[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has firmly established that the integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critical for recognition memory. This ability is supported by recollection, which involves recovery of contextual details of a past stimulus encounter, and familiarity assessment, which leads to awareness of prior occurrence without such recovery. Dual-process models of MTL organization posit that recollection and familiarity are supported by the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, respectively. Alternatively, it has been argued that both structures support these recognition processes similarly as part of a more integrated declarative memory system; from this perspective, reported selective recollection impairments with circumscribed hippocampal lesions may reflect differential sensitivity to overall memory strength, rather than a deficit in a distinct recognition process. Findings from past neuropsychological research remain inconsistent and controversial, in part due to biases in patient selection, variability in clinical etiology, and limited lesion documentation. Here, we administered a verbal recognition-memory task in combination with remember-know judgements to 10 individuals who had undergone left- or right-sided stereotactic amygdalo-hippocampotomy as a surgical treatment for intractable temporal-lobe epilepsy. Comparisons with healthy control participants revealed isolated impairments in recollection with preserved familiarity, regardless of hemispheric site of lesion. In addition, we show that this impairment can be observed at a comparable level of memory strength (i.e., overall recognition performance) as the selective familiarity impairment we previously described in N.B.--an individual who underwent a tailored surgical resection of the left anterior temporal lobe with hippocampal sparing for treatment of temporal-lobe epilepsy. By revealing a double dissociation concerning temporal-lobe mechanisms for recollection and familiarity, this evidence argues against a unitary, strength-based account of MTL organization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of continuous electrical stimulation of the hippocampus bilaterally on seizures and memory was assessed in two subjects with seizures from both mesial temporal lobes who were not candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. A double blind, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial design was utilized. Two electrodes with four contacts each were implanted along the axis of the hippocampus bilaterally. Simultaneous stimulation of all electrodes contacts was either on or off during each 3-month interval. Seizure frequency decreased by 33% in the two patients during stimulation and remained lower by 25% for the 3 months after stimulation was turned off before returning to baseline (p < 0.01). No consistent change in objective or subjective measures of memory occurred. No other adverse effects occurred. Seizure frequency is reduced both during and for a period after bilateral hippocampal stimulation, but the overall impact in this study is not as robust as has been previously reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional MRI was used to study the impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) on the cortical language network in patients with medically refractory TLE.
Nineteen patients with medically refractory TLE and 11 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Ten patients underwent left ATL (mean age 35.2 +/- 3.8 years), and 9 underwent right ATL (mean age 35.9 +/- 2.6 years). The subjects silently generated verbs in response to a series of visually presented nouns inside the scanner. Correlation analysis was performed between the subjects' performance on the clinical language tests and their neural response in the a priori cortical regions.
Preoperative data revealed that the patients with TLE showed increased neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyri (IFG) and middle frontal gyri (MFG). The right TLE patients demonstrated strong correlation between their language performance and the level of cortical activation within the typical language areas. However, such a correlation was absent in the left TLE patients. After the ATL surgery, the left TLE patients showed reduced activation in the left MFG and right IFG, whereas no difference was observed in the right TLE patients. In the right TLE patients, the correlation between language performance and neural response shifted from the typical language areas to the anterior cingulate cortex.
This study demonstrates that the cortical language network is affected differently by the left and right temporal lobe epilepsy and is reorganized after anterior temporal lobectomy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term cognitive outcome following hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome has been poorly studied, with little attention to the implications of side of involvement in HHE. This retrospective study describes language lateralization and cognitive performance in five patients with HHE syndrome affecting the left cerebral hemisphere. All of the patients had to have intracarotid sodium amytal testing (IAT) to be included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 30.2 years (range: 13-50). All patients had their hemiconvulsive seizures before age 1(1/2) years (range: 6-13 months). All patients had right-sided hemiatrophy of the body, left mesial temporal sclerosis, and seizures originating from the left temporal lobe. The habitual seizures began at a mean age of 4.5 years (range: 1.5-12 years). Performance on tests of intelligence, verbal memory, and visual memory was examined. Language was represented in the right cerebral hemisphere in three patients, the left hemisphere in one patient, and both hemispheres with predominance on the right side in the fifth patient. Intellectual functioning was in the borderline to extremely low range among the patients with right hemispheric or bilateral representation for language. These patients were variably impaired on measures of verbal and visual memory. The patient with left hemispheric representation for language performed in the average range on tests of intellectual functioning and verbal memory, whereas scores on visual memory were variable. This study demonstrated that reorganization of language to the right cerebral hemisphere or its bilateral representation is common in patients with HHE syndrome affecting the left cerebral hemisphere, and is associated with poor cognitive outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that the medial-temporal lobe (MTL) is critical for recognition memory. The MTL is known to be composed of distinct structures that are organized in a hierarchical manner. At present, it remains controversial whether lower structures in this hierarchy, such as perirhinal cortex, support memory functions that are distinct from those of higher structures, in particular the hippocampus. Perirhinal cortex has been proposed to play a specific role in the assessment of familiarity during recognition, which can be distinguished from the selective contributions of the hippocampus to the recollection of episodic detail. Some researchers have argued, however, that the distinction between familiarity and recollection cannot capture functional specialization within the MTL and have proposed single-process accounts. Evidence supporting the dual-process view comes from demonstrations that selective hippocampal damage can produce isolated recollection impairments. It is unclear, however, whether temporal-lobe lesions that spare the hippocampus can produce selective familiarity impairments. Without this demonstration, single-process accounts cannot be ruled out. We examined recognition memory in NB, an individual who underwent surgical resection of left anterior temporal-lobe structures for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Her resection included a large portion of perirhinal cortex but spared the hippocampus. The results of four experiments based on three different experimental procedures (remember-know paradigm, receiver operating characteristics, and response-deadline procedure) indicate that NB exhibits impaired familiarity with preserved recollection. The present findings thus provide a crucial missing piece of support for functional specialization in the MTL.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2007; 104(41):16382-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor