Kathryn M Thrailkill

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States

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Publications (54)205.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In type 1 diabetes, diabetic bone disease (DBD) is characterized by decreased bone mineral density, a state of low bone turnover and an increased risk of fracture. Animal models of DBD demonstrate that acquired alterations in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture contribute to decreased bone strength in diabetes. With anti-collagenolytic and anti-inflammatory properties, tetracycline derivatives may prevent diabetes-related decreases in bone strength. To determine if doxycycline, a tetracycline class antibiotic, can prevent the development of DBD in a model of long-term diabetes, male DBA/2J mice, with or without diabetes, were treated with doxycycline-containing chow for 10 weeks (dose range, 28-92 mg/kg/day). Long-term doxycycline exposure was not deleterious to the microarchitecture or biomechanical properties of healthy bone in male DBA/2J mice. Doxycycline treatment also did not prevent or alleviate the deleterious changes in trabecular microarchitecture, cortical structure, and biomechanical properties of bone induced by chronic diabetes.
    01/2015; 1:16-19. DOI:10.1016/j.bonr.2014.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Here we report an adolescent male with Cushing's disease secondary to a pituitary adenoma who was admitted with cholestatic hepatitis. A detailed work-up for hepatitis was negative except for a novel heterozygous ABCB4 gene mutation encoding multidrug resistance type III (MDR3) protein. Upon resection of the pituitary adenoma, the hepatic biochemical abnormalities gradually improved. This case highlights that heterozygous ABCB4 defect may represent a genetic predisposition for nongenetic factors such as hormones or other metabolites to decrease normal MDR3 allele expression. It is known to act as a modifier gene and possibly played a role in the development of cholestatic hepatitis and cholelithiasis, in the presence of excess cortisol secondary to Cushing's disease in our patient.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 09/2014; 27(11-12). DOI:10.1515/jpem-2014-0200 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is associated with decreased bone mineral density, a deficit in bone structure, and subsequently an increased risk of fragility fracture. These clinical observations, paralleled by animal models of T1D, suggest that the insulinopenia of T1D has a deleterious effect on bone. To further examine the action of insulin signaling on bone development, we generated mice with an osteoprogenitor-selective (osterix-Cre) ablation of the insulin receptor (IR), designated OIRKO. OIRKO mice exhibited an 80% decrease in IR in osteoblasts. Prenatal elimination of IR did not affect fetal survival or gross morphology. However, loss of IR in mouse osteoblasts resulted in a postnatal growth-constricted phenotype. By 10-12 weeks of age, femurs of OIRKO mice were more slender, with a thinner diaphyseal cortex and, consequently, a decrease in whole bone strength when subjected to bending. In male mice alone, decreased metaphyseal trabecular bone, with thinner and more rodlike trabeculae, was also observed. OIRKO mice did not, however, exhibit abnormal glucose tolerance. The skeletal phenotype of the OIRKO mouse appeared more severe than that of previously reported bone-specific IR knockdown models, and confirms that insulin receptor expression in osteoblasts is critically important for proper bone development and maintenance of structural integrity.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 05/2014; 2014:703589. DOI:10.1155/2014/703589 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we have previously demonstrated that long-term diabetes inhibits regenerative bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) and perturbs skeletal integrity by decreasing cortical thickness, bone mineral density and bone's resistance to fracture. Because long-standing T1D is also associated with a deficiency of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), we examined the effects of systemic IGF-I treatment on skeletal microarchitecture and strength, as well as on bone formation in diabetic mice. Research Design and Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic or control mice were treated with recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, 1.5 mg/kg/day as subcutaneous infusion) or vehicle throughout a 14 day DO procedure. Thereafter, trunk blood was assayed for glucose, insulin, rhIGF-I, mouse IGF-I and leptin. Bone formation in distracted tibiae was quantified. Effects on cortical bone strength and trabecular bone architecture were assessed by μCT analysis and three-point bend testing of contralateral femurs. New bone formation during DO was reduced in diabetic mice but significantly improved with rhIGF-I treatment. The contralateral femurs of diabetic mice demonstrated significant reductions in trabecular thickness, yield strength and peak force of cortical bone, which were improved with rhIGF-I treatment. rhIGF-I also reduced intracortical porosity in control mice. However, treatment with rhIGF-I did not normalize serum glucose, or correct concurrent deficiencies of insulin or leptin seen in diabetes. These findings demonstrate that despite persistent hyperglycemia, rhIGF-I promoted new bone formation and improved biomechanical properties of bone in a model of T1D, suggesting that it may be useful as a fracture preventative in this disease.
    Bone 07/2013; 57(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.07.017 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To adapt and pilot test a multicomponent motivational intervention that includes family-based contingency management (CM) for adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 17 adolescents, age 12-17 years (M = 14.8, SD = 1.5), with type 1 diabetes (duration M = 6.2 years, SD = 4.5) and mean HbA1c of 11.6% (SD = 2.5%) were enrolled. Adolescents and their parents received 14 weeks of motivational interviewing, clinic-based CM, and parent-directed CM that targeted increased blood glucose monitoring (BGM). RESULTS: Adolescents significantly increased their BGM (p < .001) and showed significantly improved HbA1c levels (glycemic control) from pre-to posttreatment (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of improvements in the frequency of BGM and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is encouraging and will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 05/2013; 38(6). DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jst032 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Kathryn M Thrailkill, John L Fowlkes
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies across a variety of geographic locations suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is more common in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared to the general population. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), while obesity is commonplace and lower vitamin D levels are present in obese adolescents and adults, the association between vitamin D insufficiency and T2D is less clear. Studies suggest that the relationship between T2D and vitamin D may be concurrently influenced by ethnicity, geography, BMI and age. None-the-less, diabetic osteopathy is a significant co-morbidity of both forms of diabetes, and is characterized by micro-architectural changes that decrease bone quality leading to an increased risk for bone fracture in both disorders. The question remains, however, to what degree vitamin D homeostasis contributes to or exacerbates skeletal pathology in diabetes. Proposed mechanisms for vitamin D deficiency in diabetes include: 1) genetic predisposition (T1D); 2) increased BMI (T2D); 3) concurrent albuminuria (T1D or T2D); or 4) exaggerated renal excretion of vitamin D metabolites or vitamin D binding protein (T1D, T2D, animal models). The specific effects of vitamin D treatment on diabetic osteoporosis have been examined in rodents, and demonstrate skeletal improvements even in the face of untreated diabetes. However, human clinical trial data examining whether vitamin D status can be directly related to or is predictive of bone quality and fracture risk in those with diabetes is still needed. Herein, we provide a review of the literature linking vitamin D, diabetes and skeletal health.
    Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism 03/2013; 11(1):28-37. DOI:10.1007/s12018-012-9127-9
  • Clinical Pediatrics 04/2012; 51(8):804-7. DOI:10.1177/0009922812441678 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    John L Fowlkes, Clay Bunn R, Kathryn M Thrailkill
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies in diabetic humans and rodent models of diabetes have identified osteopathy as a serious complication of type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) homeostasis in the diabetic condition may be responsible for the observed skeletal deficits. Indeed, replacement of insulin or IGF-1 in rodent models of T1D results in significant improvement in bone healing despite ongoing moderate to severe hyperglycemia. Insulin and IGF-1 act through distinct receptors. Mice in which the receptor for insulin or IGF-1 is selectively deleted from osteoblast lineages show skeletal deficits. Despite acting through distinct receptors, insulin and IGF-1 exert their cellular activities via conserved intracellular signaling proteins. Genetic manipulation of these signaling proteins, such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and -2, Protein Kinase B (Akt), and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), has uncovered a significant role for these signal transduction pathways in skeletal homeostasis. In addition to effects on skeletal physiology via canonical signaling pathways, insulin and IGF-1 may crosstalk with wingless-int. (Wnt) and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) signaling pathways in cells of the osteoblast lineage and thereby promote skeletal development. In this review, a discussion is presented regarding the role of insulin and IGF-1 in skeletal physiology and disruptions of this axis that occur in the diabetic condition which could underlie many of the skeletal pathologies observed.
    Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism 11/2011; 1(3). DOI:10.4172/2155-6156.S1-003
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UC-OC) or gamma-carboxyglutamic-carboxylated-type osteocalcin (GLA-OC) concentrations deviate from normal in type 1 diabetes (T1D), serum levels were compared between 115 subjects with T1D and 55 age-matched healthy controls. UC-OC and GLA-OC concentrations were similar between groups; however, in T1D, UC-OC correlated positively with markers of insulin exposure, either endogenously produced or exogenously administered. A study was conducted to determine whether dysregulation of circulating concentrations of UC-OC or GLA-OC occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, a condition of insulin deficiency without insulin resistance. We measured serum concentrations of UC-OC and GLA-OC in 115 subjects with T1D, ages 14-40 years, and in 55 age-matched healthy control subjects. Relationships between UC-OC and GLA-OC concentrations and patient characteristics (gender and age), indices of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide concentration, 3-day average glucose measured by a continuous glucose sensor, total daily insulin dose) and circulating indices of skeletal homeostasis (total calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), type 1 collagen degradation fragments (CTX), adiponectin, leptin) were examined. Between group differences in the concentrations of UC-OC and GLA-OC were the main outcome measures. Although adiponectin levels were higher in the T1D group, between-group comparisons did not reveal statistically significant differences in concentration of UC-OC, GLA-OC, CTX or leptin between the T1D and control populations. Instead, by multivariate regression modeling, UC-OC was correlated with younger age (p < 0.001), higher CTX (p < 0.001), lower HbA1c (p = 0.013), and higher IGF-1 (p = 0.086). Moreover, within the T1D subgroup, UC-OC was positively correlated with C-peptide/glucose ratio (reflecting endogenous insulin secretion), with IGF-1 (reflecting intra-portal insulin sufficiency), and with total daily insulin dose. In T1D, UC-OC appears to correlate positively with markers of insulin exposure, either endogenously produced or exogenously administered.
    Osteoporosis International 11/2011; 23(6):1799-806. DOI:10.1007/s00198-011-1807-7 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the interest of preserving residual insulin secretory capacity present at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we compared the efficacy of starting insulin pump therapy at diagnosis with standard multiple daily insulin injections (MDIs). We conducted a prospective, randomized, pilot trial comparing MDI therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy (pump therapy) in 24 patients, 8-18 years old, with newly diagnosed T1D. Subjects were evaluated at enrollment and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initial diagnosis of T1D. Preservation of insulin secretion, measured by mixed-meal-stimulated C-peptide secretion, was compared after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Between-group differences in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), continuous glucose sensor data, insulin utilization, anthropometric measures, and patient satisfaction with therapy were also compared at multiple time points. Initiation of pump therapy within 1 month of diagnosis resulted in consistently higher mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated C-peptide values at all time points, although these differences were not statistically significant. Nonetheless, improved glycemic control was observed in insulin pump-treated subjects (more time spent with normoglycemia, better mean HbA1c), and pump-treated subjects reported comparatively greater satisfaction with route of treatment administration. Initiation of insulin pump therapy at diagnosis improved glycemic control, was well tolerated, and contributed to improved patient satisfaction with treatment. This study also suggests that earlier use of pump therapy might help to preserve residual β-cell function, although a larger clinical trial would be required to confirm this.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2011; 13(10):1023-30. DOI:10.1089/dia.2011.0085 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microalbuminuria in humans with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased urinary excretion of megalin, as well as many megalin ligands, including vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP). We examined the DBA/2J diabetic mouse, nephropathy prone model, to determine if megalin and VDBP excretion coincide with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Megalin, VDBP, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) were measured in urine, and genes involved in vitamin D metabolism were assessed in renal tissues from diabetic and control mice at 10, 15, and 18 weeks following the onset of diabetes. Megalin, VDBP, and 25-OHD were increased in the urine of diabetic mice. 1-α hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA in the kidney was persistently increased in diabetic mice, as were several vitamin D-target genes. These studies show that intrarenal vitamin D handling is altered in the diabetic kidney, and they suggest that in T1D, urinary losses of VDBP may portend risk for intrarenal and extrarenal vitamin D deficiencies.
    Experimental Diabetes Research 05/2011; 2011(1687-5214):269378. DOI:10.1155/2011/269378 · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Alba E Morales, Kathryn M Thrailkill
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-alum (Diamyd(®), Diamyd Medical, Stockholm, Sweden) is an adjuvant-formulated vaccine incorporating recombinant human GAD65, the specific isoform of GAD expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and a major antigen targeted by autoreactive T lymphocytes in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Intermittent vaccination with this protein is theorized to induce immune tolerance to GAD65, thereby potentially interrupting further β-cell destruction. Hence, clinical trials are ongoing to examine the efficacy and safety of GAD-alum immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune-mediated forms of diabetes, including Type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
    Immunotherapy 03/2011; 3(3):323-32. DOI:10.2217/imt.11.9 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) increases the likelihood of a fracture. Despite serious complications in the healing of fractures among those with diabetes, the underlying causes are not delineated for the effect of diabetes on the fracture resistance of bone. Therefore, in a mouse model of T1DM, we have investigated the possibility that a prolonged state of diabetes perturbs the relationship between bone strength and structure (i.e., affects tissue properties). At 10, 15, and 18 weeks following injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes, diabetic male mice and age-matched controls were examined for measures of skeletal integrity. We assessed 1) the moment of inertia (I(MIN)) of the cortical bone within diaphysis, trabecular bone architecture of the metaphysis, and mineralization density of the tissue (TMD) for each compartment of the femur by micro-computed tomography and 2) biomechanical properties by three-point bending test (femur) and nanoindentation (tibia). In the metaphysis, a significant decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular TMD was apparent after 10 weeks of diabetes. For cortical bone, type 1 diabetes was associated with decreased cortical TMD, I(MIN), rigidity, and peak moment as well as a lack of normal age-related increases in the biomechanical properties. However, there were only modest differences in material properties between diabetic and normal mice at both whole bone and tissue-levels. As the duration of diabetes increased, bone toughness decreased relative to control. If the sole effect of diabetes on bone strength was due to a reduction in bone size, then I(MIN) would be the only significant variable explaining the variance in the maximum moment. However, general linear modeling found that the relationship between peak moment and I(MIN) depended on whether the bone was from a diabetic mouse and the duration of diabetes. Thus, these findings suggest that the elevated fracture risk among diabetics is impacted by complex changes in tissue properties that ultimately reduce the fracture resistance of bone.
    Bone 12/2010; 48(4):733-40. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2010.12.016 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is associated with a proinflammatory state that promotes the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The metabolic stimuli that initiate and propagate proinflammatory cytokine production and the cellular origin of proinflammatory cytokines in insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Circulating proinflammatory monocytes show signs of enhanced inflammation in obese, insulin resistant subjects and are thus a potential source of proinflammatory cytokine production. The specific, circulating metabolic factors that might stimulate monocyte inflammation in insulin resistant subjects are poorly characterized. We have examined whether saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin, which increase in concentration with developing insulin resistance, can trigger the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human monocytes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Luminex bioassays. Student's t-test was used with a significance level of p < 0.05 to determine significance between treatment groups. Esterification of palmitate with coenzyme A (CoA) was necessary, while β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis were not required, for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 monocytes. Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-α protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways are important for cytokine induction by palmitate. MEK/ERK signalling is necessary for synergistic induction of IL-6 by palmitate and insulin. High levels of saturated NEFA, such as palmitate, when combined with hyperinsulinemia, may activate human monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines and support the development and propagation of the subacute, chronic inflammatory state that is characteristic of insulin resistance. Results with inhibitors of β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis pathways suggest that increased fatty acid flux through the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway may be involved in promoting proinflammatory cytokine production in monocytes.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2010; 9:73. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-9-73 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes, particularly associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy. Because we have previously reported enhanced excretion of megalin in the urine of T1D patients with microalbuminuria, we hypothesized that concurrent urinary loss of the megalin ligand, vitamin D binding protein, might contribute mechanistically to vitamin D deficiency. Examining a study cohort of 115 subjects with T1D, aged 14-40 yr, along with 55 age-matched healthy control subjects, we measured plasma and urine concentrations of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) along with serum concentrations of total calcium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D; these results were compared between groups and investigated for relationships with metabolic control status or with albuminuria. Between-group differences in urinary VDBP concentration were the main outcome measures. A marked increase in the urinary excretion of VDBP was apparent in subjects with T1D, compared with control subjects. Using multivariate regression modeling, significant correlates of urinary VDBP excretion included microalbuminuria (P = 0.004), glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.010), continuous glucose monitoring system average capillary glucose (P = 0.047), and serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations (P = 0.037). Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was slightly more prevalent in diabetic subjects with albuminuria, coincident with the increase in urine VDBP excretion. These findings suggest that, theoretically, exaggerated urinary loss of VDBP in T1D, particularly in persons with albuminuria, could contribute mechanistically to vitamin D deficiency in this disease.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2010; 96(1):142-9. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-0980 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of renal injury, can bind matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inhibit its degradation, thereby sustaining MMP-9 proteolytic activity. MMP-9 is produced by renal podocytes, and podocyte MMP production can be modified by high ambient glucose levels. Moreover, dysregulation of MMP-9 activity, gene expression, or urine concentrations has been demonstrated in T2DM-associated nephropathy and in non-diabetic proteinuric renal diseases. Our objective was to determine whether NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation might contribute to or serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 DM (T1DM). Plasma MMP-9, and urine NGAL and MMP-9 concentrations were measured in 121 T1DM and 55 control subjects and examined relative to indicators of glycemia, renal function, and degree of albuminuria. T1DM was associated with a significant increase in urinary excretion of both NGAL and MMP-9, and urine NGAL:Cr (NGAL corrected to urine creatinine) and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations were highly correlated with each other. Both were also positively correlated with measurements of glycemic control and with albuminuria. Plasma MMP-9, urine MMP-9, and urine NGAL concentrations were significantly higher in females compared to males, and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations displayed a menstrual cycle specific pattern. Increased urinary excretion of NGAL and MMP-9 supports a role for NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation in renal dysfunction; moreover, gender-specific differences could support a gender contribution to pathological mechanisms or susceptibility for the development of renal complications in diabetes mellitus.
    Endocrine 04/2010; 37(2):336-43. DOI:10.1007/s12020-010-9308-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a process which induces direct new bone formation as a result of mechanical distraction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a cytokine that can modulate osteoblastogenesis. The direct effects of TNF on direct bone formation in rodents are hypothetically mediated through TNF receptor 1 and/or 2 (TNFR1/2) signaling. We utilized a unique model of mouse DO to assess the effects of 1) TNFR homozygous null gene alterations on direct bone formation and 2) rmTNF on wild type (WT), TNFR1(-/-) (R1KO), and TNR2(-/-) (R2KO) mice. Radiological and histological analyses of direct bone formation in the distraction gaps demonstrated no significant differences between the WT, R1KO, R2KO, or TNFR1(-/-) and R2(-/-) (R1 and 2KO) mice. R1 and 2KO mice had elevated levels of serum TNF but demonstrated no inhibition of new bone formation. Systemic administration by osmotic pump of rmTNF during DO (10 microg/kg/day) resulted in significant inhibition of gap bone formation measures in WT and R2KO mice, but not in R1KO mice. We conclude that exogenous rmTNF and/or endogenous TNF act to inhibit new bone formation during DO by signaling primarily through TNFR1.
    Bone 09/2009; 46(2):410-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2009.09.011 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal changes accompanying aging are associated with both increased risk of fractures and impaired fracture healing, which, in turn, is due to compromised bone regeneration potential. These changes are associated with increased serum levels of selected proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). We have used a unique model of bone regeneration to demonstrate (1) that aged-related deficits in direct bone formation can be restored to young mice by treatment with TNF blockers and (2) that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is a candidate for mediation of the osteoinhibitory effects of TNF. It has been hypothesized recently that TNF antagonists may represent novel anabolic agents, and we believe that the data presented here represent a successful test of this hypothesis.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 08/2009; 25(1):114-23. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.090708 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteinuria is the hallmark of diabetic nephropathy; yet, glomerular histology does not fully explain mechanisms contributing to proteinuria. Our objective was to identify proteins in the urine of individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria that might implicate a mechanistic pathway operative in proteinuria. Using a GeLC/MS platform proteomics approach, we compared the urine proteome from 12 healthy nondiabetic individuals, 12 subjects with type 1 diabetes yet normal urinary albumin excretion rates, and 12 subjects with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria (type 1 diabetes + microalbuminuria). The abundance of megalin and cubilin, two multiligand receptors expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells and involved with the reuptake of filtered albumin and megalin/cubilin ligands, was significantly increased in type 1 diabetes + microalbuminuria urine, compared with both nonalbuminuric groups. Aberrant shedding of megalin and cubilin could contribute to albuminuria in diabetes and to deficiency states of important vitamins and hormones.
    Diabetes care 05/2009; 32(7):1266-8. DOI:10.2337/dc09-0112 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determine (1) frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and (2) growth responses in growth hormone (GH)-treated children who are receiving ADHD medication versus GH alone. Prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or GH deficiency (IGHD) enrolled in Genentech's National Cooperative Growth Study. ADHD treatment was determined by documentation of psycho-stimulant medication use at enrollment. ADHD medication use increased from 0.8% (7/850) in 1985 to 5.8% (752/12,113) in 2005. First-year GH treatment response for ADHD + IGHD versus IGHD: 8.5 +/- 2.0 vs. 9.4 +/- 2.6 cm/year, but when adjusted for age, sex, and enrollment body mass index, the difference is clinically insignificant (-0.4 cm/year). First-year growth was similar in all ISS: 8.1 +/- 1.9 versus 8.6 +/- 2.1 cm/year (ADHD + ISS vs. ISS, an adjusted -0.2-cm/year difference). Increasing numbers of GH-treated children are taking ADHD medications and their growth responses during the first year of GH therapy are similar to those not taking ADHD medications.
    Hormone Research 02/2009; 72(3):160-6. DOI:10.1159/000232491 · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
205.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2005–2014
    • Arkansas Children's Hospital
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 1997
    • The Children's Hospital of Buffalo
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States