 07/2006; 24(23):4951-61. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genes encoding the chicken proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-6 were cloned, sequenced and mapped. The exon:intron structure of the coding region of chicken IL1B corresponds almost exactly to those of mammalian IL1B. As yet, we have no evidence for a 5'-UTR non-coding exon equivalent to that found in mammalian IL1B. The exon:intron structure of chicken IL6 differs from those of mammalian IL6, having one exon fewer (the first two exons in mammalian IL6 genes appear to be fused in the chicken gene). We were unable to clone or sequence the promoter of chicken IL1B. The chicken IL6 promoter shares a number of potential regulatory sequences similar to those found in the human IL6 promoter. These putative elements include (5'-3') a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), an AP-1 binding site, an NF-IL-6 binding site (albeit in the reverse orientation), an NF-kappaB binding site, a second AP-1 binding site and a TATAAA box. A further GRE, a cAMP response element and regions with homology to c-fos serum responsive elements or retinoblastoma control elements were absent. Promoter sequence polymorphisms were not identified in eight different inbred chicken lines. A restriction single-stranded conformational polymorphism was identified which enabled chicken IL1B to be genetically mapped to one end of chromosome 2. Chicken IL6 was mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization also to chromosome 2, at an FLpter of 0.26.
    Animal Genetics 07/2004; 35(3):169-75. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    P Wigley, P Kaiser
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman) has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.
    Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 01/2003; · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • L Rothwell, A Hamblin, P Kaiser
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    ABSTRACT: Using genetic immunisation of mice, we produced antibodies against chicken interleukin-2 (ChIL-2), the first produced against a non-mammalian interleukin. After a final injection with a recombinant ChIL-2 protein, two stable hybridoma cell lines were established which secreted monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this cytokine. Specific binding of the two MAbs to recombinant ChIL-2 produced by Escherichia coli and COS-7 cells was demonstrated in an indirect ELISA, Western blotting and dot blots. Both of them were able to neutralise the biological activity of the ChIL-2, but neither allowed the detection of ChIL-2 by flow cytometry.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2002; 83(3-4):149-60. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmid DNA (pcDNA1::MOMP A) expressing the major outer membrane protein of an avian Chlamydophila psittaci serovar A strain was tested for its ability to induce protective immunity against challenge with the same C. psittaci serovar. A combined parenteral (intramuscular injection) and mucosal route (DNA drops administered to the nares) of DNA inoculation was compared to three other, different routes of administration (intramuscular inoculation, DNA drops administered to the nares and aerosol immunization). In addition, the effect of turkey interferon gamma (tIFN-gamma) on intramuscular immunization was evaluated by co-expressing pCIneo::tIFN-gamma. A significant level of protection was observed in turkeys immunized via the combined parenteral/mucosal route, the intramuscular route or by aerosol. Severe clinical signs and lesions were observed in the non-vaccinated control groups, in 80% of turkeys inoculated with a mixture of pcDNA1::MOMP A and pCIneo::tIFN-gamma, and in 60% of turkeys vaccinated with DNA drops administered to the nares. The use of MOMP-based DNA vaccination as a means of preventing severe clinical signs and lesions in a turkey model of C. psittaci infection was demonstrated, as was down-regulation of the immune response by co-expression of tIFN-gamma.
    Immunology 06/2001; 103(1):106-12. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Turkey and chicken interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) share high identity (96.3% and 97% at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively). As such, we predicted that they would be functionally cross-reactive. To test this hypothesis, we produced recombinant turkey and chicken IFN-gamma, and compared their biological properties. Recombinant turkey and chicken IFN-gamma both induce HD11 cells (a chicken macrophage cell line) and LSTC-IAH30 cells (ALV-J-transformed turkey macrophages) to produce nitric oxide (NO), as measured in an avian IFN-gamma bioassay. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, capable of neutralising the effect of chicken IFN-gamma on HD11 cells, were also shown to inhibit the activity of turkey IFN-gamma on these cells. The antibody neutralisation effect on both turkey and chicken IFN-gamma was shown by a significant reduction in NO production by HD11 cells when the neutralising antibodies were present in the bioassay. FACS analysis showed that HD11 and LSTC-IAH30 cells share some cell surface markers.
    Developmental & Comparative Immunology 02/2001; 25(1):69-82. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen that is capable of causing disease in a range of hosts. Although human salmonellosis is frequently associated with consumption of contaminated poultry and eggs, and the serotypes Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum are important world-wide pathogens of poultry, little is understood of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in the chicken. Type III secretion systems play a key role in host cell invasiveness and trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines during invasion of mammalian hosts. This results in a polymorphonuclear cell influx that contributes to the resulting enteritis. In this study, a chicken primary cell culture model was used to investigate the cytokine responses to entry by the broad host range serotypes S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium, and the host specific serotype S. gallinarum, which rarely causes disease outside its main host, the chicken. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ss, IL-2, IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and production of IL-6 and IFN-gamma was also determined through bioassays. All serotypes were invasive and had little effect on the production of IFN-gamma compared with non-infected cells; S. enteritidis invasion caused a slight down-regulation of IL-2 production. For IL-1ss production, infection with S. typhimurium had little effect, whilst infection with S. gallinarum or S. enteritidis caused a reduction in IL-1ss mRNA levels. Invasion of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis caused an eight- to tenfold increase in production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, whilst invasion by S. gallinarum caused no increase. These findings correlate with the pathogenesis of Salmonella in poultry. S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis invasion produces a strong inflammatory response, that may limit the spread of Salmonella largely to the gut, whilst S. gallinarum does not induce an inflammatory response and may not be limited by the immune system, leading to the severe systemic disease fowl typhoid.
    Microbiology 01/2001; 146 Pt 12:3217-26. · 2.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

674 Citations
69.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Roslin Institute
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2009
    • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
      Swindon, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2003
    • Institute for Animal Health
      Ньюбери, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Animal and Food Sciences
      Newark, DE, United States