Simon Gilbody

Hull York Medical School, York, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (203)661.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although people with serious mental illnesses have a high risk of contracting blood-borne viral infections, sexual health has largely been neglected by researchers and policy makers involved in mental health. Failure to address this shortcoming could increase morbidity and mortality as a result of undetected and untreated infection. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of blood-borne viral infection in people with serious mental illness.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00357-0
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    BMJ (online) 11/2015; 351(nov11 6):h5627-h5627. DOI:10.1136/bmj.h5627 · 17.45 Impact Factor
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    Trials 11/2015; 16(Suppl 2):P102. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-16-S2-P102 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in older people may be as high as 20 %. Depression in older people is associated with loss, loneliness and physical co-morbidities; it is known to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. Older people may find it difficult to speak to their GPs about low mood, and GPs may avoid identifying depression due to limited consultation time and referral options for older patients. Methods: A nested qualitative study in a randomised controlled trial for older people with moderate to severe depression: the CASPER Plus Trial (Collaborative Care for Screen Positive Elders). We interviewed GPs, case managers (CM) and patient participants to explore perspectives and experiences of delivering and receiving a psychosocial intervention, developed specifically for older adults in primary care, within a collaborative care framework. Transcripts were analysed thematically using principles of constant comparison. Results: Thirty three interviews were conducted and, across the three data-sets, four main themes were identified: revealing hidden depression, reducing the 'blind spots', opportunity to talk outside the primary care consultation and 'moving on' from depression. Conclusions: Depression in older people is commonly hidden, and may coexist with physical conditions that are prioritised by both patients and GPs. Being invited to participate in a trial about depression may allow older people to disclose their feelings, name the problem, and seek help. Offering older people an opportunity to talk outside the primary care consultation is valued by patients and GPs. A psychosocial intervention delivered by a case manager in the primary care setting may fill the gap in the care of older people with depression. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45842879.
    BMC Family Practice 10/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12875-015-0362-2 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools often used data-driven methods to select optimal cut-offs. Typically, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off points around whatever cut-off score is identified as most accurate. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cutoff points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each cut-off point. Thus, traditional meta-analyses may exaggerate accuracy estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) metaanalyses synthesise data from all studies for each cutoff score to obtain accuracy estimates. The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is commonly recommended for depression screening in the perinatal period. The primary objective of this IPD meta-analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS to detect major depression among women during pregnancy and in the postpartum period across all potentially relevant cut-off scores, accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, pregnancy vs postpartum). Methods and analysis: Data sources will include Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that include a diagnosis of major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of (before or after) the administration of the EPDS will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate randomeffects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values. Analyses will evaluate data from pregnancy and the postpartum period separately, as well as combining data from all women in a single model.
    BMJ Open 10/2015; 5(10). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009742 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies indicate children whose mothers have poor mental health are at increased risk of socio-emotional behavioural difficulties, but it is unknown whether these outcomes vary by the mothers' mental health recognition and treatment status. To examine this question, we analysed linked longitudinal primary care and research data from 1078 women enrolled in the Born in Bradford cohort. A latent class analysis of treatment status and self-reported distress broadly categorised women as (a) not having a common mental disorder (CMD) that persisted through pregnancy and the first 2 years after delivery (N = 756, 70.1 %), (b) treated for CMD (N = 67, 6.2 %), or (c) untreated (N = 255, 23.7 %). Compared to children of mothers without CMD, 3-year-old children with mothers classified as having untreated CMD had higher standardised factor scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (d = 0.32), as did children with mothers classified as having treated CMD (d = 0.27). Results were only slightly attenuated in adjusted analyses. Children of mothers with CMD may be at risk for socio-emotional and behavioural difficulties. The development of effective treatments for CMD needs to be balanced by greater attempts to identify and treat women.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00787-015-0777-2 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Jaime Delgadillo · Miqdad Asaria · Shehzad Ali · Simon Gilbody ·
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2008, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has disseminated evidence-based interventions for depression and anxiety problems across more than 200 clinical commissioning group (CCG) areas in England. In order to maintain quality standards, government policy has set a benchmark expecting that 50% of treated patients should meet recovery criteria according to validated patient reported outcome measures. Using available data for 293,400 referrals and 110,415 cases that concluded treatment in the IAPT system between July - September 2014, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation with service utilisation and clinical outcomes. We found significant correlations between the index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and the number of new referrals to psychological services across CCG areas, suggesting that the prevalence of mental health problems is greater in poorer areas. We also found that more deprived areas had lower average recovery rates. After adjusting performance benchmarks for local IMD, we found significant differences between unadjusted (72.5%) and adjusted (43.1%) proportions of underperforming CCG areas. We conclude that performance benchmarks should take into consideration the socioeconomic deprivation of local areas.
