Simon Gilbody

Hull York Medical School, York, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (188)839.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (g’s= .85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g= .69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: g’s=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g= .70, individual: g= .97, computer/ internet: g = .96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g= .89, individual: g= .86, computer/ internet: g= .96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects.
    Clinical psychology review 06/2015; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.002 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate. A consensus meeting involving experts in depressive disorders and their management was held in September 2012. Key areas in treating depression were reviewed and the strength of evidence and clinical implications were considered. The guidelines were then revised after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. A literature review is provided which identifies the quality of evidence upon which the recommendations are made. These guidelines cover the nature and detection of depressive disorders, acute treatment with antidepressant drugs, choice of drug versus alternative treatment, practical issues in prescribing and management, next-step treatment, relapse prevention, treatment of relapse and stopping treatment. Significant changes since the last guidelines were published in 2008 include the availability of new antidepressant treatment options, improved evidence supporting certain augmentation strategies (drug and non-drug), management of potential long-term side effects, updated guidance for prescribing in elderly and adolescent populations and updated guidance for optimal prescribing. Suggestions for future research priorities are also made. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 05/2015; 29(5). DOI:10.1177/0269881115581093 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People with severe mental ill health are three times more likely to smoke but typically do not access conventional smoking cessation services, contributing to widening health inequalities and reduced life expectancy. We aimed to pilot an intervention targeted at smokers with severe mental ill health and to test methods of recruitment, randomisation, and follow up before implementing a full trial.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 05/2015; 2(5):395-402. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00091-7
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    ABSTRACT: To validate the Whooley questions as a screening tool for depression amongst a population of older adults in UK primary care. To assess the diagnostic performance of the Whooley questions as a screening tool for depression amongst older adults in UK primary care. A cross-sectional validation study was conducted with 766 patients aged ≥75 from UK primary care, recruited via 17 general practices based in the North of England during the pilot phase of a randomized controlled trial. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios comparing the index test (two Whooley questions) with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) ascertained by the reference standard Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The two screening questions had a sensitivity of 94.3% (95% confidence interval, 80.8-99.3%) and specificity of 62.7% (95% confidence interval, 59.0-66.2%). The likelihood ratio for a positive test was 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.9) and the likelihood ratio for a negative test was 0.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.35). The two Whooley questions missed few cases of depression. However, they were responsible for a high rate of false positives. This creates additional burden on general practitioners, to conduct more detailed investigation on patients who screen positive, but many of whom turn out not to have MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 182:39-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.020 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivises general practices in England to provide proactive care for people with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychoses. Better proactive primary care may reduce the risk of psychiatric admissions to hospital, but this has never been tested empirically. The QOF data set included 8234 general practices in England from 2006/2007 to 2010/2011. Rates of hospital admissions with primary diagnoses of SMI or bipolar disorder were estimated from national routine hospital data and aggregated to practice level. Poisson regression was used to analyse associations. Practices with higher achievement on the annual review for SMI patients (MH9), or that performed better on either of the two lithium indicators for bipolar patients (MH4 or MH5), had more psychiatric admissions. An additional 1% in achievement rates for MH9 was associated with an average increase in the annual practice admission rate of 0.19% (95% CI 0.10% to 0.28%) or 0.007 patients (95% CI 0.003 to 0.01). The positive association was contrary to expectation, but there are several possible explanations: better quality primary care may identify unmet need for secondary care; higher QOF achievement may not prevent the need for secondary care; individuals may receive their QOF checks postdischarge rather than prior to admission; individuals with more severe SMI may be more likely to be registered with practices with better QOF performance; and QOF may be a poor measure of the quality of care for people with SMI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 04/2015; 5(4):e007342. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007342 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • 04/2015; 3(16):1-68. DOI:10.3310/hsdr03160
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess the effectiveness of self-management support interventions in men with long-term conditions. Methods A quantitative systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify published reviews of self-management support interventions. Relevant reviews were screened to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self-management support interventions conducted in men alone, or which analysed the effects of interventions by sex. Review methods Data on relevant outcomes, patient populations, intervention type and study quality were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of interventions in men, women, and mixed-sex sub-groups. Results 40 RCTs of self-management support interventions in men, and 20 eligible RCTs where an analysis by sex was reported, were included in the review. Meta-analysis suggested that physical activity, education, and peer support-based interventions have a positive impact on quality of life in men. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to make strong statements about whether self-management support interventions show larger, similar or smaller effects in men compared with women and mixed-sex groups. Conclusions Clinicians may wish to consider whether certain types of self-management support (eg, physical activity, education, peer support) are particularly effective in men, although more research is needed to fully determine and explore this.
    BMJ Open 03/2015; 5(3):e006620. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006620 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a high prevalence of smoking among people who experience severe mental ill health (SMI). Helping people with disorders such as bipolar illness and schizophrenia to quit smoking would help improve their health, increase longevity and also reduce health inequalities. Around half of people with SMI who smoke express an interest in cutting down or quitting smoking. There is limited evidence that smoking cessation can be achieved for people with SMI. Those with SMI rarely access routine NHS smoking cessation services. This suggests the need to develop and evaluate a behavioural support and medication package tailored to the needs of people with SMI. The objective in this project was to conduct a pilot trial to establish acceptability of the intervention and to ensure the feasibility of recruitment, randomisation and follow-up. We also sought preliminary estimates of effect size in order to design a fully powered trial of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The pilot should inform a fully powered trial to compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a bespoke smoking cessation (BSC) intervention with usual general practitioner (GP) care for people with SMI. A pilot pragmatic two-arm individually randomised controlled trial (RCT). Simple randomisation was used following a computer-generated random number sequence. Participants and practitioners were not blinded to allocation. Primary care and secondary care mental health services in England. Smokers aged > 18 years with a severe mental illness who would like to cut down or quit smoking. A BSC intervention delivered by mental health specialists trained to deliver evidence-supported smoking cessation interventions compared with usual GP care. The primary outcome was carbon monoxide-verified smoking cessation at 12 months. Smoking-related secondary outcomes were reduction of number of cigarettes smoked, Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence and motivation to quit (MTQ). Other secondary outcomes were Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items and Short Form Questionnaire-12 items to assess whether there were improvements or deterioration in mental health and quality of life. We also measured body mass index to assess whether or not smoking cessation was associated with weight gain. These were measured at 1, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. The trial recruited 97 people aged 19-73 years who smoked between 5 and 60 cigarettes per day (mean 25 cigarettes). Participants were recruited from four mental health trusts and 45 GP surgeries. Forty-six people were randomised to the BSC intervention and 51 people were randomised to usual GP care. The odds of quitting at 12 months was higher in the BSC intervention (36% vs. 23%) but did not reach statistical significance (odds ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 0.8% to 10.5%). At 3 and 6 months there was no evidence of difference in self-reported smoking cessation. There was a non-significant reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine dependence. MTQ and number of quit attempts all increased in the BSC group compared with usual care. There was no difference in terms of quality of life at any time point, but there was evidence of an increase in depression scores at 12 months for the BSC group. There were no serious adverse events thought likely to be related to the trial interventions. The pilot economic analysis demonstrated that it was feasible to carry out a full economic analysis. It was possible to recruit people with SMI from primary and secondary care to a trial of a smoking cessation intervention based around behavioural support and medication. The overall direction of effect was a positive trend in relation to biochemically verified smoking cessation and it was feasible to obtain follow-up in a substantial proportion of participants. A definitive trial of a bespoke cessation intervention has been prioritised by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the SCIMITAR pilot trial forms a template for a fully powered RCT to examine clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79497236. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment, Vol. 19, No. 25. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
    03/2015; 19(25):1-148. DOI:10.3310/hta19250
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    ABSTRACT: Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n=23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n=27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio=7.14, p=.04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p=.59) or in PDA (p=.08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2015.02.008 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is policy interest in the screening and treatment of mental health problems in young people who offend, but the value of such screening is not yet known. Objectives To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of screening measures for mental health problems in young people who offend; to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment; to model estimates of cost; to assess the evidence base for screening against UK National Screening Committee criteria; and to identify future research priorities. Data sources In total, 25 electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception until April 2011. Reverse citation searches of included studies were undertaken and reference list of included studies were examined. Review methods Two reviewers independently examined titles and abstracts and extracted data from included studies using a standardised form. The inclusion criteria for the review were (1) population – young offenders (aged 10–21 years); (2) intervention/instrument – screening instruments for mental health problems, implementation of a screening programme or a psychological or pharmacological intervention as part of a clinical trial; (3) comparator – for diagnostic test accuracy studies, any standardised diagnostic interview; for trials, any comparator; (4) outcomes – details of diagnostic test accuracy, mental health outcomes over the short or longer term or measurement of cost data; and (5) study design – for diagnostic test accuracy studies, any design; for screening programmes, randomised controlled trials or controlled trials; for clinical effectiveness studies, randomised controlled trials; for economic studies, economic evaluations of screening strategies or interventions. Results Of 13,580 studies identified, nine, including eight independent samples, met the inclusion criteria for the diagnostic test accuracy and validity of screening measures review. Screening accuracy was typically modest. No studies examined the clinical effectiveness of screening, although 10 studies were identified that examined the clinical effectiveness of interventions for mental health problems. There were too few studies to make firm conclusions about the clinical effectiveness of treatments in this population. No studies met the inclusion criteria for the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of screening or treatment. An exemplar decision model was developed for depression, which identified a number of the likely key drivers of uncertainty, including the prevalence of unidentified mental health problems, the severity of mental health problems and their relationship to generic measures of outcome and the impact of treatment on recidivism. The information evaluated as part of the review was relevant to five of the UK National Screening Committee criteria. On the basis of the above results, none of the five criteria was met. Limitations The conclusions of the review are based on limited evidence. Conclusions are tentative and the decision model should be treated as an exemplar. Conclusions Evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for mental health problems in young people who offend is currently lacking. Future research should consider feasibility trials of clinical interventions to establish important parameters ahead of conducting definitive trials. Future diagnostic studies should compare the diagnostic test accuracy of a range of screening instruments, including those recommended for use in the UK in this population. These studies should be designed to reduce the decision uncertainty identified by the exemplar decision model.
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 01/2015; 19. DOI:10.3310/hta19010 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-management support interventions can improve health outcomes, but their impact is limited by the numbers of people able or willing to access them. Men's attendance at existing self-management support services appears suboptimal despite their increased risk of developing many of the most serious long term conditions. The aim of this review was to determine whether current self-management support interventions are acceptable and accessible to men with long term conditions, and explore what may act as facilitators and barriers to access of interventions and support activities. A systematic search for qualitative research was undertaken on CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index, in July 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were also examined. Studies that used a qualitative design to explore men's experiences of, or perceptions towards, self-management support for one or more long term condition were included. Studies which focused on experiences of living with a long term condition without consideration of self-management support were excluded. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnography approach was employed to synthesise the findings. Four constructs associated with men's experience of, and perceptions towards, self-management support were identified: 1) need for purpose; 2) trusted environments; 3) value of peers; and 4) becoming an expert. The synthesis showed that men may feel less comfortable participating in self-management support if it is viewed as incongruous with valued aspects of their identity, particularly when activities are perceived to challenge masculine ideals associated with independence, stoicism, and control. Men may find self-management support more attractive when it is perceived as action-oriented, having a clear purpose, and offering personally meaningful information and practical strategies that can be integrated into daily life. Self-management support is most likely to be successful in engaging men when it is congruent with key aspects of their masculine identity. In order to overcome barriers to access and fully engage with interventions, some men may need self-management support interventions to be delivered in an environment that offers a sense of shared understanding, connectedness, and normality, and involves and/or is facilitated by men with a shared illness experience.
    BMC Public Health 11/2014; 14(1):1230. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1230 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression accounts for the greatest disease burden of all mental health disorders, contributes heavily to healthcare costs, and by 2020 is set to become the second largest cause of global disability. Although 10% to 16% of people aged 65 years and over are likely to experience depressive symptoms, the condition is under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated in primary care. Later-life depression is associated with chronic illness and disability, cognitive impairment and social isolation. With a progressively ageing population it becomes increasingly important to refine strategies to identity and manage depression in older people. Currently, management may be limited to the prescription of antidepressants where there may be poor concordance; older people may lack awareness of psychosocial interventions and general practitioners may neglect to offer this treatment option.Methods/design: CASPER Plus is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of a collaborative care intervention for individuals aged 65 years and over experiencing moderate to severe depression. Selected practices in the North of England identify potentially eligible patients and invite them to participate in the study. A diagnostic interview is carried out and participants with major depressive disorder are randomised to either collaborative care or usual care. The recruitment target is 450 participants.The intervention, behavioural activation and medication management in a collaborative care framework, has been adapted to meet the complex needs of older people. It is delivered over eight to 10 weekly sessions by a case manager liaising with general practitioners.The trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of collaborative care in addition to usual GP care versus usual GP care alone. The primary clinical outcome, depression severity, will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at baseline, 4, 12 and 18 months. Cost effectiveness analysis will assess health-related quality of life using the SF-12 and EQ-5D and will examine cost-consequences of collaborative care.A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken to explore acceptability, gauge the extent to which the intervention is implemented and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Results will add to existing evidence and a positive outcome may lead to the commissioning of this model of service in primary care.Trial registration: ISRCTN45842879 (24 July 2012).
    Trials 11/2014; 15(1):451. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-451 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) may be present in 10%-20% of patients in medical settings. Routine depression screening is sometimes recommended to improve depression management. However, studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools have typically used data-driven, exploratory methods to select optimal cutoffs. Often, these studies report results from a small range of cutoff points around whatever cutoff score is most accurate in that given study. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each possible cutoff point. As a result, traditional meta-analyses may generate exaggerated estimates of accuracy. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses can address this problem by synthesizing data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain diagnostic accuracy estimates. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the shorter PHQ-2 and PHQ-8 are commonly recommended for depression screening. Thus, the primary objectives of our IPD meta-analyses are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PHQ-8, and PHQ-2 to detect MDD among adults across all potentially relevant cutoff scores. Secondary analyses involve assessing accuracy accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, sex, medical comorbidity).Methods/design: Data sources will include MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will include studies that included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of MDD based on a validated structured or semi-structured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of the administration of the PHQ. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, perform full article review, and extract study data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cutoff values.
    10/2014; 3(1):124. DOI:10.1186/2046-4053-3-124
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    ABSTRACT: The 1 year prevalence of depression in adolescents is about 2%. Treatment with antidepressant medication is not recommended for initial treatment in young people due to concerns over high side effects, poor efficacy and addictive potential. Evidence suggests that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression and is currently one of the main treatment options recommended in adolescents. Given the affinity young people have with information technology they may be treated effectively, more widely and earlier in their illness evolution using computer-administered CBT (CCBT). Currently little is known about the clinical and resource implications of implementing CCBT within the National Health Service for adolescents with low mood/depression. We aim to establish the feasibility of running a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT).
    BMJ Open 10/2014; 4(10):e006488. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006488 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-harm is common among prisoners, particularly female prisoners. In 2007, concerned about the rising incidence, the prison service introduced a care-planning system called Assessment, Care in Custody, and Teamwork (ACCT). To date, it does not incorporate a standardised diagnostic test to estimate the risk of future self-harm.
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 10/2014; 18(64):1-152. DOI:10.3310/hta18640 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Collaborative care is a complex intervention based on chronic disease management models and is effective in the management of depression. However, there is still uncertainty about which components of collaborative care are effective. We used meta-regression to identify factors in collaborative care associated with improvement in patient outcomes (depressive symptoms) and the process of care (use of anti-depressant medication). Methods and Findings Systematic review with meta-regression. The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials registers were searched from inception to 9th February 2012. An update was run in the CENTRAL trials database on 29th December 2013. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trials of collaborative care for adults ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of depression or mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Random effects meta-regression was used to estimate regression coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between study level covariates and depressive symptoms and relative risk (95% CI) and anti-depressant use. The association between anti-depressant use and improvement in depression was also explored. Seventy four trials were identified (85 comparisons, across 21,345 participants). Collaborative care that included psychological interventions predicted improvement in depression (β coefficient −0.11, 95% CI −0.20 to −0.01, p = 0.03). Systematic identification of patients (relative risk 1.43, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.81, p = 0.004) and the presence of a chronic physical condition (relative risk 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p = 0.02) predicted use of anti-depressant medication. Conclusion Trials of collaborative care that included psychological treatment, with or without anti-depressant medication, appeared to improve depression more than those without psychological treatment. Trials that used systematic methods to identify patients with depression and also trials that included patients with a chronic physical condition reported improved use of anti-depressant medication. However, these findings are limited by the observational nature of meta-regression, incomplete data reporting, and the use of study aggregates.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9:e108114. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108114 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Laura Manea, Simon Gilbody, Dean McMillan
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    ABSTRACT: The depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a widely used depression screening instrument in nonpsychiatric settings. The PHQ-9 can be scored using different methods, including an algorithm based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and a cut-off based on summed-item scores. The algorithm was the originally proposed scoring method to screen for depression. We summarized the diagnostic test accuracy of the PHQ-9 using the algorithm scoring method across a range of validation studies and compared the diagnostic properties of the PHQ-9 using the algorithm and summed scoring method at the proposed cut-off point of 10.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 09/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.09.009 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Variability in patient-reported outcomes of psychological treatments has been partly attributed to therapists – a phenomenon commonly known as therapist effects. Meta-analytic reviews reveal wide variation in therapist-attributable variability in psychotherapy outcomes, with most studies reporting therapist effects in the region of 5% to 10% and some finding minimal to no therapist effects. However, all except one study to date have been conducted in high-intensity or mixed intervention groups; therefore, there is scarcity of evidence on therapist effects in brief low-intensity psychological interventions. Objective To examine therapist effects in low-intensity interventions for depression and anxiety in a naturalistic setting. Data and Analysis Session-by-session data on patient-reported outcome measures were available for a cohort of 1,376 primary care psychotherapy patients treated by 38 therapists. Outcome measures included PHQ-9 (sensitive to depression) and GAD-7 (sensitive to general anxiety disorder) measures. Three-level hierarchical linear modelling was employed to estimate therapist-attributable proportion of variance in clinical outcomes. Therapist effects were evaluated using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bayesian empirical predictions of therapist random effects. Three sensitivity analyses were conducted: 1) using both treatment completers and non-completers; 2) a sub-sample of cases with baseline scores above the conventional clinical thresholds for PHQ-9 and GAD-7; and 3) a two-level model (using patient-level pre- and post-treatment scores nested within therapists). Results The ICC estimates for all outcome measures were very small, ranging between 0% and 1.3%, although most were statistically significant. The Bayesian empirical predictions showed that therapist random effects were not statistically significantly different from each other. Between patient variability explained most of the variance in outcomes. Conclusion Consistent with the only other study to date in low intensity interventions, evidence was found to suggest minimal to no therapist effects in patient-reported outcomes. This draws attention to the more prominent source of variability which is found at the between-patient level.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e99658. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099658 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 09/2014; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2014.06.008 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
839.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Hull York Medical School
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2015
    • The University of York
      • • Hull York Medical School
      • • Department of Health Sciences
      • • Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2013
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999–2010
    • University of Leeds
      • Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Ottawa
      • Institute of Population Health
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom