[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human BDCA3(+) dendritic cells (DCs), the proposed equivalent to mouse CD8α(+) DCs, are widely thought to cross present antigens on MHC class I (MHCI) molecules more efficiently than other DC populations. If true, it is unclear whether this reflects specialization for cross presentation or a generally enhanced ability to present antigens on MHCI. We compared presentation by BDCA3(+) DCs with BDCA1(+) DCs using a quantitative approach whereby antigens were targeted to distinct intracellular compartments by receptor-mediated internalization. As expected, BDCA3(+) DCs were superior at cross presentation of antigens delivered to late endosomes and lysosomes by uptake of anti-DEC205 antibody conjugated to antigen. This difference may reflect a greater efficiency of antigen escape from BDCA3(+) DC lysosomes. In contrast, if antigens were delivered to early endosomes through CD40 or CD11c, BDCA1(+) DCs were as efficient at cross presentation as BDCA3(+) DCs. Because BDCA3(+) DCs and BDCA1(+) DCs were also equivalent at presenting peptides and endogenously synthesized antigens, BDCA3(+) DCs are not likely to possess mechanisms for cross presentation that are specific to this subset. Thus, multiple DC populations may be comparably effective at presenting exogenous antigens to CD8(+) T cells as long as the antigen is delivered to early endocytic compartments.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2013; 210(5). DOI:10.1084/jem.20121251 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) can capture extracellular antigens and load resultant peptides on to MHC class I molecules, a process termed cross presentation. The mechanisms of cross presentation remain incompletely understood, particularly in primary human DCs. One unknown is the extent to which antigen delivery to distinct endocytic compartments determines cross presentation efficiency, possibly by influencing antigen egress to the cytosol. We addressed the problem directly and quantitatively by comparing the cross presentation of identical antigens conjugated with antibodies against different DC receptors that are targeted to early or late endosomes at distinct efficiencies. In human BDCA1(+) and monocyte-derived DCs, CD40 and mannose receptor targeted antibody conjugates to early endosomes, whereas DEC205 targeted antigen primarily to late compartments. Surprisingly, the receptor least efficient at internalization, CD40, was the most efficient at cross presentation. This did not reflect DC activation by CD40, but rather its relatively poor uptake or intra-endosomal degradation compared with mannose receptor or DEC205. Thus, although both early and late endosomes appear to support cross presentation in human DCs, internalization efficiency, especially to late compartments, may be a negative predictor of activity when selecting receptors for vaccine development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Although the interactions between viruses and dendritic cells (DCs) have been studied for many years, surprisingly little is known on the functional relationship between infection and antigen presentation in primary human DCs. Here, we asked specifically whether Influenza A virus (IAV) infection of human primary plasmacytoid DCs and myeloid DCs (pDCs and mDCs, respectively) affected their ability to function as antigen-presenting cells and activate T cells specific to IAV or other antigens. Our data confirm that pDCs are poorly infected and also present IAV antigens poorly. mDCs, on the other hand, are readily susceptible to IAV infection and present IAV antigen to T cells. However, we found that MHC class I presentation by mDCs infected with IAV are ∼300-fold less efficient relative to what mDCs are capable of achieving by cross-presentation following the endocytosis of only a very few non-infectious virions. Importantly, IAV infection of mDCs not only reduces the efficiency of IAV presentation but also reduces their ability to cross-present antigens from other viruses encountered subsequently. The reduced overall antigen processing capacity of mDCs describes a mechanism that may contribute to the suppression of immunity to secondary pathogens that appear during the course of IAV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) respond to virus replication in a nonspecific way by producing large amounts of type I interferon, a rapid, direct function for pDCs in activating antiviral lymphocytes is less apparent. Here we show that pDCs were able to rapidly initiate antigen-specific antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. After being exposed to virus, pDCs efficiently and rapidly internalized exogenous viral antigens and then presented those antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I to CD8+ T cells. Processing of exogenous antigen occurred in endocytic organelles and did not require transit of antigen to the cytosol. Intracellular stores of MHC class I partially localized together with the transferrin receptor and internalized transferrin in endosomes, which suggested that such recycling endosomes are sites for loading peptide onto MHC class I or for peptide transit. Our data demonstrate that pDCs use 'ready-made' stores of MHC class I to rapidly present exogenous antigen to CD8+ T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) sense viral and microbial DNA through endosomal Toll-like receptors to produce type 1 interferons. pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but this restriction seems to break down in human autoimmune disease by an as yet poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (also known as CAMP) as the key factor that mediates pDC activation in psoriasis, a common autoimmune disease of the skin. LL37 converts inert self-DNA into a potent trigger of interferon production by binding the DNA to form aggregated and condensed structures that are delivered to and retained within early endocytic compartments in pDCs to trigger Toll-like receptor 9. Thus, our data uncover a fundamental role of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide in breaking innate tolerance to self-DNA and suggest that this pathway may drive autoimmunity in psoriasis.