    The British Journal of Psychiatry 09/2015; DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.171017 · 7.99 Impact Factor
  • Rachel Mann · Joy Adamson · Simon Gilbody ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence advocates the use of two case-finding questions about depressed mood and loss of interest in activities to identify perinatal depression. However, there are no studies of their acceptability when administered in the antenatal and postnatal period. Methods: The study was an intra-mixed methods cohort study set in an antenatal clinic in an inner-city hospital in the North of England. Pregnant women attending a routine antenatal appointment at approximately 26 weeks' gestation completed a self-report survey at a routine hospital antenatal appointment and a postal survey between 5 and 13 weeks postnatal. Survey responses and free-text commentaries of women's views were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Results: Ninety-three percent of participants felt it was desirable to ask about perinatal mental wellbeing, and 97% felt comfortable answering the questions. Free-text comments revealed depressed and non-depressed women found the questions easy, simple and straightforward to answer. Conclusions: Case-finding questions to identify perinatal depression were generally acceptable to depressed and non-depressed pregnant and newly delivered mothers. Health professionals should consider the acceptability and appropriateness of this strategy in order to facilitate identification of perinatal mental health issues in routine maternity care practice.
    British Journal of Midwifery 09/2015; 23(9):630-638. DOI:10.12968/bjom.2015.23.9.630
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    ABSTRACT: Download the full report here: Background Self-management support interventions can improve health outcomes, but their impact is limited by the numbers of patients able or willing to access them. Men’s attendance at, and engagement with, self-management support appears suboptimal despite their increased risk of developing serious and disabling long-term conditions (LTCs). Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, accessibility and acceptability of self-management support interventions in men with LTCs. Methods A quantitative systematic review with meta-analysis and a qualitative review using a metaethnography approach. The findings of the two reviews were integrated in parallel synthesis. Data sources In the quantitative review, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify published reviews of self-management support interventions. Relevant reviews were screened to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self-management support interventions conducted in men alone, or which analysed the effects of interventions by gender. In the qualitative review, the databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index (July 2013) were searched from inception to July 2013. Review methods In the quantitative review, data on relevant outcomes, patient populations, intervention type and study quality were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of interventions in male, female and mixed-sex groups. In the metaethnography, study details, participant quotes (first-order constructs) and study authors’ themes/concepts (second-order constructs) were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted independently by two reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data were synthesised according to a metaethnography approach. Third-order interpretations/constructs were derived from the extracted data and integrated to generate a ‘line-of-argument’ synthesis. Results Forty RCTs of self-management support interventions in male-only samples, and 20 RCTs where an analysis by gender was reported, were included in the quantitative review. Meta-analysis suggested that interventions including physical activity, education and peer support have a positive impact on quality of life in men, and that men may derive more benefit than women from them, but there is currently insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions. Thirty-eight qualitative studies relevant to men’s experiences of, and perceptions of, self-management support were included in the qualitative review. The metaethnography identified four concepts: (1) need for purpose; (2) trusted environments; (3) value of peers; and (4) becoming an expert. Findings indicated that men may feel less comfortable engaging in support if it is perceived to be incongruous with valued aspects of masculine identities. Men may find support interventions more attractive when they have a clear purpose, are action-oriented and offer practical strategies that can be integrated into daily life. Support delivered in an environment that offers a sense of shared understanding can be particularly appealing to some men. Conclusions Health professionals and those involved in designing interventions may wish to consider whether or not certain components (e.g. physical activity, education, peer support) are particularly effective in men, although more research is needed to fully determine and explore this. Interventions are most likely to be accessible and acceptable to men when working with, not against, valued aspects of masculine identities. Study registration This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005394. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.
    08/2015; 3(34). DOI:10.3310/hsdr03340
  • E Peckham · T J Bradshaw · S Brabyn · S Knowles · S Gilbody ·
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    ABSTRACT: Accessible summary: People with severe mental ill health are up to three times more likely to smoke than other members of the general population. Life expectancy in this client group is reduced by up to 30 years, and smoking is the single most important cause of premature death. The aim of this study was to explore why people with severe mental ill health smoked and why they might want to stop smoking or cut down on the amount of cigarettes that they smoked. The study found that people with severe mental ill health are motivated to cut down or stop smoking, and this is mainly due to concerns about their own health. The reasons people gave for smoking were to relieve stress, to help relax and for something to do when they are bored. Health professionals should offer evidence supported smoking cessation therapy to people with severe mental ill health. In addition to standard National Health Service smoking cessation treatments such as pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Practitioners should help people with serious mental ill health to identify meaningful activities to relieve boredom and challenge any incorrect beliefs they hold that smoking helps relaxation and relieves stress. Abstract: Smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature mortality for people with serious mental ill health (SMI). Yet little is known about the reasons why service users smoke or what their motivations for quitting might be. The aim of this paper is to explore smoking behaviours, reasons for smoking and motivations for cutting down/stopping smoking in individuals with SMI who expressed an interest in cutting down or stopping smoking. Prior to randomization, the smoking behaviours and motivations for wanting to cut down or stop smoking of participants in a randomized trial were systematically assessed. Participant's primary reasons for continuing to smoke were that they believed it helped them to cope with stress, to relax and relieve boredom. Participant's main motivations for wanting to cut down or stop smoking were related to concerns for their own health. Previous attempts to stop smoking had often been made alone without access to evidence supported smoking cessation therapy. Future recommendations include helping people with SMI to increase their activity levels to relieve boredom and inspire confidence in their ability to stop smoking and challenging beliefs that smoking aids relaxation and relieves stress.
    Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/jpm.12241 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review. A total of 29 electronic databases were searched with additional mechanisms for identifying a wide pool of references using the Cochrane methodology. Examples of databases searched include PsycINFO (1806 to January week 1, 2012), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1946 to December week 4, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to week 1, 2012). Searches were carried out between 6 and 12 January 2012. Papers identified were screened and data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements arbitrated by a third independent reviewer. Quality assessment tools were used, including quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies - version 2 and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions was undertaken. A health economics analysis was conducted. The initial search returned 10,167 citations. This yielded 29 RCTs in the main review of parenting interventions to improve attachment patterns, and one involving children with reactive attachment disorder. A meta-analysis of eight studies seeking to improve outcome in at-risk populations showed statistically significant improvement in disorganised attachment. The interventions saw less disorganised attachment at outcome than the control (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.65; p < 0.00001). Much of this focused around interventions improving maternal sensitivity, with or without video feedback. In our first supplementary review, 35 papers evaluated an attachment assessment tool demonstrating validity or psychometric data. Only five reported test-retest data. Twenty-six studies reported inter-rater reliability, with 24 reporting a level of 0.7 or above. Cronbach's alphas were reported in 12 studies for the comparative tests (11 with α > 0.7) and four studies for the reference tests (four with α > 0.7). Three carried out concurrent validity comparing the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) with another assessment tool. These had good sensitivity but poor specificity. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview had good sensitivity and specificity with the research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for attachment disorders. In our supplementary review of 10-year outcomes in cohorts using a baseline reference standard, two studies were found with disorganised attachment at baseline, with one finding raised psychopathology in adolescence. Budget impact analysis of costs was estimated because a decision model could not be justifiably populated. This, alongside other findings, informed research priorities. There are relatively few UK-based clinical trials. A 10-year follow-up, while necessary for our health economists for long-term sequelae, yielded a limited number of papers. Maternal sensitivity interventions show good outcomes in at-risk populations, but require further research with complex children. The SSP and RDC for attachment disorders remain the reference standards for identification until more concurrent and predictive validity research is conducted. A birth cohort with sequential attachment measures and outcomes across different domains is recommended with further, methodologically sound randomised controlled intervention trials. The main area identified for future work was a need for good-quality RCTs in at-risk groups such as those entering foster care or adoption. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42011001395. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 07/2015; 19(52):1-348. DOI:10.3310/hta19520 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a widely used screening tool for major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate surrounding its diagnostic properties. For the PHQ-9, we aimed to: 1. Establish the diagnostic performance at the standard cutoff point (10). 2. Compare the diagnostic performance at the standard cutoff point in different clinical settings. 3. Assess whether there is selective reporting of cutoff points other than 10. We searched three databases - Embase, MEDLINE and PSYCHInfo - and performed a reverse citation search in Web of Science. We selected for inclusion studies of any design that assessed the PHQ-9 in adult populations against recognized gold-standard instruments for the diagnosis of either Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Classification of Diseases criteria for major depression. Included studies had to report sufficient information to calculate 2*2 contingency tables. Data extraction and synthesis were performed independently by two researchers. For the included studies, we calculated pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, positive likelihood, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio for cutoff points 7 to 15. Thirty-six studies (21,292 patients) met inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity for cutoff point 10 was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.84], and pooled specificity was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90). At this cutoff, the PHQ-9 is a better screener in primary care than secondary care settings. No conclusions could be drawn at cutoff points other than 10 due to selective reporting of data. For MDD, the PHQ-9 has acceptable diagnostic properties at cutoff point 10 in different settings. We recommend that future studies report the full range of cutoff points to allow exploration of optimal cutoff points in different settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 06/2015; 37(6). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.06.012 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (g’s= .85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g= .69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: g’s=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g= .70, individual: g= .97, computer/ internet: g = .96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g= .89, individual: g= .86, computer/ internet: g= .96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects.
