M. Axelsson

Stockholm University, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

Are you M. Axelsson?

Claim your profile

Publications (121)812.13 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Much evidence points towards that the photosphere in the relativistic outflow in GRBs plays an important role in shaping the observed MeV spectrum. However, it is unclear whether the spectrum is fully produced by the photosphere or whether a substantial part of the spectrum is added by processes far above the photosphere. Here we make a detailed study of the $\gamma-$ray emission from single pulse GRB110920A which has a spectrum that becomes extremely narrow towards the end of the burst. We show that the emission can be interpreted as Comptonisation of thermal photons by cold electrons in an unmagnetised outflow at an optical depth of $\tau \sim 20$. The electrons receive their energy by a local dissipation occurring close to the saturation radius. The main spectral component of GRB110920A and its evolution is thus, in this interpretation, fully explained by the emission from the photosphere including localised dissipation at high optical depths.
  • Source
    L. Hjalmarsdotter, M. Axelsson, C. Done
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: At high luminosities black hole binaries show spectra with a strong disc component accompanied by an equally strong tail where at least some of the electrons are non-thermal. We reanalyze the simultaneous ASCA-RXTE-OSSE data from the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, which span 0.7-1000 keV and remain the best data available of a black hole binary in this state. We reassess the importance of electron-positron pair production using a realistically high value of the source compactness for the first time. The lack of an observable annihilation line together with the observed gamma-ray flux beyond 511 keV constrains the maximum electron Lorentz factor to be leq 10 and the slope of the injected electrons to leq 2.5. We also use the fast (10-50 Hz) variability spectrum to constrain the spatial dependence of the electron heating and acceleration. We find that the spectrum of the fast variability is consistent with being fully thermal, so that the observed non-thermal emission is produced from further out in the flow.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100 MeV–300 GeV range. Based on the first four years of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the 2FGL catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and im- proved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above 4σ significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 232 sources are considered as identified based on angular extent or correlated variability (periodic or otherwise) observed at other wavelengths. For 1009 sources we have not found plausible counterparts at other wavelengths. More than 1100 of the identified or associated sources are ac- tive galaxies of the blazar class; several other classes of non-blazar active galaxies are also represented in the 3FGL. Pulsars represent the largest Galactic source class. From source counts of Galactic sources we estimate the contribution of unresolved sources to the Galactic diffuse emission is ∼3% at 1 GeV.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 01/2015; · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Magnus Axelsson, Luis Borgonovo
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the $EF_E$ spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/GBM and CGRO/BATSE. The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability $<10^{-6}$). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes -- synchrotron and blackbody radiation -- the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78% of long GRBs and 85% of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 447(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2675 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the {\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. The GRB spectrum is therefore modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin nonthermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. To produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in 5 out of the 8 cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index \alpha is consistent with a synchrotron component with \alpha = -0.81\pm 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of \alpha = -2/3 and \alpha = -3/2 for electrons in the slow and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a nonthermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. In addition, we find that the blackbody and nonthermal components have separate temporal behaviors.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 748:17. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/17 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent observations by the $Fermi$ Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal $\gamma$-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, $E_{\rm p}$ and $kT$, of these two components are correlated via the relation $E_{\rm p} \propto T^{\alpha}$ which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of index $\alpha$ indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2014; 784(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/784/2/L43 · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Magnus Axelsson, Chris Done, Linnea Hjalmarsdotter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We extract the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic during the rising phase of an outburst in the black hole binary XTE J1550-564. We compare these frequency-resolved spectra to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1 s) variability. The spectrum of the time-averaged emission can be described by a disc, a Compton upscattered tail and its reflection. The QPO spectrum is very similar to the spectrum of the most rapid variability, implying it arises in the innermost regions of the flow. It contains little detectable disc, and its Compton spectrum is generally harder and shows less reflection than in the time-averaged emission. The harmonic likewise contains little detectable disc component, but has a Compton spectrum which is systematically softer than the QPO, softer even than the Compton tail in the time-averaged emission. We interpret these results in the context of the truncated disc model, where the inner disc is replaced by a hot flow. The QPO can arise in this picture from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of the entire hot inner flow, and its harmonic can be produced by the angular dependence of Compton scattering within the hot flow. We extend these models to include stratification of the hot flow, so that it is softer (lower optical depth) at larger radii closer to the truncated disc, and harder (higher optical depth) in the innermost parts of the flow where the rapid variability is produced. The different optical depth with radius gives rise to different angular dependence of the Comptonized emission, weighting the fundamental to the inner parts of the hot flow, and the harmonic to the outer. This is the first model which can explain both the spectrum of the QPO, and its harmonic, in a self consistent geometry.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2014; 438(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2236 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-ray polarimetry, sometimes alone, and sometimes coupled to spectral and temporal variability measurements and to imaging, allows a wealth of physical phenomena in astrophysics to be studied. X-ray polarimetry investigates the acceleration process, for example, including those typical of magnetic reconnection in solar flares, but also emission in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars and white dwarfs. It detects scattering in asymmetric structures such as accretion disks and columns, and in the so-called molecular torus and ionization cones. In addition, it allows fundamental physics in regimes of gravity and of magnetic field intensity not accessible to experiments on the Earth to be probed. Finally, models that describe fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity and the extension of the Standard Model) can be tested. We describe in this paper the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE), proposed in June 2012 to the first ESA call for a small mission with a launch in 2017 but not selected. XIPE is composed of two out of the three existing JET-X telescopes with two Gas Pixel Detectors (GPD) filled with a He-DME mixture at their focus and two additional GPDs filled with pressurized Ar-DME facing the sun. The Minimum Detectable Polarization is 14 % at 1 mCrab in 10E5 s (2-10 keV) and 0.6 % for an X10 class flare. The Half Energy Width, measured at PANTER X-ray test facility (MPE, Germany) with JET-X optics is 24 arcsec. XIPE takes advantage of a low-earth equatorial orbit with Malindi as down-link station and of a Mission Operation Center (MOC) at INPE (Brazil).
    Experimental Astronomy 12/2013; 36(3):523-567. DOI:10.1007/s10686-013-9344-3 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.
    Science 11/2013; DOI:10.1126/science.1242302 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 s is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.
    Science 11/2013; · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of such unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest γ-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the non-thermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.
    Science 11/2013; DOI:10.1126/science.1242353 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of such unique as- trophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest- energy photon (95 GeV), longest γ-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the non-thermal high-energy emis- sion in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock
    Science 11/2013; · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Magnus Axelsson, Chris Done, Linnea Hjalmarsdotter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We extract the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic during the rising phase of an outburst in the black-hole binary XTE J1550-564. We compare these frequency resolved spectra to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1s) variability. The spectrum of the time averaged emission can be described by a disc, a Compton upscattered tail, and its reflection. The QPO spectrum contains no detectable disc, and the Compton spectrum is generally harder than in the time averaged emission, and shows less reflection, making it very similar to the spectrum of the rapid variability. The harmonic likewise contains no detectable disc component, but has a Compton spectrum which is systematically softer than the QPO, softer even than the Compton tail in the time averaged emission. We interpret these results in the context of the Lense-Thirring model for the QPO, where a precessing hot flow replaces the inner disc, and the harmonic is produced by the angular dependence of Compton scattering within the hot flow. We extend these models to include stratification of the hot flow, so that it is softer (lower optical depth) at larger radii closer to the truncated disc, and harder (higher optical depth) in the innermost parts of the flow where the rapid variability is produced. The different optical depth with radius gives rise to different angular dependence of the Comptonised emission, weighting the fundamental to the inner parts of the hot flow, and the harmonic to the outer. This is the first model which can explain both the spectrum of the QPO and its harmonic in a self consistent geometry.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: {\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} observations of GRB110721A have revealed two emission components from the relativistic jet: emission from the photosphere, peaking at $\sim 100$ keV and a non-thermal component, which peaks at $\sim 1000$ keV. We use the photospheric component to calculate the properties of the relativistic outflow. We find a strong evolution in the flow properties: the Lorentz factor decreases with time during the bursts from $\Gamma \sim 1000$ to $\sim 150$ (assuming a redshift $z=2$; the values are only weakly dependent on unknown efficiency parameters). Such a decrease is contrary to the expectations from the internal shocks and the isolated magnetar birth models. Moreover, the position of the flow nozzle measured from the central engine, $r_0$, increases by more than two orders of magnitude. Assuming a moderately magnetised outflow we estimate that $r_0$ varies from $10^6$ cm to $\sim 10^9$ cm during the burst. We suggest that the maximal value reflects the size of the progenitor core. Finally, we show that these jet properties naturally explain the observed broken power-law decay of the temperature which has been reported as a characteristic for GRB pulses.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 433(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt863 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M. Axelsson, L. Hjalmarsdotter, C. Done
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We extract the spectra of the fastest variability (above 10 Hz) from the black hole XTE J1550-564 during a transition from hard to soft state on the rise to outburst. We confirm previous results that the rapid variability contains no significant disc component despite this being strongly present in the total spectrum of the softer observations. We model ionised reflection significantly better than previous work, and show that this is also suppressed in the rapid variability spectrum compared to the total emission. This is consistent with the fast variability having its origin in a hot inner flow close to the black hole rather than in the accretion disc or in a corona above it. However, the rapid variability spectrum is not simply the same as the total Comptonised emission. It is always significantly harder, by an amount which increases as the spectrum softens during the outburst. This adds to evidence from time lags that the Comptonisation region is inhomogeneous, with harder spectra produced closest to the black hole, the same region which produces the fastest variability.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 431(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt315 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2012; 203(1):4. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: GRB110721A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope using its two instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The burst consisted of one major emission episode which lasted for ~24.5 s (in the GBM) and had a peak flux of (5.7 ± 0.2) × 10–5 erg s–1 cm–2. The time-resolved emission spectrum is best modeled with a combination of a Band function and a blackbody spectrum. The peak energy of the Band component was initially 15 ± 2 MeV, which is the highest value ever detected in a GRB. This measurement was made possible by combining GBM/BGO data with LAT Low Energy events to achieve continuous 10-100 MeV coverage. The peak energy later decreased as a power law in time with an index of –1.89 ± 0.10. The temperature of the blackbody component also decreased, starting from ~80 keV, and the decay showed a significant break after ~2 s. The spectrum provides strong constraints on the standard synchrotron model, indicating that alternative mechanisms may give rise to the emission at these energies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2012; 757(2):L31. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/757/2/L31 · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: So far, no systematic long-term blazar monitoring programs and detailed variability studies exist at sub-mm wavelengths. Here, we present a new sub-mm blazar monitoring program using the APEX 12-m telescope. A sample of about 40 gamma-ray blazars has been monitored since 2007/2008 with the LABOCA bolometer camera at 345 GHz. First light curves, preliminary variability results and a first comparison with the longer cm/mm bands (F-GAMMA program) are presented, demonstrating the extreme variability characteristics of blazars at such short wavelengths.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following the recent discovery of {gamma} rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to {gamma} rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to {gamma}-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the {gamma}-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2012; 199(2):31. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31 · 14.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
812.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2007–2014
    • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2010
    • Pulkovo Observatory
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      • Department of Physics
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 2009–2010
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Interactive Research Center for Science Engineering for Strategic Planning
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007–2010
    • Hiroshima University
      • Division of Physical Sciences
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan