[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large, rare chromosomal deletions and duplications known as copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders similar to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to establish whether burden of CNVs was increased in ADHD, and to investigate whether identified CNVs were enriched for loci previously identified in autism and schizophrenia.
We undertook a genome-wide analysis of CNVs in 410 children with ADHD and 1156 unrelated ethnically matched controls from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Children of white UK origin, aged 5-17 years, who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder, but not schizophrenia and autism, were recruited from community child psychiatry and paediatric outpatient clinics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the ADHD and control groups with two arrays; CNV analysis was limited to SNPs common to both arrays and included only samples with high-quality data. CNVs in the ADHD group were validated with comparative genomic hybridisation. We assessed the genome-wide burden of large (>500 kb), rare (<1% population frequency) CNVs according to the average number of CNVs per sample, with significance assessed via permutation. Locus-specific tests of association were undertaken for test regions defined for all identified CNVs and for 20 loci implicated in autism or schizophrenia. Findings were replicated in 825 Icelandic patients with ADHD and 35,243 Icelandic controls.
Data for full analyses were available for 366 children with ADHD and 1047 controls. 57 large, rare CNVs were identified in children with ADHD and 78 in controls, showing a significantly increased rate of CNVs in ADHD (0·156 vs 0·075; p=8·9×10(-5)). This increased rate of CNVs was particularly high in those with intellectual disability (0·424; p=2·0×10(-6)), although there was also a significant excess in cases with no such disability (0·125, p=0·0077). An excess of chromosome 16p13.11 duplications was noted in the ADHD group (p=0·0008 after correction for multiple testing), a finding that was replicated in the Icelandic sample (p=0·031). CNVs identified in our ADHD cohort were significantly enriched for loci previously reported in both autism (p=0·0095) and schizophrenia (p=0·010).
Our findings provide genetic evidence of an increased rate of large CNVs in individuals with ADHD and suggest that ADHD is not purely a social construct.
Action Research; Baily Thomas Charitable Trust; Wellcome Trust; UK Medical Research Council; European Union.
The Lancet 09/2010; 376(9750):1401-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating and common psychiatric disorder, which directly affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Although previous studies have unequivocally shown that schizophrenia has a strong genetic component, our understanding of its pathophysiology remains limited. The precise genetic architecture of schizophrenia remains elusive and is likely to be complex. It is believed that multiple genetic variants, with each contributing a modest effect on disease risk, interact with environmental factors resulting in the phenotype. In this chapter, we summarise the main molecular genetic approaches that have been utilised in identifying susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. First, we detail the findings of linkage mapping in pedigrees (affected families), which analyse the co-segregation of polymorphic genetic markers with disease phenotype. Second, the contribution of targeted and genome-wide association studies, which compare differential allelic frequencies in schizophrenia cases and matched controls, is presented. Third, we discuss about the identification of susceptibility genes through analysis of chromosomal structural variation (gains and losses of genetic material). Lastly, we introduce the concept of re-sequencing, where the entire genome/exome is sequenced both in affected and unaffected individuals. This approach has the potential to provide a clarified picture of the majority of the genetic variation underlying disease pathogenesis.
Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 01/2010; 4:587-610.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of independent studies have reported evidence for association between the dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia; however, specific risk alleles have been not been implicated as causal. In this study we set out to perform a comprehensive assessment of DNA variation within the exonic sequence of DTNBP1. To achieve this we optimized a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) protocol and applied it to screen all 11 DTNBP1 exons for DNA variants in a sample of 669 cases and 710 controls from the UK. Despite identifying seven exonic variants with a minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.01, none was significantly associated with schizophrenia (minimum P = 0.054), showing that the strong association we previously reported in this sample is not the result of association to a common functional variant located within the exonic sequence of any of the three major DTNBP1 transcripts. We also sought additional support for DTNBP1 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia by testing the hypothesis that rare exonic highly penetrant variants exist at the DTNBP1 locus. Our analysis failed to identify an enrichment of rare functional variants in the patients compared to the controls. Taken as a whole, this data demonstrate that if DTNBP1 is a risk gene for schizophrenia then risk is not conferred by mutations that affect the structure of the dysbindin protein.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2009; 153B(3):766-74. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of both benign and malignant tumors. The lifetime risk for developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in NF1 patients is approximately 10% with poor survival rates. To date, the molecular basis of MPNST development remains unclear. Here, we report the first genome-wide and high-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in MPNST using the 32K bacterial artificial chromosome microarray on a series of 24 MPNSTs and three neurofibroma samples. In the benign neurofibromas, apart from loss of one copy of the NF1 gene and copy number polymorphisms, no other changes were found. The profiles of malignant samples, however, revealed specific loss of chromosomal regions including 1p35-33, 1p21, 9p21.3, 10q25, 11q22-23, 17q11, and 20p12.2 as well as gain of 1q25, 3p26, 3q13, 5p12, 5q11.2-q14, 5q21-23, 5q31-33, 6p23-p21, 6p12, 6q15, 6q23-q24, 7p22, 7p14-p13, 7q21, 7q36, 8q22-q24, 14q22, and 17q21-q25. Copy number gains were more frequent than deletions in the MPNST samples (62% vs. 38%). The genes resident within common regions of gain were NEDL1 (7p14), AP3B1 (5q14.1), and CUL1 (7q36.1) and these were identified in >63% MPNSTs. The most frequently deleted locus encompassed CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and MTAP genes on 9p21.3 (33% cases). These genes have previously been implicated in other cancer conditions and therefore, should be considered for their therapeutic, prognostic, and diagnostic relevance in NF1 tumorigenesis.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 07/2009; 48(10):897-907. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the involvement of rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in 471 cases of schizophrenia and 2792 controls that had been genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array. Large CNVs >1 Mb were 2.26 times more common in cases (P = 0.00027), with the effect coming mostly from deletions (odds ratio, OR = 4.53, P = 0.00013) although duplications were also more common (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Two large deletions were found in two cases each, but in no controls: a deletion at 22q11.2 known to be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia and a deletion on 17p12, at 14.0-15.4 Mb. The latter is known to cause hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. The same deletion was found in 6 of 4618 (0.13%) cases and 6 of 36 092 (0.017%) controls in the re-analysed data of two recent large CNV studies of schizophrenia (OR = 7.82, P = 0.001), with the combined significance level for all three studies achieving P = 5 x 10(-5). One large duplication on 16p13.1, which has been previously implicated as a susceptibility factor for autism, was found in three cases and six controls (0.6% versus 0.2%, OR = 2.98, P = 0.13). We also provide the first support for a recently reported association between deletions at 15q11.2 and schizophrenia (P = 0.026). This study confirms the involvement of rare CNVs in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and contributes to the growing list of specific CNVs that are implicated.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2009; 18(8):1497-503. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase activity (TA) and the expression of its enzymatic subunits, which have been demonstrated in many tumors, remain poorly investigated in tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this study, we analysed the association of TA and the expression of telomerase RNA (TR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in 23 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) (17 high grade and 6 low grade tumors), 11 plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) and 6 dermal neurofibromas (DNF). TA was studied using telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay and expression of TR and TERT was investigated using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. TA was detected in 14 out of 17 (82%) high grade MPNST, whereas all 6 low grade MPNST and 17 benign tumors were telomerase negative. The TERT transcripts were detected in all high grade MPNST, 50% of the low grade MPNST, and 4 benign tumors. However, the expression level of the TERT strikingly correlated with TA and high grade MPNST. Thus, while TERT expression was similar in both low grade MPNST and PNF (P = 0.115), it was significantly higher in high grade MPNST when compared to either low grade MPNST (P = 0.042), PNF (P = 0.001) or DNF tumors (P = 0.010). These findings indicate that TA and expression level of TERT are potential markers for high grade malignancy in NF1 patients.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 04/2008; 47(3):238-46. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition that predisposes to benign and malignant tumors. The lifetime risk of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in NF1 is approximately 10%. These tumors have a poor survival rate and their molecular basis remains unclear. We report the first comprehensive investigation of DNA copy number across multitude of genes in NF1 tumors using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), with the aim to identify molecular signatures that delineate malignant from benign NF1 tumors.
We constructed an exon-level resolution microarray encompassing 57 selected genes and profiled DNA from 35 MPNSTs, 16 plexiform, and 8 dermal neurofibromas. Bioinformatic analysis was done on array CGH data to identify concurrent aberrations in malignant tumors.
The array CGH profiles of MPNSTs and neurofibromas were markedly different. A number of MPNST-specific alterations were identified, including amplifications of ITGB4, PDGFRA, MET, TP73, and HGF plus deletions in NF1, HMMR/RHAMM, MMP13, L1CAM2, p16INK4A/CDKN2A, and TP53. Copy number changes of HMMR/RHAMM, MMP13, p16INK4A/CDKN2A, and ITGB4 were observed in 46%, 43%, 39%, and 32%, respectively of the malignant tumors, implicating these genes in MPNST pathogenesis. Concomitant amplifications of HGF, MET, and PDGFRA genes were also revealed in MPNSTs, suggesting the putative role of p70S6K pathway in NF1 tumor progression.
This study highlights the potential of array CGH in identifying novel diagnostic markers for MPNSTs.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2008; 14(4):1015-24. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 10% of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and represent considerable patient morbidity and mortality. Elucidation of the genetic mechanisms by which inherited and acquired NF1 disease gene variants lead to MPNST development is important. A study was undertaken to identify the constitutional and somatic NF1 mutations in 34 MPNSTs from 27 NF1 patients. The NF1 germline mutations identified in 22 lymphocytes DNA from these patients included seven novel mutations and a large 1.4-Mb deletion. The NF1 germline mutation spectrum was similar to that previously identified in adult NF1 patients without MPNST. Somatic NF1 mutations were identified in tumor DNA from 31 out of 34 MPNSTs, of which 28 were large genomic deletions. The high prevalence (>90%) of such deletions in MPNST contrast with the =or<20% found in benign neurofibromas and is indicative of the involvement of different mutational mechanisms in these tumors. Coinactivation of the TP53 gene by deletion, or by point mutation along with NF1 gene inactivation, is known to exacerbate disease symptoms in NF1, therefore TP53 gene inactivation was screened. DNA from 20 tumors showed evidence for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) across the TP53 region in 11 samples, with novel TP53 point mutations in four tumors.
Human Mutation 01/2008; 29(1):74-82. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disease caused by various types of mutations in the NF1 gene. We have previously developed a locus-specific DNA microarray for detection of copy number changes at the NF1 locus by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. The original array contains 183 probes pooled from 444 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. In the current work, we have used 493 probes derived from single PCR products (200--998 bp in size) to construct a higher resolution array with a smaller average probe size for molecular diagnosis of NF1. This has improved the average resolution from 12.6 kb in the previous array to 4.5 kb in the current version. The performance of the newly constructed microarray was validated with 14 well-characterized NF1 mutations for CGH analysis. These mutations represent deletions from approximately 7 kb to over 2 Mb in size. Using this array, we examined a total of 55 NF1 patients for copy number changes at the NF1 locus, detecting deletions in four of them. These results demonstrate that a locus-specific microarray constructed from single PCR products can efficiently detect copy number changes at the NF1 locus, providing a simple method for the molecular diagnosis of NF1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningiomas are the most common intracranial neoplasias, representing a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumors. The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor is the only gene known to be frequently involved in early development of meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify genetic and/or epigenetic factors contributing to the development of these tumors. A large set of sporadic meningiomas were analyzed for presence of 22q macro-mutations using array-CGH in order to identify tumors carrying gene dosage aberrations not encompassing NF2. The NF2 locus was also comprehensively studied for point mutations within coding and conserved non-coding sequences. Furthermore, CpG methylation within the NF2 promoter region was thoroughly analyzed.
Monosomy 22 was the predominant finding, detected in 47% of meningiomas. Thirteen percent of the tumors contained interstitial/terminal deletions and gains, present singly or in combinations. We defined at least two minimal overlapping regions outside the NF2 locus that are small enough (approximately 550 kb and approximately 250 kb) to allow analysis of a limited number of candidate genes. Bialleinactivationo the NF2 gne was detected in 36% of meningiomas. Among the monosomy 22 cases, no additional NF2 mutations could be identified in 35% (17 out of 49) of tumors. Furthermore, the majority of tumors (9 out of 12) with interstitial/terminal deletions did not have any detectable NF2 mutations. Methylation within the NF2 promoter region was only identified at a single CpG site in one tumor sample.
