Chia-Ling Wu

Chang Gung University, Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (11)32.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can mediate its therapeutic effect through Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expressed on tumor cells including neuroblastoma. We used synthetic dsRNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] as a TLR3 agonist to treat TLR3-expressing SK-N-AS neuroblatoma (NB) cells. We found up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins glucose-regulated protein 78 and inositol-requiring enzyme 1. Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of ER function, effectively blocked poly(I:C)-induced activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3, MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase 1 and reduced poly(I:C)-induced SK-N-AS apoptosis. Pan caspase inhibitor and inhibitor of caspase-9, but not of caspase-8, inhibited poly(I:C)-induced activated caspase-3 expression. Rho zero (ρ(0))-SK-N-AS cells were resistant to poly(I:C)-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis, but not to inhibition of cell growth, as compared to parent SK-N-AS cells. Taking together, these findings suggest that mitochondria are preferentially involved in poly(I:C)-induced NB cell apoptosis, but not in inhibition of cell growth. A crosstalk between mitochondria and ER is implicated.
    Apoptosis 12/2011; 17(4):335-48. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) is a critical component of innate immune system against dsRNA viruses and is expressed in the central nervous system. However, it remains unknown whether TLR3 may serve as a therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma (NB). TLR3 expression in human NB samples was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot was used to determine TLR3 expression in three human NB cell lines. The effect of TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), on the growth of human NB cells was evaluated by WST-1 cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry analysis, and immunoblot analysis. Blockade of TLR3 signaling was achieved using TLR3 neutralizing antibody, small interference RNA, and 2-aminopurine (2-AP), an inhibitor of protein kinase R (PKR), an interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. In immunohistochemical studies, TLR3 mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of ganglion cells and in some neuroblastic cells, but not in the stromal cells in human NB tissues. Among three human NB cell lines analyzed, TLR3 was significantly up-regulated in SK-N-AS cells at mRNA and protein level compared with other two low TLR3- expressing NB cells. Treatment with poly(I:C) elicited significant growth inhibition and apoptosis only in high TLR3-expressing SK-N-AS cells, but not in low TLR3-expressing SK-N-FI and SK-N-DZ cells. Moreover, poly(I:C) treatment significantly stimulated the activities of PKR, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and caspase-3 in SK-N-AS cells. Application of TLR3 neutralizing antibody or small interference RNA (siRNA) reduced the poly(I:C)-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in SK-N-AS cells. On the contrary, ectopic TLR3 expression enhanced the sensitivity of low TLR3-expressing NB cells to poly(I:C). Finally, application of 2-AP attenuated the poly(I:C)-induced IRF-3 and caspase-3 activation in SK-N-AS cells. The present study demonstrates that TLR3 is expressed in a subset of NB cells. Besides, TLR3/PKR/IRF-3/capase-3 pathway is implicated in the selective cytotoxicity of TLR3 agonist towards high TLR3-expressing NB cells.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 08/2011; 18:65. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepcidin is downregulated during progressive cholestasis in biliary atresia, but the mechanism is unknown. To verify whether downregulation of hepcidin is specific to cholestasis irrespective of the patient's age, we first analyzed liver hepcidin mRNA and protein expression in adults with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (n=4), non-cholestatic cirrhosis (n=19) and in controls (n=9). We evaluated the tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) expressions in the liver sections. A rat model of cholestasis by ligation of the extrahepatic bile duct (BDL) was created, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cholangitis in cholestatic rats 2 weeks after BDL was also established to study the modulation of hepcidin by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and STAT3 signaling pathway in these models, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An in vitro study of the effect of bile acids on hepcidin expression was carried out to re-confirm the in vivo findings. There was significantly lower hepcidin mRNA and pSTAT3 protein expression in cholestatic cirrhosis compared with non-cholestatic cirrhosis in adults. BDL caused significant decrease in hepcidin and gp130 mRNA expression compared with sham-operated group and normal control. Furthermore, there was significantly lower pSTAT3 protein expression and nuclear translocation in the cholestatic liver from the patients and the BDL rats, which was comparable to lower liver hepcidin mRNA and plasma hepcidin expression. Furthermore, BDL for 2 weeks attenuated the upregulation of hepcidin expression induced by LPS. Hydrophobic bile acid glycochenodeoxycholate inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 expression in primary hepatocytes and resulted in the downregulation of hepcidin mRNA expression. In conclusion, the study shows that cholestasis or its important component-hydrophobic bile acids-can downregulate hepcidin expression through inhibiting IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and pSTAT3 protein nuclear translocation.
    Laboratory Investigation 09/2009; 89(10):1128-39. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral infection and type I interferon have been implicated in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA), but the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize viruses, as well as of type 1 interferon specific signaling molecules are still unknown in BA. Fresh liver tissues were obtained from patients in early and late stage of BA and from patients with choledochal cyst (CC), as well as from normal controls receiving liver resection for benign lesion other than cholestasis or fibrosis. Archived liver tissues from patients with neonatal hepatitis (NH) were obtained for immunohistochemical studies. TLR2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 that recognized Gram-positive bacteria, double-stranded RNA virus, lipopolysaccharide, single-stranded RNA virus and DNA virus, respectively, were studied. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to quantitate TLR, type I interferon specific molecule MxA, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry for TLR 7 and MxA protein staining. These results show that there were significantly higher TLR7 and lower TLR3 and TLR9 mRNA expression in early stage of BA than in CC. MxA mRNA expression was also significantly higher in early stage of BA and in CC than in late stage of BA. Immunoreactive TLR7 and MxA staining was higher in early stage of BA than in late stage of BA, NH and CC, which was associated with significantly higher IL-8 mRNA expression in BA than in CC. The results implicate involvement of TLRs, particularly TLR7, and type 1 specific interferon signaling in the pathogenesis of BA, especially in early stage, which is associated with upregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-8.
    Laboratory Investigation 02/2007; 87(1):66-74. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary intervention may augment chemokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration and aggravates liver injury in cholestatic rats. We tested the efficacy of glucocorticoid pretreatment to prevent the complications. A model of biliary intervention was established in rats without (sham) or with bile duct ligation (BDL). Before biliary intervention, rats were randomly assigned to receiving intravenous injection of dexamethasone (DX group) or normal saline (NS group). Plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and liver messenger RNA of these chemokines was quantified with real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Monocytes, Kupffer cells, and neutrophils in the rat liver were characterized with antibodies to ectodermal dysplasia 1 (ED1), ED2, and myeloperoxidase, respectively. By 3 hours after biliary intervention, plasma MCP-1 and MIP-2 proteins in BDL-NS rats were significantly higher than in BDL-DX. At 3 hours, liver MCP-1 and MIP-2 messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in BDL-NS than in BDL-DX. The amount of ED1-, ED2- and myeloperoxidase-staining cells were significantly greater in BDL-NS than in BDL-DX. Most of the changes returned to baseline levels by 24 hours. Glucocorticoid pretreatment suppresses chemokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration, which may consequently alleviate liver injury in cholestatic rats receiving biliary intervention.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2006; 41(10):1669-75. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver is the primary source for collagen XVIII, the precursor of angiogenesis inhibitor, endostatin. However, the role of endostatin/collagen XVIII expression during liver carcinogenesis remains elusive. Therefore, we studied its expression in five hepatoma cell lines and 105 hepatocellular carcinoma specimens. The poorly differentiated hepatoma cell lines exhibited increased endostatin/collagen XVIII levels compared with the well-differentiated ones. In hepatoma tissues, endostatin/collagen XVIII expression was detected in various types of liver cells and was significantly stronger in adjacent nontumor tissues than that in tumors (P<0.001). Endostatin/collagen XVIII expression in nontumor tissues correlated with tumor stages (P=0.014) and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (P=0.007), but not the stages of hepatic fibrosis (P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with higher endostatin/collagen XVIII expression had significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.011) and disease-free survival (P=0.0034). Moreover, endostatin/collagen XVIII level was an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence (P=0.034) by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, increased endostatin/collagen XVIII expression correlated with hepatoma progression and predicted poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Modern Pathology 06/2005; 18(5):663-72. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intervention of the biliary system is frequently done in patients with obstructive jaundice and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is unknown. A rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) for 2 weeks was established in which biliary intervention was feasible by injection of normal saline through an indwelling catheter in the bile ducts. Plasma levels of C-C chemokine MCP-1 and C-X-C chemokine MIP-2 were measured by using ELISA. Blood monocytes, Kupffer cells, and neutrophils in the liver were characterized with antibodies to ED1, ED2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde contents and apoptosis by TUNEL stain of the liver. Biliary intervention resulted in an increase of plasma MCP-1 and MIP-2 proteins by 1 h, which declined to normal level by 3 h in both sham and BDL rats. The levels in BDL rats were significantly higher than in sham at most points. There was a transient increase of ED1- and ED2-positive cells and MPO-staining cells in sham rat liver by 1 h after intervention. ED2-positive cells increased significantly by 1 h, while ED1- and MPO-positive cells decreased, yet insignificantly after intervention in BDL rats. The cell counts in BDL were constantly higher than in sham. Malondialdehyde increased precipitously in BDL by 3 h and was significantly higher than in sham throughout the study period. Parenchymal liver injury, manifested by elevated ALT, as well as apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, was significantly increased in BDL rats, but not in sham rats. Biliary intervention augments chemokine expression, precipitates lipid peroxidation, and aggravates liver injury in cholestatic rats.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2004; 120(2):210-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) 1 and 2 and their receptors TbetaR-I, TbetaR-II, and TbetaR-III are powerful profibrogenic mediators in the body. Their expression has not been completely elucidated in the progress of liver fibrosis associated with biliary atresia (BA). The authors compared the cytokine expression in the liver of 3 patients with BA at Kasai's procedure (KP) and in 3 patients at liver transplantation (LT). Two liver samples from children with no liver disorders served as normal controls (CO). Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to confirm the findings of relative mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 and 2 and their receptors. An immunohistochemistry and an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) were used to localize the liver cells that express TGF-beta2 and to quantitate the protein expression among groups. Compared with controls, both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 mRNA expression increased in the liver during the progress of liver fibrosis in patients with KP and LT on the array. Only TGF-beta2 showed a significant increase in expression in LT compared with KP and CO (P =.001 for TGF-beta2 and P = 0.054 for TGF-beta1). Both TbetaR-I and TbetaR-II showed no significant change among groups; TbetaR-III decreased significantly in LT compared with CO (P =.011). TGF-beta2 immunostaining was mainly localized in the bile duct epithelium and was remarkably higher in LT in which the proliferating bile ductules and the hepatocytes contributed to the increase in immunostaining and possibly to significantly higher plasma TGF-beta2 protein levels in LT than in KP. This study identified TGF-beta2 as the most actively transcribed TGF-beta gene during the progress of liver fibrosis in BA and found a reciprocal relationship of upregulation of TGF-beta2 with downregulation of TbetaR-III in LT.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 06/2004; 39(5):702-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 49 in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 gene in 148 Chinese Graves' disease (GD) patients and 171 controls. Our primary aim was to test for the association of this SNP with the relapse of the hyperthyroidism after antithyroid withdrawal. Our secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between GD patients and controls according to the SNP genotypes. All GD patients were divided into the following three groups according to the time of relapse after drug discontinuation: group 1, early relapse within 9 months; group 2, relapse between 10 and 36 months; and group 3, relapse 3 or more years after discontinuation of treatment. There was a significant difference of genotype frequencies (P < 0.001) and allele frequencies (P < 0.001) among the three groups of patients. The frequency of the G/G genotype decreased from 79% to 64% and 39% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compared with controls, a strong association (P < 0.001) of G allele was found for group 1, and moderate significance (P = 0.04) was found for group 2, but no association (P = 0.33) was found for group 3. At the end of treatment, the percentage of patients with persistent TSH-receptor antibody was statistically different (A/A, 9.0%; A/G, 20.8%; G/G, 45.5%; P = 0.004). Using 3 yr as the cutoff point for multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the G/G genotype (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1 compared with A/G plus A/A; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.1), larger goiter size at the end of treatment, and positive TSH-receptor antibody at the end of treatment were independent risk factors of recurrence. We conclude that the A/G polymorphism of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 gene affects the progress of GD. The G/G genotype is associated with poor outcome.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 02/2004; 89(1):169-73. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In terms of Th1/Th2 balance in response to signals given during donor antigen presentation, induction of tolerance is more often correlated with Th2-type than with Th1-type reactions. However, in our study, heart allograft survival was prolonged by treatment of rats with a Th2 inhibitor. Suplatast tosilate (IPD; Taiho; Tokyo, Japan) is a novel immunoregulator that suppresses IgE production and eosinophil infiltration through selective inhibition of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 synthesis by Th2-like cells but not IFN-gamma production in Th1 cells. Five LEW rats of DA heart grafts were treated with IPD (100 microg/day, p.o.) for 10 days. Heart allograft survival of all IPD-treated cases was prolonged more than 14 days while the beating of heart grafts in control groups was stopped within 9 days. In an in vitro study, the cell proliferation both in Con A blast and in mixed lymphocyte reaction assay was suppressed by IPD in dose-dependent manner. We could at least in part conclude that Th2 inhibition might temporarily suppress heart allograft rejection.
    Transplant Immunology 01/2003; 11(3-4):385-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary atresia (BA) is a complex disorder for which the etiology is still far from clear. Newborn infants that develop BA may carry certain genetic defects, resulting in susceptibility to uncertain pathogens with characteristic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The pathogens with their characteristic PAMPs in turn lead to activation of the innate immune system by triggering pattern recognition receptors on the immune cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most recognized pattern recognition receptors and TLR signaling is the telltale sign of activation of innate immunity. The activation of TLR and the innate immune system in BA is demonstrated by the up-regulation of TLR7 and by the association of promoter polymorphism of CD14 with BA. The antimicrobial peptide hepcidin and MxA, a protein downstream of TLR7 signaling, which is also known as a highly specific marker for type I IFN signaling, are also found highly expressed in the early stage of BA. This review examines the known components of innate immunity involved in BA and outlines the potential role of the innate immune system, in cooperation with adaptive immunity, in the pathogenesis of BA.
    Chang Gung medical journal 29(3):240-50.