ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure (HF) in either atrial fibrillation (AF) or sinus rhythm (SR).
Prospective observational study.
295 consecutive patients with HF (permanent AF in 66, paroxysmal AF in 20, SR in 209; New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <or=35%, QRS >or=120 ms).
All patients underwent CRT without atrioventricular junction ablation.
The primary end point was the composite of cardiovascular death or unplanned hospitalisation for major cardiovascular events. Secondary end points included the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for worsening HF. Cardiovascular mortality, total mortality and changes in NYHA class, 6-minute walking distance, quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire) and echocardiographic variables were also considered.
Over a follow-up period of up to 6.8 years, no differences emerged between patients in AF or SR in any of the mortality or morbidity end points. The AF and SR groups derived similar improvements in mean NYHA class (-1.3 vs -1.2), 6-minute walking distance (92.3 vs 78.4 m) and quality of life scores (-25.2 vs -18.7) (all p<0.001). In both the AF and the SR groups, reductions were seen in left ventricular end-systolic (-25.9 vs -34.5 ml, both p<0.001) and end-diastolic (-20.2 ml, p = 0.001 vs 26.2 ml, p<0.001) volumes and improvements in LVEF (4.69% vs 7.86%, both p<0.001).
Cardiac resynchronisation therapy leads to similar prognostic and symptomatic benefits in patients in AF and SR, even without atrioventricular junction ablation. Echocardiographic improvements are also comparable.
Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2008; 94(7):879-83. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of a posterolateral (PL) left ventricular scar on mortality and morbidity following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).
Sixty-two patients with heart failure (age 67.3 +/- 9.6 yrs [mean +/- SD], 45 males, New York Heart Association class [NYHA] class III or IV, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]= 35%, left bundle branch block, QRS > or = 120 ms) underwent late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) for scar imaging. Patients were followed up for 741 (75-1602) days (mean [range]).
The presence of a PL scar emerged as an independent predictor of the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure (HR: 3.06 [1.63, 7.7, P < 0.0001]) as well as the endpoint of cardiovascular death (HR: 2.63 [1.39, 6.65], P = 0.0016). A transmural PL scar was the strongest predictor of these endpoints (both P < 0.0001). The symptomatic responder rate (improvement by > or =1 NYHA classes or > or =25% in 6-min walking distance) was 83% in the group with non-PL scars, but only 47% in the group with transmural PL scars (P < 0.0001). Pacing over the scar was associated with a higher mortality and morbidity than pacing outside the scar (all P < 0.05).
A PL scar is associated with a worse clinical outcome following CRT, particularly if it is transmural. Pacing scarred left ventricular myocardium carries a greater risk of mortality and morbidity than pacing nonscarred myocardium.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 11/2007; 30(10):1201-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Dextrocardia is a rare clinical phenomenon with a reported incidence of one in 10 000. Consequently, acute coronary syndromes in such patients are rare. When chest pain occurs in this setting, it is important to be aware of the unique problems that may occur if coronary intervention is contemplated. Previous case reports have shown successful attempts at reperfusing one coronary artery percutaneously. In this case, coronary stents were successfully deployed in two vessels of a man with situs inversus, which has not been reported before. Additionally, the angiographic results that followed from successful intervention did not produce the expected haemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes.
Heart (British Cardiac Society) 05/2004; 90(4):e20. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of two intravenous sedatives for physician-led DC cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias.
One hundred and forty-one patients attending for elective DC cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias were randomized to intravenous midazolam or diazepam. Sedation was administered using titration protocols. Procedure times, operator satisfaction scores and adverse events were documented. The patients immediate, 24- and 48-h recall and awareness of after-effects were obtained from questionnaires. Seventy-one patients received midazolam (mean 12.5 mg) and 70 patients received diazepam (mean 28.1 mg). There were 16 minor adverse events with midazolam (20% hypotension, 3% oxygen desaturation) and nine with diazepam (7% hypotension, 6% required additional analgesia), P = 0.14. There were no major adverse events. Sedation time was 5.0 +/- 3.4 min for midazolam and 6.5 +/- 3.4 min for diazepam (P = 0.0016). Patients awoke 77 +/- 46 min post-sedation with midazolam and 39 +/- 24 min with diazepam (P < 0.0001). There was no recall of the procedure at 48 h and no difference in awareness of after-effects between the two groups at 24 or 48 h, P = ns.
Physician-led cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias using intravenous sedation is effective and well tolerated. Sedation with diazepam was associated with fewer minor adverse events and a quicker recovery time than midazolam.
Europace 10/2003; 5(4):391-5. · 1.98 Impact Factor