We confirmed previous findings of pronounced differences in mutation frequency between different histopathological subtypes. There is a higher frequency of biallelic NF2 inactivation in fibroblastic (52%) compared to meningothelial (18%) tumors. The presence of macro-mutations on 22q also shows marked differences between fibroblastic (86%) and meningothelial (39%) subtypes. Thus, inactivation of NF2, often combined with the presence of macro-mutation on 22q, is likely not as important for the development of the meningothelial subtype, as opposed to the fibroblastic form. Analysis of 40 CpG sites distributed within 750 bp of the promoter region suggests that NF2 promoter methylation does not play a major role in meningioma development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously detected copy number polymorphism (Ep CNP) in patients affected with neuroectodermal tumors led us to investigate its frequency and length in the normal population. For this purpose, a program called Sequence Allocator was developed and applied for the construction of an array that consisted of unique and duplicated fragments, allowing the assessment of copy number variation within regions of segmental duplications. The average resolution of this array was 11 kb and we determined the size of the Ep CNP to be 290 kb. Analysis of normal controls identified 7.7 and 7.1% gains in peripheral blood and lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) DNA, respectively, while deletions were found only in the LCL group (7.1%). This array platform allows the detection of DNA copy number variation within regions of pronounced genomic complexity, which constitutes an improvement over available technologies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of CpG island methylation in the genome is crucial for cellular homeostasis and this balance is disrupted in cancer. Our rationale was to compare the methylation of CpG islands in tissues (tumor, healthy breast and blood) from patients with breast cancer. We studied 72 genes in 103 samples using microarray hybridization and bisulfite sequencing. We observed tumor specific hyper- or hypomethylation of five genes; COL9A1, MT1A, MT1J, HOXA5 and FLJ45983. A general drop of methylation in COL9A1 was apparent in tumors, when compared with blood and healthy breast tissue. Furthermore, one tumor displayed a complete loss of methylation of all five genes, suggesting overall impairment of methylation. The downstream, evolutionary conserved island of HOXA5 showed hypomethylation in 18 tumors and complete methylation in others. This CpG island also displayed a semimethylated state in the majority of normal breast samples, when compared to complete methylation in blood. Distinct methylation patterns were further seen in MT1J and MT1A, belonging to the metallothionein gene family. The CpG islands of these genes are spaced by 2 kb, which shows selective methylation of two structurally and functionally related genes. The promoters of FLJ45983 and MT1A were methylated above 25% in 18 primary and metastatic tumors. Concurrently, there was also >10% methylation of healthy breast tissue in 11 and 5 samples, respectively. This suggests that the methylation process for the latter two genes takes place already in normal breast cells. Our results also point to a considerable heterogeneity of epigenetic disturbance in breast cancer. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/2006; 45(7):656-67. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytoma is a predominantly sporadic neuroendocrine tumor derived from the adrenal medulla. Previous low resolution LOH and metaphase-CGH studies reported the loss of chromosomes 1p, 3q, 17p and 22q at various frequencies. However, the molecular mechanism(s) behind development of sporadic pheochromocytoma remains largely unknown. We have applied high-resolution tiling-path microarray-CGH with the primary aim to characterize copy number imbalances affecting chromosome 22 in 66 sporadic pheochromocytomas. We detected copy number alterations on 22q at a frequency of 44%. The predominant finding was monosomy 22 (30%), followed by terminal deletions in 8 samples (12%) and a single interstitial deletion. We further applied a chromosome 1 tiling-path array in 7 tumors with terminal deletions of 22q and found deletions of 1p in all cases. Our overall results suggest that at least 2 distinct regions on both 22q and 1p are important in the tumorigenesis of sporadic pheochromocytoma. A large proportion of pheochromocytomas also displayed indications of cellular heterogeneity. Our study is to our knowledge the first array-CGH study of sporadic pheochromocytoma. Future analysis of this tumor type should preferably be performed in the context of the entire human genome using genome-wide array-CGH, which is a superior methodological approach. Supplemental material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0020-7136/suppmat/index.html.
