[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obtaining a complete cytoreduction in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is one of the most significant prognostic variables for long-term survival. This study explored features on preoperative computed tomography (CT) to predict unresectability.
A retrospective case-control study was conducted of 15 patients with unresectable PC and 15 patients with completely resected PC matched by intraoperative peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and pathology type. Two surgical oncologists blindly analyzed all abdominopelvic CT scans.
PCI estimated on imaging was not higher in unresectable patients (P = .851) and significantly underestimated intraoperative PCI measurement (P = .003). No single concerning feature was associated with unresectability. However, patients with 2 or more concerning features were more likely to be unresectable (87.5% vs 36.4%, P = .035).
Two or more concerning CT imaging features appear to be associated with a higher risk of unresectability in patients with PC. However, no specific imaging feature should exclude a patient from an attempted cytoreduction.
American journal of surgery 05/2014; 207(5):760-5. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The debate remains whether appendiceal goblet cell cancers behave as classical carcinoid or adenocarcinoma. Treatment options are unclear and reports of outcomes are scarce. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS+HIPEC) is considered optimal treatment for peritoneal involvement of other epithelial appendiceal tumors.
Prospective cohorts of patients treated for advanced appendiceal tumors from three peritoneal malignancy centres were collected (1994-2011). All patients underwent complete CRS+HIPEC, when possible, or tumor debulking. Demographic and outcome data for patients with goblet cell cancers were compared to patients with low- or high-grade epithelial appendiceal tumors treated during the same time period.
Details on 45 goblet cell cancer patients were compared to 708 patients with epithelial appendix lesions. In the goblet cell group, 57.8 % were female, median age was 53 years, median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 24, and CRS+HIPEC was achieved in 71.1 %. These details were similar in patients with low- or high-grade epithelial tumors. Lymph nodes were involved in 52 % of goblet cell patients, similar to rates in high-grade cancers, but significantly higher than in low-grade lesions (6.4 %; p < 0.001). At 3 years, overall survival (OS) was 63.4 % for goblet cell patients, intermediate between that for high-grade (40.4-52.2 %) and low-grade (80.6 %) tumors. On multivariate analysis, tumor histology, PCI, and achievement of CRS+HIPEC were independently associated with OS.
This data supports the concept that appendiceal goblet cell cancers behave more as high-grade adenocarcinomas than as low-grade lesions. These patients have reasonable long-term survival when treated using CRS+HIPEC, and this strategy should be considered.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A web-based synoptic operative reporting system (WebSMR) incorporates implicit guidelines and real-time feedback of a surgeon’s practice compared with provincial data. This study compares rates of TM between the overall provincial and WebSMR patients and examines decision-making factors in WebSMR patients.
Patients treated for invasive breast cancer (2007-2011) were identified from WebSMR and the Alberta Cancer Registry. Reports include surgery type and reasons for TM.
Among 5787 patients in WebSMR (2007-2011), TM rate decreased from 48 to 42% (p<0.001). In 2011, the provincial cancer registry recorded a 56% TM rate compared to 42% in WebSMR patients. Patient preference accounted for 36% in the latter group.
In WebSMR patients, TM rates were lower than the overall provincial rate and decreased significantly during the study period. Reasons are unclear but guidelines and real-time feedback likely plays a role.
American journal of surgery 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few established indications for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This study examines factors contributing to the high rate of SLNB in DCIS in Alberta, Canada.
Patients who underwent definitive surgery from January 2009 to July 2011 for DCIS diagnosed on preoperative core-needle biopsy were identified using a provincial synoptic operative report database (WebSMR). The relationship between baseline patient and tumor characteristics and treatment with total mastectomy (TM), use of SLNB, and upstaging were examined.
There were 394 patients identified in the study cohort. Mean age was 57 years, and average preoperative tumor size was 3 cm. Overall, 148 patients (37.6 %) underwent TM; predictors were preoperative tumor size [odds ratio (OR), 1.92 per 1-cm increase in size; 95 % CI 1.65-2.24] and surgeon. Upstaging to invasive cancer at surgery occurred in 23 %, predicted only by preoperative tumor size (OR 1.14 per 1 cm; 95 % CI 1.03-1.27). SLNB was performed in 306 patients overall (77 %) and 140 of those treated with BCS (61 %). Predictors of SLNB were larger preoperative tumor size (OR 1.55 per 1 cm; 95 % CI 1.18-2.04) and the surgeon. In patients treated with BCS, 3 patients who were upstaged had positive SLNs (>0.2 mm), and no patients with DCIS had a positive SLN.
SLNB use is high in patients undergoing BCS for DCIS. Tumor size and the operating surgeon predicted SLNB use. Despite a 23 % upstaging rate, the rate of clinically significant positive SLNs in patients treated with BCS is low, supporting omission of upfront SLNB.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Ten- to 15-year survival results were analyzed from a prospective multi-institutional randomized surgical trial that involved 740 stages I and II melanoma patients with intermediate thickness melanomas (1.0 to 4.0 mm) and compared elective (immediate) lymph node dissection (ELND) with clinical observation of the lymph nodes as well as prognostic factors that independently predict outcomes. Methods: Eligible patients were stratified according to tumor thickness, anatomical site, and ulceration, and then prerandomized to either ELND or nodal observation. By using Cox stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the independent predictors of outcome were tumor thickness ( P , .001), the presence of tumor ulceration (P , .001), trunk site (P 5 .003), and patient age more than 60 years (P 5 .01). Results: Overall 10-year survival was not significantly different for patients who received ELND or nodal observation (77% vs. 73%; P 5 .12). Among the prospectively stratified subgroups of patients, 10-year survival rates favored those patients with ELND, with a 30% reduction in mortality rate for the 543 patients with nonulcerated melanomas (84% vs. 77%; P 5 .03), a 30% reduction in mortality rate for the 446 patients with tumor thickness of 1.0 to 2.0 mm (86% vs. 80%; P 5 .03), and a 27% reduction in mortality rate for 385 patients with limb melanomas (84% vs. 78%; P 5 .05). Of these subgroups, the presence or absence of ulceration should be the key factor for making treatment recommendations with regard to ELND for patients with intermediate thickness melanomas. Conclusions: These long-term survival rates from patients treated at 77 institutions demonstrate that ulceration and tumor thickness are dominant predictive factors that should be used in the staging of stages I and II melanomas, and confer a survival advantage for these subgroups of prospectively defined melanoma patients.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2012; 7(2):87-97. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario's Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS). Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario) are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to bring together key stakeholders across the spectrum of respiratory care, including clinicians, researchers, health informaticists and administrators to explore and recommend a potential scope, approach and governance structure for this important project. The Pan-Canadian REspiratory STandards INitiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE) goal is to recommend respiratory data elements and standards for use in electronic medical records across Canada that meet the needs of providers, administrators, researchers and policy makers to facilitate evidence-based clinical care, monitoring, surveillance, benchmarking and policy development. The focus initially is expected to include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function standards elements that are applicable to many respiratory conditions. The present article summarizes the process and findings of the forum deliberations.
Canadian respiratory journal: journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society 03/2012; 19(2):117-26. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, the dictated operative report forms the cornerstone of documenting breast cancer surgery. Synoptic electronic reporting using a standardized template has been proposed for breast cancer operative notes to improve documentation. The goal of this study was to determine the current completeness of dictated operative reports for breast cancer surgery.
An iterative, consensus-based approach to determining elements of a proposed synoptic surgical operative report identified critical elements. We then evaluated the dictated operative reports of 100 consecutive breast cancer patients for completeness of these elements.
Details regarding presentation and diagnosis were frequently incomplete (84%). Among patients undergoing mastectomy, the potential for breast conservation was partially described in only 60%. Only 41% had data regarding intra-operative margin assessment during breast conservation surgery. In axillary lymph node dissections, 92% of patients had complete data about preservation of nerves, yet only 14% of reports contained complete information regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy. Closure was partially described in 91%.
The dictated operative report for breast cancer surgery does not adequately capture important data. A synoptic reporting system, which requires documentation of important elements, is a potentially beneficial tool in breast cancer surgery.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2012; 106(1):79-83. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to report a long-term survival analysis of a phase II protocol of cytoreductive surgery (CS) and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PCs).
Between 2000 and 2008, 101 consecutive patients were treated with CS, HIPEC and early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy using a standardized protocol. Disease recurrence and mortality data were collected prospectively. Primary outcomes were median, 3-year, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
The median age was 49 years (range, 18-77 years), and the majority (82%) had complete CS with no gross residual cancer. Tumor types included appendiceal (n = 58), colorectal (n = 31), and other (n = 12). Median follow-up was 28 months (range, 0-119 months), with minimum of 24 months among survivors. For appendiceal tumors, median DFS was 34 months (range, 0-119 months) and OS has not yet been defined. Three-year and 5-year DFS was 48% and 42%, respectively, and 3-year and 5-year OS was 76% and 62%, respectively. For colorectal carcinomatosis, median disease-free and OS was 9 months (range, 0-87 months) and 27 months (range, 0-87 months), respectively. Three-year and 5-year DFS was 34% and 26%, respectively, and 3-year and 5-year OS was 38% and 34%, respectively.
Long-term survival with regional treatment of PC from appendiceal or colorectal primary tumors with CS and HIPEC is achievable.
American journal of surgery 05/2011; 201(5):650-4. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal nodal recurrence after curative resection of colorectal cancer is an uncommon and challenging problem. The evidence for salvage surgery is limited and remains controversial, particularly when major vascular structures are involved. Some reports have demonstrated a survival benefit after metachronous resection of retroperitoneal metastasis with and without concomitant aortic resection. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to find evidence in favor of or against salvage surgery.
Electronic searches of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE database were performed. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. Only peer-reviewed articles published in the English language were evaluated.
A total of nine suitable studies were identified: three case reports and six larger series, of which one was a case-control study. Including our case reports, the total number of patients who underwent surgical resection that are available for review was 110. Median overall survival was between 34 and 44 months and median disease-free survival between 17 and 21 months. Concomitant resection of major vessels with graft replacement was feasible with survival ranging from 19 months to 18 years. There was no reported mortality associated with surgical salvage of retroperitoneal recurrence and the overall morbidity was 17-33%.
The current literature suggests that more aggressive surgical treatment of retroperitoneal nodal recurrence in CRC has acceptable morbidity and may be associated with an improved survival in well-selected patients.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 18(3):697-703. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inferior vena cava (IVC) leiomyosarcomas are rare and are a relatively small subset of retroperitoneal sarcomas. The current approach is resection and ligation or reconstruction of the IVC. This study was undertaken to analyze the outcomes associated with the use of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and IVC reconstruction in the treatment of IVC leiomyosarcoma.
A retrospective clinicopathological review of patients treated during a 10-year period.
Four patients were treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy, median 47.5 Gy, all underwent margin negative resection with 75% of the tumors being high grade and all patients requiring resection of adjacent organs. Reconstruction of the IVC was performed with an autologous superficial femoral vein graft. There were no mortalities and the morbidity rate was 50%. At a median follow up of 37 months; two patients had a patent IVC, no patients had a local recurrence, and one patient developed a distant metastases treated successfully with metastectomy.
Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and resection of the IVC leiomyosarcoma resulted in 100% local control, and all patients are alive at median follow up of 37 months. IVC reconstruction with the superficial femoral vein is safe and associated with acceptable short and long term morbidity.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2011; 103(2):175-8. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal sarcomatosis carries a dismal prognosis with median survival of 12 months and no 5-year survivors. The treatment for sarcomatosis has mostly been chemotherapy and surgery for palliation. Recently, cytoreduction (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) has been tried as an alternative for improving regional control and survival, but the efficacy of this combined treatment is difficult to determine. The objective of this review is to evaluate all available evidence to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.
Searches for studies published in peer-reviewed journals before October 2010 were carried out on 3 databases. The reference lists of all identified articles were reviewed for further relevant studies. Relevant studies were then evaluated by 3 investigators, and the quality of each study was assessed. Studies that met an established criterion were reviewed for clinical effectiveness with a tabulation of all results.
Eight prospective and one randomized trial were available representing 240 patients treated with CRS and IPC. The median disease-free survival ranged from 2.3 to 22 months, median survival ranged from 5.5 to 39.6 months, and the 5-year survival ranged from 7% to 65%. The surgical morbidity varied from 9% to 44% and the mortality from 0% to 11%.
Based on the available data, this treatment approach is currently not recommended in the treatment of sarcomatosis except in experienced centers, in well-selected patients and as part of an experimental protocol.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2011; 18(1):207-13. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innovation is defined as the introduction of something new, whether an idea, method or device. In this article, we describe the most important and innovative concepts and techniques that have advanced patient care within modern surgical subspecialties. We performed a systematic literature review and consulted academic subspecialty experts to evaluate recent changes in practice. The identified innovations included reduced blood loss and improved training in hepatobiliary surgery, total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant therapies in colorectal surgery, prosthetic mesh in outpatient surgery, sentinel lymph node theory in surgical oncology, endovascular and wire-based skills in vascular and cardiovascular surgery, and the acceptance of abnormal anatomy through damage-control procedures in trauma and critical care. The common denominator among all subspecialties is an improvement in patient care manifested as a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Surgeons must continue to pursue innovative thinking, technological advances, improved training and systematic research.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 10/2010; 53(5):335-41. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern information technology coupled with synoptic methodology allows point of care, real time outcomes generation. Our objective was to review province-wide breast cancer surgery outcomes from a prospective synoptic operative record to demonstrate its value in knowledge translation.
All synoptic reports for breast cancer procedures from 2006 until March 2010 were reviewed and descriptively analyzed. Key outcomes included frequency of breast cancer procedures captured over time, methods of breast cancer detection, clinical staging, method of axillary staging, breast conservation and reconstruction rates. Further analysis involved important decision-making for mastectomy and resource allocation for surgery.
Four thousand nine hundred fifty-five breast cancer procedures were recorded synoptically; greater than 80% of cases provincially. Method of breast cancer detection was 49%, 45% and 4% by screening radiology, patient or family, and physician, respectively. Pathologic diagnoses were via core or mammotome biopsy in 94%; nearly half of all patients were clinical Stage I at time of operation. Overall rate of breast conservation was 48%. Of the 65% who had no contra-indication to breast conservation surgery, 76% had breast conservation and 4% had primary reconstruction. Of those having mastectomy, one third were due to patient choice. Seventy-nine percent had sentinel node staging, 18% had full axillary dissection and 3% had no axillary staging.
A new paradigm of creating medical records using synoptic electronic templates allows prospective outcomes generation at point of care by the surgeon which is unparalleled in its depth of surgical detail capturing surgical decision-making.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 09/2010; 36 Suppl 1:S44-9. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive literature identifies that the quality of surgery not only influences morbidity and mortality but also long-term survival and function. This mandates that we develop a system to capture this information on a real-time basis.
A synoptic surgical template for breast cancer was created; this was digitized and made available to all surgeons in Alberta.
The data reference 1,392 breast cancer procedures. Ninety-one percent of reports were submitted within 1 hour and 97% of reports were submitted within 24 hours. Fifty-two percent of reports were completed within 5 minutes. Information quality with respect to completeness of staging information was present in 89%. Eighty-four percent complied with practice guidelines and 89% of breast surgeons adopted the template. Seventy-five percent of users were moderately or highly satisfied with the system.
The experience with the development and implementation of synoptic surgical reporting has proven to be a successful tool for generating quality surgical data.
American journal of surgery 02/2010; 199(6):770-5. · 2.36 Impact Factor