[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is expressed in endothelial cells in the developing heart, particularly in areas of high shear stress, such as the atrioventricular (AV) canal. KLF2 ablation leads to myocardial thinning, high output cardiac failure and death by mouse embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in a mixed genetic background. This work identifies an earlier and more fundamental role for KLF2 in mouse cardiac development in FVB/N mice. FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos die earlier, by E11.5. E9.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have multiple, disorganized cell layers lining the AV cushions, the primordia of the AV valves, rather than the normal single layer. By E10.5, traditional and endothelial-specific FVB/N KLF2-/- AV cushions are hypocellular, suggesting that the cells accumulating at the AV canal have a defect in endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT). E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have reduced glycosaminoglycans in the cardiac jelly, correlating with the reduced EMT. However, the number of mesenchymal cells migrating from FVB/N KLF2-/- AV explants into a collagen matrix is reduced considerably compared to wild-type, suggesting that the EMT defect is not due solely to abnormal cardiac jelly. Echocardiography of E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos indicates that they have abnormal heart function compared to wild-type. E10.5 C57BL/6 KLF2-/- hearts have largely normal AV cushions. However, E10.5 FVB/N and C57BL/6 KLF2-/- embryos have a delay in the formation of the atrial septum that is not observed in a defined mixed background. KLF2 ablation results in reduced Sox9, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugdh), Gata4 and Tbx5 mRNA in FVB/N AV canals. KLF2 binds to the Gata4, Tbx5 and Ugdh promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, indicating that KLF2 could directly regulate these genes. In conclusion, KLF2-/- heart phenotypes are genetic background-dependent. KLF2 plays a role in EMT through its regulation of important cardiovascular genes.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e54891. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM (BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death) can link cytokine receptor signaling with the apoptotic machinery in hematopoietic cells. We investigated here the role of BIM in erythropoietin (EPO)-mediated survival in erythroid cells.
We downregulated BIM in EPO-dependent HCD57 erythroid cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and used real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, and flow cytometry to characterize BIM expression and apoptosis. Hematologic analyses of BIM-deficient (Bim(-/-)) mice were conducted.
BIM expression increases in primary murine erythroid cells and HCD57 cells deprived of EPO. Whereas Bim mRNA increased less than twofold, BIM protein increased more than 10-fold after EPO withdrawal, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation of BIM. EPO treatment resulted in rapid phosphorylation of BIM at Serine 65 and phosphorylation correlated with degradation of BIM. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by a MEK/ERK inhibitor, U0126, blocked both phosphorylation and degradation of BIM, resulting in apoptosis. Treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, also blocked degradation of phosphorylated BIM. Downregulation of BIM with the shRNA resulted in HCD57 cells more resistant to apoptosis induced by either EPO withdrawal or ERK inhibition. Although we observed no significant changes in the number of erythrocytes or reticulocytes in the circulation of Bim(-/-) mice, erythroid progenitors from bone marrow in Bim(-/-) mice were reduced in number and more resistant to apoptosis induced by U0126 MEK/ERK inhibitor.
EPO protects erythroid cells from apoptosis in part through ERK-mediated phosphorylation followed by proteasomal degradation of BIM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Krüppel-like C2/H2 zinc finger transcription factors (KLFs) control development and differentiation. Erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF or KLF1) regulates adult beta-globin gene expression and is necessary for normal definitive erythropoiesis. KLF2 is required for normal embryonic Ey- and betah1-, but not adult betaglobin, gene expression in mice. Both EKLF and KLF2 play roles in primitive erythroid cell development. To investigate potential interactions between these genes, EKLF/KLF2 double-mutant embryos were analyzed. EKLF(-/-)KLF2(-/-) mice appear anemic at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and die before E11.5, whereas single-knockout EKLF(-/-) or KLF2(-/-) embryos are grossly normal at E10.5 and die later than EKLF(-/-)KLF2(-/-) embryos. At E10.5, Ey- and betah1-globin mRNA is greatly reduced in EKLF(-/-)KLF2(-/-), compared with EKLF(-/-) or KLF2(-/-) embryos, consistent with the observed anemia. Light and electron microscopic analyses of E9.5 EKLF(-/-)KLF2(-/-) yolk sacs, and cytospins, indicate that erythroid and endothelial cells are morphologically more abnormal than in either single knockout. EKLF(-/-)KLF2(-/-) erythroid cells are markedly irregularly shaped, suggesting membrane abnormalities. EKLF and KLF2 may have coordinate roles in a common progenitor to erythroid and endothelial cells. The data indicate that EKLF and KLF2 have redundant functions in embryonic beta-like globin gene expression, primitive erythropoiesis, and endothelial development.