    Clinical psychology review 06/2015; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.002 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Serious mental illness (SMI), which encompasses a set of chronic conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychoses, accounts for 3.4 m (7 %) total bed days in the English NHS. The introduction of prospective payment to reimburse hospitals makes an understanding of the key drivers of length of stay (LOS) imperative. Existing evidence, based on mainly small scale and cross-sectional studies, is mixed. Our study is the first to use large-scale national routine data to track English hospitals' LOS for patients with a main diagnosis of SMI over time to examine the patient and local area factors influencing LOS and quantify the provider level effects to draw out the implications for payment systems. Methods: We analysed variation in LOS for all SMI admissions to English hospitals from 2006 to 2010 using Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES). We considered patients with a LOS of up to 180 days and estimated Poisson regression models with hospital fixed effects, separately for admissions with one of three main diagnoses: schizophrenia; psychotic and schizoaffective disorder; and bipolar affective disorder. We analysed the independent contribution of potential determinants of LOS including clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of the patient, access to and quality of primary care, and local area characteristics. We examined the degree of unexplained variation in provider LOS. Results: Most risk factors did not have a differential effect on LOS for different diagnostic sub-groups, however we did find some heterogeneity in the effects. Shorter LOS in the pooled model was associated with co-morbid substance or alcohol misuse (4 days), and personality disorder (8 days). Longer LOS was associated with older age (up to 19 days), black ethnicity (4 days), and formal detention (16 days). Gender was not a significant predictor. Patients who self-discharged had shorter LOS (20 days). No association was found between higher primary care quality and LOS. We found large differences between providers in unexplained variation in LOS. Conclusions: By identifying key determinants of LOS our results contribute to a better understanding of the implications of case-mix to ensure prospective payment systems reflect accurately the resource use within sub-groups of patients with SMI.
    BMC Health Services Research 06/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12913-015-1107-6 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate. A consensus meeting involving experts in depressive disorders and their management was held in September 2012. Key areas in treating depression were reviewed and the strength of evidence and clinical implications were considered. The guidelines were then revised after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. A literature review is provided which identifies the quality of evidence upon which the recommendations are made. These guidelines cover the nature and detection of depressive disorders, acute treatment with antidepressant drugs, choice of drug versus alternative treatment, practical issues in prescribing and management, next-step treatment, relapse prevention, treatment of relapse and stopping treatment. Significant changes since the last guidelines were published in 2008 include the availability of new antidepressant treatment options, improved evidence supporting certain augmentation strategies (drug and non-drug), management of potential long-term side effects, updated guidance for prescribing in elderly and adolescent populations and updated guidance for optimal prescribing. Suggestions for future research priorities are also made. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 05/2015; 29(5). DOI:10.1177/0269881115581093 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People with severe mental ill health are three times more likely to smoke but typically do not access conventional smoking cessation services, contributing to widening health inequalities and reduced life expectancy. We aimed to pilot an intervention targeted at smokers with severe mental ill health and to test methods of recruitment, randomisation, and follow up before implementing a full trial.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 05/2015; 2(5):395-402. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00091-7
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    ABSTRACT: To validate the Whooley questions as a screening tool for depression amongst a population of older adults in UK primary care. To assess the diagnostic performance of the Whooley questions as a screening tool for depression amongst older adults in UK primary care. A cross-sectional validation study was conducted with 766 patients aged ≥75 from UK primary care, recruited via 17 general practices based in the North of England during the pilot phase of a randomized controlled trial. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios comparing the index test (two Whooley questions) with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) ascertained by the reference standard Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The two screening questions had a sensitivity of 94.3% (95% confidence interval, 80.8-99.3%) and specificity of 62.7% (95% confidence interval, 59.0-66.2%). The likelihood ratio for a positive test was 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-2.9) and the likelihood ratio for a negative test was 0.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.35). The two Whooley questions missed few cases of depression. However, they were responsible for a high rate of false positives. This creates additional burden on general practitioners, to conduct more detailed investigation on patients who screen positive, but many of whom turn out not to have MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 182:39-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.020 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivises general practices in England to provide proactive care for people with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychoses. Better proactive primary care may reduce the risk of psychiatric admissions to hospital, but this has never been tested empirically. The QOF data set included 8234 general practices in England from 2006/2007 to 2010/2011. Rates of hospital admissions with primary diagnoses of SMI or bipolar disorder were estimated from national routine hospital data and aggregated to practice level. Poisson regression was used to analyse associations. Practices with higher achievement on the annual review for SMI patients (MH9), or that performed better on either of the two lithium indicators for bipolar patients (MH4 or MH5), had more psychiatric admissions. An additional 1% in achievement rates for MH9 was associated with an average increase in the annual practice admission rate of 0.19% (95% CI 0.10% to 0.28%) or 0.007 patients (95% CI 0.003 to 0.01). The positive association was contrary to expectation, but there are several possible explanations: better quality primary care may identify unmet need for secondary care; higher QOF achievement may not prevent the need for secondary care; individuals may receive their QOF checks postdischarge rather than prior to admission; individuals with more severe SMI may be more likely to be registered with practices with better QOF performance; and QOF may be a poor measure of the quality of care for people with SMI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 04/2015; 5(4):e007342. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007342 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious mental illness (SMI) is a set of chronic enduring conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. SMIs are associated with poor outcomes, high costs and high levels of disease burden. Primary care plays a central role in the care of people with a SMI in the English NHS. Good-quality primary care has the potential to reduce emergency hospital admissions, but also to increase elective admissions if physical health problems are identified by regular health screening of people with SMIs. Better-quality primary care may reduce length of stay (LOS) by enabling quicker discharge, and it may also reduce NHS expenditure. Objectives We tested whether or not better-quality primary care, as assessed by the SMI quality indicators measured routinely in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) in English general practice, is associated with lower rates of emergency hospital admissions for people with SMIs, for both mental and physical conditions and with higher rates of elective admissions for physical conditions in people with a SMI. We also tested the impact of SMI QOF indicators on LOS and costs. Data We linked administrative data from around 8500 general practitioner (GP) practices and from Hospital Episode Statistics for the study period 2006/7 to 2010/11. We identified SMI admissions by a main International Classification of Diseases , 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of F20–F31. We included information on GP practice and patient population characteristics, area deprivation and other potential confounders such as access to care. Analyses were carried out at a GP practice level for admissions, but at a patient level for LOS and cost analyses. Methods We ran mixed-effects count data and linear models taking account of the nested structure of the data. All models included year indicators for temporal trends. Results Contrary to expectation, we found a positive association between QOF achievement and admissions, for emergency admissions for both mental and physical health. An additional 10% in QOF achievement was associated with an increase in the practice emergency SMI admission rate of approximately 1.9%. There was no significant association of QOF achievement with either LOS or cost. All results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Possible explanations for our findings are (1) higher quality of primary care, as measured by QOF may not effectively prevent the need for secondary care; (2) patients may receive their QOF checks post discharge, rather than prior to admission; (3) people with more severe SMIs, at a greater risk of admission, may select into practices that are better organised to provide their care and which have better QOF performance; (4) better-quality primary care may be picking up unmet need for secondary care; and (5) QOF measures may not accurately reflect quality of primary care. Patient-level data on quality of care in general practice is required to determine the reasons for the positive association of QOF quality and admissions. Future research should also aim to identify the non-QOF measures of primary care quality that may reduce unplanned admissions more effectively and could potentially be incentivised. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.
    04/2015; 3(16):1-68. DOI:10.3310/hsdr03160

Publication Stats

7k Citations
661.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • Hull York Medical School
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • The University of York
      • • Hull York Medical School
      • • Department of Health Sciences
      • • Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2010
    • University of Leeds
      • • Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)
      • • School of Medicine
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2001
    • York University
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom