[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air samples of total suspended particles (TSP, particles less than 30-60 microm), and particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) were collected simultaneously at Guiyu (an electronic waste recycling site), three urban sites in Hong Kong and two urban sites in Guangzhou, South China from 16 August to 17 September 2004. Twenty-two PBDE congeners (BDE-3, -7, -15, -17, -28, -49, -71, -47, -66, -77, -100, -119, -99, -85, -126, -154, -153, -138, -156, -184, -183, -191) in TSP and PM(2.5) were measured. The results showed that the overall average concentrations of TSP and PM(2.5) collected at Guiyu were 124 and 62.1 microg m(-3), respectively. The monthly concentrations of the sum of 22 BDE congeners contained in TSP and PM(2.5) at Guiyu were 21.5 and 16.6 ng m(-3), with 74.5 and 84.3%, contributed by nine congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -154, -153, -183 and -191 respectively). This pattern was similar to Tsuen Wan site of Hong Kong. Two urban sites of Guangzhou had the same congener pattern, but were different from Yuen Long and Hok Tsui sites of Hong Kong. The results also showed that the amount of mono to penta brominated congeners, which are more toxic, accounted for 79.4-95.6% of Sigma(22)PBDEs from all sites. All congeners tested in Guiyu were up to 58-691 times higher than the other urban sites and more than 100 times higher than other studies reported elsewhere. The higher concentration in the air was due to heating or opening burning of electronic waste since PBDEs are formed when plastics containing brominated flame retardants are heated.
Environment International 12/2007; 33(8):1063-9. · 6.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM2.5 (16.8 ng m−3) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine air samples of total suspended particles (TSP, particles less than 30–60 μm) and thirty samples of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected at Guiyu, an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in southeast China from 16 August 2004 to 17 September 2004. The results showed that mass concentrations contained in TSP and PM2.5 were 124±44.1 and 62.12±20.5 μg m−3, respectively. The total sum of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 40.0 to 347 and 22.7 to 263 ng m−3, respectively. Five-ring and six-ring PAHs accounted for 73% of total PAHs. The average concentration of benzo(a) pyrene was 2–6 times higher than in other Asian cities. Concentrations of Cr, Cu and Zn in PM2.5 of Guiyu were 4–33 times higher than in other Asian countries. In general, there were significant correlations between concentrations of individual contaminants in TSP with PM2.5 (i.e. PAHs, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn except Ni and As). The high concentrations of both PAHs and heavy metals in air of Guiyu may impose a serious environmental and health concern. Cytotoxicity of the extract of TSP and PM2.5 of ten 24 h samples collected against human promonocytic leukemia cell line U937 (ATCC 1593.2) was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that under the same concentrations of extract, PM2.5 cytotoxicity was 2–4 times higher than TSP.