ABSTRACT: Based on standard perturbation theory, we present a full quantum derivation of the formula for the orbital magnetization in periodic systems. The derivation is generally valid for insulators with or without a Chern number, for metals at zero or finite temperatures, and at weak as well as strong magnetic fields. The formula is shown to be valid in the presence of electron-electron interaction, provided the one-electron energies and wave functions are calculated self-consistently within the framework of the exact current and spin-density functional theory.
Physical Review Letters 12/2007; 99(19):197202. · 7.37 Impact Factor