John F Madden

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (46)121.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to test our hypothesis that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may have a higher prognostic accuracy than the Partin tables in predicting organ-confined (OC) prostate cancer and extracapsular extension (ECE) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
    Urologic oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We hypothesized that cold ischemia during partial orchiectomy would lead to higher serum testosterone levels and preservation of testicular architecture than warm ischemia in a prepubescent rat model. Materials and methods Eighteen prepubescent male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized to three different surgical groups: sham surgery, bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 minutes of cord compression with cold ischemia, or bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 minutes of cord compression with warm ischemia. Animals were killed at puberty, and serum, sperm, and testicles were collected. Histological tissue injury was graded by standardized methodology. Results Mean serum testosterone levels were 1445 ± 590 pg/mL for the sham group, 449 ± 268 pg/mL for the cold ischemia group and 879 ± 631 pg/mL for the warm ischemia group (p = 0.12). Mean sperm counts were 2.1 × 107 for sham, 4.4 × 106 for cold ischemia, and 9.9 × 106 for the warm ischemia groups (p = 0.48). Histological evaluation revealed significant difference in tissue injury grading with more injury in the cold ischemia than in the warm ischemia group (p = 0.01). Conclusions In our preclinical rat model, we found no benefit for cold ischemia over warm ischemia at 30 minutes.
    Journal of Pediatric Urology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of our study was to test our hypothesis that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may have a higher prognostic accuracy than the Partin tables in predicting organ-confined (OC) prostate cancer and extracapsular extension (ECE) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and materials After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed 60 patients who underwent 3-T mpMRI before RP. mpMRI was used to assess clinical stage and the updated version of the Partin tables was used to calculate the probability of each patient to harbor OC disease. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mpMRI in detecting OC and ECE were calculated. Logistic regression models predicting OC pathology were created using either clinical stage at mpMRI or Partin tables probability. The area under the curve was used to calculate the predictive accuracy of each model. Results Median prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis was 5 ng/ml (range: 4.1–6.7 ng/ml). Overall, 52 (86.7%) men had cT1 disease, 7 (11.7%) had cT2a/b, and 1 (1.6%) had cT3b at digital rectal examination. Biopsy Gleason score was 6, 3+4 = 7, 4+3 = 7, 8, and 9 to 10 in 28 (46.7%), 15 (25%), 3 (5%), 10 (16.7%), and 4 (6.6%) patients, respectively. At mpMRI, clinical stage was defined as cT2a/b, cT2c, cT3a, and cT3b in 11 (18.3%), 23 (38.3%), 21 (35%), and 5 (8.4%) patients, respectively. At final pathology, 38 men (63.3%) had OC disease, whereas 18 (30%) had ECE and 4 (6.7%) had seminal vesicle invasion. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of mpMRI in detecting OC disease were 81.6%, 86.4%, 91.2%, and 73.1%, respectively, whereas in detecting ECE were 77.8%, 83.4%, 66.7%, and 89.7%, respectively. At logistic regression, both the Partin tables–derived probability and the mpMRI clinical staging were significantly associated with OC disease (all P<0.01). The area under the curves of the model built using the Partin tables and that of the mpMRI model were 0.62 and 0.82, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusions The predictive accuracy of mpMRI in predicting OC disease on pathological analysis is significantly greater than that of the Partin tables. mpMRI had a high PPV (91.2%) when predicting OC disease and a high NPV (89.7%) with regard to ECE. mpMRI should be considered when planning prostate cancer treatment in addition to readily available clinical parameters.
    Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present consensus panel convened to discuss the use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for small renal masses, formulate technical aspects, outline potential pitfalls and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. The meeting was conducted as an informal consensus process and no scoring system was used to measure the levels of agreement on the different topics. A moderated general discussion was used as the basis for consensus and arising issues were resolved at this point. A consensus was established and lack of agreement to topics or specific items was noted at this point. Recommended biopsy technique: at least 2 cores, sampling different tumor regions with ultrasonography being the preferred method of image guidance. Pathological interpretation: "non-diagnostic samples" should refer to insufficient material, inconclusive and normal renal parenchyma. For non-diagnostic samples, a repeat biopsy is recommended. Fine needle aspiration may provide additional information but cannot substitute for core biopsy. Indications for RMB: biopsy is recommended in most cases except in patients with imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology (syndromes, imaging characteristics) and cases whereby conservative management is not contemplated. RMB is recommended for active surveillance but not for watchful waiting candidates. We report the results of an international consensus meeting on the use of renal mass biopsy for small renal masses, defining the technique, pathological interpretation and indications.
    BJU International 10/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the rate at which computed tomographically guided pelvic percutaneous bone biopsy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) yields adequate tissue for genomic profiling and to identify issues likely to affect diagnostic yields.Materials and Methods:This study was institutional review board approved, and written informed consent was obtained. In a phase II trial assessing response to everolimus, 31 men with mCRPC underwent 54 biopsy procedures (eight men before and 23 men both before and during treatment). Variables assessed were lesion location (iliac wing adjacent to sacroiliac joint, iliac wing anterior and/or superior to sacroiliac joint, sacrum, and remainder of pelvis), mean lesion attenuation, subjective lesion attenuation (purely sclerotic vs mixed), central versus peripheral lesion sampling, lesion size, core number, and use of zoledronic acid for more than 1 year.Results:Of 54 biopsy procedures, 21 (39%) yielded adequate tissue for RNA isolation and genomic profiling. Three of four sacral biopsies were adequate. Biopsies of the ilium adjacent to the sacroiliac joints were more likely adequate than those from elsewhere in the ilium (48% vs 28%, respectively). All five biopsies performed in other pelvic locations yielded inadequate tissue for RNA isolation. Mean attenuation of lesions with inadequate tissue was 172 HU greater than those with adequate tissue (621.1 HU ± 166 vs 449 HU ± 221, respectively; P = .002). Use of zoledronic acid, peripheral sampling, core number, and lesion size affected yields, but the differences were not statistically significant. Histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that results of 36 (67%) biopsies were positive for cancer; only mean attenuation differences were significant (707 HU ± 144 vs 473 HU ± 191, negative vs positive, respectively; P < .001).Conclusion:In men with mCRPC, percutaneous sampling of osseous metastases for genomic profiling is possible, but use of zoledronic acid for more than 1 year may reduce the yield of adequate tissue for RNA isolation. Sampling large low-attenuating lesions at their periphery maximizes yield.© RSNA, 2013.
    Radiology 08/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and Purpose: Topical chemotherapy for urothelial cancer is dependent on adequate contact time of the chemotherapeutic agent with the urothelium. To date, there has not been a reliable method of maintaining this contact for renal or ureteral urothelial carcinoma. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a reverse thermosensitive polymer to improve dwell times of mitomycin C (MMC) in the upper tract. Materials and Methods: Using a porcine model, four animals were treated ureteroscopically with both upper urinary tracts receiving MMC mixed with iodinated contrast. One additional animal received MMC percutaneously. The treatment side had ureteral outflow blocked with a reverse thermosensitive polymer plug. MMC dwell time was monitored fluoroscopically and intrarenal pressures measured. Two animals were euthanized immediately, and three animals were euthanized 5 days afterward. Results: In control kidneys, drainage occurred at a mean of 5.3+/-0.58 minutes. Intrarenal pressures stayed fairly stable: 9.7+/-14.0 cm H20. In treatment kidneys, dwell time was extended to 60 minutes, when the polymer was washed out. Intrarenal pressures in the treatment kidneys peaked at 75.0+/-14.7 cm H20 and reached steady state at 60 cm H20. Pressures normalized after washout of the polymer with cool saline. Average washout time was 11.8+/-9.6 minutes. No histopathologic differences were seen between the control and treatment kidneys, or with immediate compared with delayed euthanasia. Conclusions: A reverse thermosensitive polymer can retain MMC in the upper urinary tract and appears to be safe from our examination of intrarenal pressures and histopathology. This technique may improve the efficacy of topical chemotherapy in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 04/2013; 27(3):288-93. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. The prospective discrimination of aggressive and clinically insignificant tumors still poses a significant and, as yet, unsolved problem. PITX2 DNA methylation is a strong prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. Recently, a diagnostic microarray for prostate cancer prognosis based on PITX2 methylation has been developed and validated. Because this microarray requires nonstandard laboratory equipment, its use in a diagnostic setting is limited. This study aimed to develop and validate an alternative quantitative real-time PCR assay for measuring PITX2 methylation that can easily be established in clinical laboratories, thereby facilitating the implementation of this biomarker in clinical practice. A methylation cut-off for patient stratification was established in a training cohort (n = 157) and validated in an independent test set (n = 523) of men treated with radical prostatectomy. In univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, PITX2 hypermethylation was a significant predictor for biochemical recurrence (P < 0.001, hazard ratio = 2.614). Moreover, PITX2 hypermethylation added significant prognostic information (P = 0.003, hazard ratio = 1.814) to the Gleason score, pathological T stage, prostate-specific antigen, and surgical margins in a multivariate analysis. The clinical performance was particularly high in patients at intermediate risk (Gleason score of 7) and in samples containing high tumor cell content. This assay might aid in risk stratification and support the decision-making process when determining whether a patient might benefit from adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy.
    The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 12/2012; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positive surgical margins (PSM) during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) are generally considered an adverse event. We attempted to identify the factors associated with PSM and their location. Records of patients undergoing RALP between 2003 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We collected demographic (age, race, body mass index [BMI]), cumulative surgical experience (years from RALP introduction at our center), clinical (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels, and biopsy Gleason sums), nerve-sparing technique (yes/no), and pathological variables, including stage (organ-confined vs. non), Gleason sums, prostate weight, status, and location of the surgical margins. Multivariate regression models were constructed to identify the factors associated with PSM at prostate apex, periphery, proximal, and all locations. A total of 560 patients were analyzed. Median age was 60.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 55.1-64.7), 19% were African-Americans, median BMI was 28.1 (25.8-30.8 kg/m(2)), PSA levels were 5.3 (3.9-7.1 ng/mL), and prostate weight was 45.2 (36.8-57.0 g). Gleason sums were as follows: ≤6 in 42.5%, 7 in 53.4%, and >7 in 3.1%. Overall, PSM were reported in 130 (23.2%), including 58 (44.6%) apical, 81 (62.3%) peripheral, and 20 (15.4%) proximal. The overall rate of PSM was associated with surgical experience, PSA, prostate weight, and Gleason sums. Apical PSM were independently associated only with surgical experience. Peripheral PSM were associated with PSA, stage, Gleason sums, and prostate weight. Finally, proximal margin status showed an association with PSA levels only. While peripheral, proximal, and overall PSM are largely associated with inherent disease biology (grade, PSA levels, etc.), apical margin status is independently associated only with cumulative surgical experience. These results suggest that a lower rates of positive apical margins may be obtained as the cumulative center experience grows, suggesting a potential role of a "teaching learning curve," independently from disease characteristics.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 12/2011; 26(4):361-5. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: • To evaluate the influence of radiographic tumour size and other preoperative variables on the pathological characteristics of the lesion to determine the distribution of pathological features and assess preoperative risk factors for potentially aggressive versus probably indolent renal lesions. • Retrospective review of records for 768 patients who underwent surgery for single, sporadic renal mass between 2000 and 2008 in a tertiary academic institution. • Demographic, radiographic and pathological variables were recorded and analysed with regression analyses for risk factors for potentially aggressive pathological features (malignant pathology, high Fuhrman grade, lymphovascular invasion and extracapsular extension). • Malignancy was pathologically confirmed in 628 (81.8%) specimens. • Radiographic size was significantly associated with malignancy (versus benign pathology; OR = 1.13, P= 0.001), high Fuhrman grade (OR = 1.21, P < 0.0001), vascular invasion (OR = 1.19, P < 0.0001) and extracapsular extension (OR = 1.23, P < 0.0001). • Age, symptomatic presentation, solid appearance and radiographic size were independent predictors of potentially aggressive disease, whereas for male gender (OR = 1.43, P= 0.062) a trend toward statistical significance was noted. • Age, male gender, radiographic size and appearance, as well as symptomatic presentation, are associated with an increased risk of malignant, potentially aggressive disease. • These factors should be considered when evaluating management options for a solitary enhancing renal mass.
    BJU International 11/2010; 107(5):735-40. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radical prostatectomy is potentially curative in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. However, biochemical recurrence affects 15% to 30% of men who undergo radical prostatectomy. We previously reported the prognostic potential of PITX2 gene promoter methylation using conventional assays. In the current study we validated PITX2 methylation status as a biochemical recurrence predictor after radical prostatectomy using a novel microarray based platform in a multi-institutional setting. PITX2 methylation status was assessed in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded prostatectomy tumor tissue samples from 476 patients from a total of 4 institutions on customized EpiChip PITX2 microarrays. Associations between PITX2 methylation and biochemical recurrence were assessed using the log rank test and Cox regression controlling for prostate cancer features. On multivariate analysis men with high methylation status were at significantly higher risk for biochemical recurrence than those with low methylation status (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.5, p <10(-5)). The biochemical recurrence-free survival rate 5 years after surgery was 85% and 61% in the low and high methylation groups, respectively. In men with pathological Gleason 7 tumors the relative risk of biochemical recurrence was twice as high for high than for low PITX2 methylation (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3, p = 0.005). PITX2 methylation status assessed by EpiChip PITX2 identifies patients with prostate cancer who are most likely to have biochemical recurrence. This test independently adds to the prognostic information provided by standard clinicopathological analysis, improving prostatectomy case stratification into those at high and low risk for biochemical recurrence. This new clinical tool would be of particular benefit to assess intermediate risk cases (Gleason 7) in which risk stratification remains a challenge.
    The Journal of urology 07/2010; 184(1):149-56. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multifocal renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported in up to 25% of all radical nephrectomy specimens. Modern imaging tends to underestimate the rate of multifocality. Recognition of multifocality before treatment may guide physicians and patients to the type of intervention and tailor long-term follow-up. Our aim was to develop and assess preoperative nomograms to predict occult multifocal RCC. We evaluated 560 consecutive patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for clinically localized suspected sporadic RCC between 2000 and 2008 in a tertiary center. Clinically manifest multifocal lesions were excluded. Logistic regression models were used to assess the potential risk factors of occult multifocality with and without pathologic variables that may be available with preoperative biopsy. Nomograms were developed and assessed for diagnostic properties. All patients underwent radical nephrectomy. Assessments of risk factors for occult multifocal RCC were obtained using regression models and nomograms. The incidence of occult multifocality was 7.9%. Significantly associated predictors of multifocality were male gender, family history of malignancy other than RCC, radiographic size of the lesion, histologic subtype other than clear cell, and Fuhrman grade IV. The two designed nomograms had 0.75 and 0.82 concordance indices, respectively. Our data suggest that occult multifocal RCC is more frequently associated with small (2-4 cm) renal lesions. Male gender, family history of kidney cancer, histologic subtype, and grade are strongly associated with an increased risk of occult multifocal RCC. The developed nomograms had good predictive accuracy that was enhanced when combined with pathologic variables.
    European Urology 03/2010; 58(1):118-26. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluate the diagnostic utility of a hybrid γ-camera-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) indium-111 (111-In)-capromab pendetide scan in detecting seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in select patients evaluated for primary surgical treatment of prostate cancer (CaP). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of patients who underwent preoperative SPECT-CT imaging with 111-In-capromab-pendetide as part of a staging evaluation who were subsequently treated with radical surgery in our center. Only patients with clinically localized disease were included. We calculated diagnostic properties of the hybrid scan in detecting SVI compared with final pathology. Regression analyses were performed, including scan and preoperative variables to predict SVI. We retrieved 50 medical records matching our criteria. Median patient age was 61 years (range 45-74). Most patients had a clinical T1c CaP and biopsy Gleason score of 7 or higher. On final pathology, SVI was found in 12 (24%) specimens and radiotracer signal in the seminal vesicle region was reported in 15 (30%) imaging studies. Hybrid SPECT-CT imaging had a sensitivity of 25%, specificity of 61.9%, positive and negative predictive values of 20% and 74.3%, respectively, for detecting SVI. SPECT-CT results did not contribute significantly to SVI prediction on univariate (P = 0.627) or multivariate (P = 0.754) analyses. SPECT-CT imaging with 111-In-capromab-pendetide is not reliable in detecting or excluding SVI in this select cohort. High rates of positive radiotracer signals from healthy seminal vesicles raise concerns regarding pharmacologic properties of this radiotracer molecule.
    Urologic Oncology 02/2010; 30(2):150-4. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has previously been used to visualize normal anatomic structures and pathologies in both ex vivo and in vivo human prostates. Based on the relative displacement amplitudes in ARFI images and comparison with histological slides and McNeal's zonal anatomy, it seems that the central zone (CZ) is stiffer than other anatomic zones, and prostate cancer (PCa) is stiffer than normal tissue in the peripheral zone and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Since displacement amplitudes in ARFI images are determined by both the underlying tissue stiffness and the amplitude of acoustic radiation force, one question that arises is: how are the relative displacements in ARFI images related to the underlying tissue stiffness? In this study, co-registered three-dimensional (3D) ARFI datasets and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) datasets were acquired to investigate the relationship between displacement amplitudes in ARFI images and the underlying tissue stiffness. Six freshly excised human prostates were collected and imaged. The lateral time-to-peak (TTP) algorithm was used to reconstruct the tissue stiffness. Linear regression was performed between ARFI displacement amplitudes and the inverse of the corresponding reconstructed shear moduli. Five types of prostatic tissues were identified in ARFI images, and their stiffnesses were quantified.
    Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2009 IEEE International; 10/2009
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a hybrid (111)In-capromab pendetide fused computed tomography (CT) scan in detecting seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in the setting of recurrent prostate cancer following primary in situ therapy. The study population comprised 59 patients, who biochemically failed primary in situ treatment based on American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology criteria. The patients underwent an (111)In-capromab pendetide/CT scan at the time of biochemical failure with a prostate (12-core) and seminal vesicle (SV) (8-core) biopsy. The diagnostic properties of the scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting SVI compared to an SV biopsy were calculated. In total, eight (14%) patients had a positive SV biopsy after primary in situ prostate cancer treatment. Nine (15%) patients had positive uptake of the scan in the SV. When comparing the SV scan results to the SV biopsy, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 37.5%, 88.2%, 33.3%, and 90.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.81), respectively. In contrast, the ability of MRI to detect SVI was 50.0%, 81.3%, 40.0%, and 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.85), respectively. Although the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the (111)In-capromab pendetide/CT scan are low, its specificity and negative predictive value are high. Based on these findings, the ability of the (111)In-capromab pendetide/CT scan to detect SVI seems to be comparable with MRI.
    International Journal of Urology 10/2009; 16(12):971-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the results of a preoperative (111)In-capromab pendetide scan co-registered with computerized tomography with pathological findings in the surgically excised prostate to determine whether the scan can efficiently detect cancer in the prostate. This prospective trial included 25 hormone naïve men with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent (111)In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography as part of the preoperative evaluation. In addition to routine histological analysis, representative prostate sections were stained for prostate specific membrane antigen using the same antibody used in the scan. A pathologist and a radiologist were blinded to pathology and imaging findings, respectively. Prostate specific membrane antigen immunohistochemistry was correlated with the 3-dimensional location of the prostate specific membrane antigen signal detected by scan. Scan sensitivity was 37% to 87% for 4 quadrants (right vs left and apical vs basal) with 0% to 50% specificity, as validated by final pathological assessment of the same quadrants. Stratifying positive scan signal strength did not statistically improve specificity (p = 0.35). There was no significant correlation between prostate specific membrane antigen over expression and tumor stage distribution (p = 0.23). The scan did not localize prostate cancer to a particular quadrant based on comparison with radical prostatectomy specimen pathology. The antibody used has affinity for benign and malignant prostatic glands in excised, formalin fixed prostate tissue, which may contribute to low scan specificity in vivo. The scan cannot be used to reliably detect or image cancer foci in the prostate.
    The Journal of urology 08/2009; 182(3):938-47. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare Gleason scores (GS) originally assigned in the mid 1990s with the current pathologic evaluation of the same prostatectomy slides, and to assess the GS migration effect on outcome in patients undergoing surgical treatment of prostate cancer. We reviewed medical charts of consecutive patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy for T2-T3 prostate cancer at our Medical Center between 1995 and 1997. Prostate specimen slides of 204 patients were reviewed and GS was reassigned in a blinded fashion by a single uropathologist in 2008. GS distributions were compared, and original and re-evaluated GS were assessed for predictive ability in survival regression models. GS distribution differed significantly between the mid 1990s and the current evaluation (P < .001), with the average reevaluated GS higher than the initial one (6.14 vs 6.39, P < .001). The GS was upgraded in 63 cases (30.9%) and downgraded in 25 (12.3%) at reevaluation. The initial GS was predictive (P = .002) of prostate-specific antigen recurrence (PSAR), whereas the newly assigned GS was not (P = .393). However, grouping reassigned GS into risk groups (low < 7, moderate = 7 and high > 7) yielded a better PSAR definition. Survival curves of initial GS could not distinguish between moderate- and high-risk groups, although reassigned GS curves showed statistically significant differences between all risk groups. These results suggest that interpretation of pathologists played a significant role in the GS shift and propose that the contemporary GS remains a useful prognostic factor of PSAR when stratified in risk categories, although the single GS value may not be as important.
    Urology 08/2009; 74(5):1090-3. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluate the reliability of routine sextant prostate biopsy to detect unilateral lesions. A total of 365 men with complete records including all clinical and pathologic variables who underwent a preoperative sextant biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer at our medical center between January 1996 and December 2006 were identified. When the sextant biopsy detects unilateral disease, according to RP results, the NPV is high (91%) with a low false negative rate (9%). However, the sextant biopsy has a PPV of 28% with a high false positive rate (72%). Therefore, a routine sextant prostate biopsy cannot provide reliable, accurate information about the unilaterality of tumor lesion(s).
    Urologic Oncology 06/2009; 29(2):166-70. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 3-D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy system is a novel device that allows precise needle placement in a template fashion. We evaluate its utility for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating 68 prospective patients at the Duke Prostate Center who underwent a prostate biopsy using a 3-D TRUS-guided system. After creation of a three-dimensional map of the prostate, a computer algorithm identified an ideal biopsy scheme based on the measured dimensions of the prostate. The system then used a fixed template that allowed prostate biopsy at specific locations with the ability to target the same region of the prostate in the future if needed. For all patients, a 12-core biopsy pattern was used to cover medial and lateral areas of the base, mid-gland, and apex. In total, 68 patients underwent 3-D TRUS-guided prostate biopsies between April 2006 and November 2007 for prostate cancer detection. The indication for prostate biopsy was PSA > or = 4.0 ng/ml in 47 (69%) patients, abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) in 17 (25%), and atypia on previous biopsy in 4 (6%) patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 18 patients (26.5%) and 7 (10.3%) had atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The highest frequency (55.5%) from all cases of cancer detected was identified when 3-D TRUS biopsy was used as the initial biopsy. This study demonstrates that a 3-D TRUS-guided biopsy system translates to a more frequent detection of prostate cancer among patients undergoing an initial prostate biopsy than a subsequent one. More comprehensive studies are warranted to corroborate and extend the results of this study.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 05/2009; 8(2):99-104. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Vladimir Mouraviev, John F Madden
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    ABSTRACT: To summarize pathologic features of low-volume, low-risk prostate cancer relevant to the development of patient selection criteria and treatment strategies for focal therapy of prostate cancer, as an alternative to whole-gland radical treatments. Prostate cancer characteristically presents as a multifocal lesion within the prostate gland. Diagnosis of prostate cancer at an early stage has led to a recognition of subsets of patients whose disease may be either unifocal or multifocal, yet is unilateral or of small aggregate volume. Parenchyma-preserving partial-gland ablation may become a potentially feasible option in future treatment of early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Even for moderately selective protocols such as hemiablation, however, appropriate patient selection will be challenging because of the imperfect correlation among unifocality, unilaterality, low volume and low grade. Extended multicore biopsy protocols under imaging guidance may be required to map the tumor process with sufficient accuracy for treatment planning. Further research in molecular determinants and more precise imaging techniques should be pursued to optimize selection and treatment.
    Current opinion in urology 04/2009; 19(2):161-7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of focal therapy for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) depended on appropriate patient selection. No definitive criteria existed to characterize patients who may potentially benefit from an organ-sparing approach. We evaluated pretreatment clinical parameters that may predict unilateral PCa amenable to hemigland thermoablation. In total, 538 patients with complete data from the Duke Prostate Center (DPC) Outcomes database with low- to low-intermediate-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen<10 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score < or =7, and clinical stage T1c-T2b) treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) were included in the dataset. Patients underwent diagnostic prostate biopsy (PBx) at Duke or community hospitals from 1996 to 2006. Clinical and biopsy parameters were assessed as to the ability to predict PCa unilaterality verified by RP pathology. The strongest predictor of pathologic unilaterality was PBx unilaterality. The sensitivity and specificity for biopsy unilaterality to predict pathologic unilaterality was 88.4% and 34%, with a positive predictive value of 28% and a negative predictive value of 91%. PBx unilaterality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-7.05; P < .0005) and negative family history of PCa (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.09-3.05; P = .21) was associated with a higher probability of unilateral disease by multivariate regression. Two pretreatment clinical variables were significantly predictive of unilateral PCa: negative family history of PCa and PBx unilaterality. These variables may be used to select men with low- to low-moderate-risk PCa for hemiablation. Further work is necessary to decrease the false-negative and false-positive rates associated with PBx to improve predictability for PCa laterality.
    Cancer 04/2009; 115(10):2104-10. · 5.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

609 Citations
121.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • Duke University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME)
      Durham, North Carolina, United States