International Journal of Cancer 04/2006; 118(5):1159-64. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Segmental duplications flanking the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene locus on 17q11 mediate most gene deletions in NF1 patients. However, the large size of the gene and the complexity of the locus architecture pose difficulties in deletion analysis. We report the construction and application of the first NF1 locus specific microarray, covering 2.24 Mb of 17q11, using a non-redundant approach for array design. The average resolution of analysis for the array is approximately 12 kb per measurement point with an increased average resolution of 6.4 kb for the NF1 gene.
We performed a comprehensive array-CGH analysis of 161 NF1 derived samples and identified heterozygous deletions of various sizes in 39 cases. The typical deletion was identified in 26 cases, whereas 13 samples showed atypical deletion profiles.
The size of the atypical deletions, contained within the segment covered by the array, ranged from 6 kb to 1.6 Mb and their breakpoints could be accurately determined. Moreover, 10 atypical deletions were observed to share a common breakpoint either on the proximal or distal end of the deletion. The deletions identified by array-CGH were independently confirmed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire locus identified 33 segmental duplications.
We show that at least one of these segmental duplications, which borders the proximal breakpoint located within the NF1 intron 1 in five atypical deletions, might represent a novel hot spot for deletions. Our array constitutes a novel and reliable tool offering significantly improved diagnostics for this common disorder.
Journal of Medical Genetics 02/2006; 43(1):28-38. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several high-resolution methods of chromosome analysis have been developed. It is important to compare these methods and to select reliable combinations of techniques to analyze complex chromosomal rearrangements in tumours. In this study we have compared array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and multipoint FISH (mpFISH) for their ability to characterize complex rearrangements on human chromosome 3 (chr3) in tumour cell lines. We have used 179 BAC/PAC clones covering chr3 with an approximately 1 Mb resolution to analyze nine carcinoma lines. Chr3 was chosen for analysis, because of its frequent rearrangements in human solid tumours.
The ploidy of the tumour cell lines ranged from near-diploid to near-pentaploid. Chr3 locus copy number was assessed by interphase and metaphase mpFISH. Totally 53 chr3 fragments were identified having copy numbers from 0 to 14. MpFISH results from the BAC/PAC clones and array-CGH gave mainly corresponding results. Each copy number change on the array profile could be related to a specific chromosome aberration detected by metaphase mpFISH. The analysis of the correlation between real copy number from mpFISH and the average normalized inter-locus fluorescence ratio (ANILFR) value detected by array-CGH demonstrated that copy number is a linear function of parameters that include the variable, ANILFR, and two constants, ploidy and background normalized fluorescence ratio.
In most cases, the changes in copy number seen on array-CGH profiles reflected cumulative chromosome rearrangements. Most of them stemmed from unbalanced translocations. Although our chr3 BAC/PAC array could identify single copy number changes even in pentaploid cells, mpFISH provided a more accurate analysis in the dissection of complex karyotypes at high ploidy levels.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannomatosis is characterized by multiple peripheral and cranial nerve schwannomas that occur in the absence of bilateral 8th cranial nerve schwannomas. The latter is the main diagnostic criterion of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which is a related but distinct disorder. The genetic factors underlying the differences between schwannomatosis and NF2 are poorly understood, although available evidence implicates chromosome 22 as the primary location of the gene(s) of interest. To investigate this, we comprehensively profiled the DNA copy number in samples from sporadic and familial schwannomatosis, NF2, and a large cohort of normal controls. Using a tiling-path chromosome 22 genomic array, we identified two candidate regions of copy number variation, which were further characterized by a PCR-based array with higher resolution. The latter approach allows the detection of minute alterations in total genomic DNA, with as little as 1.5 kb per measurement point of nonredundant sequence on the array. In DNA derived from peripheral blood from a schwannomatosis patient and a sporadic schwannoma sample, we detected rearrangements of the immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) locus, which is unlikely to be due to a B-cell specific somatic recombination of IGL. Analysis of normal controls indicated that these IGL rearrangements were restricted to schwannomatosis/schwannoma samples. In the second candidate region spanning GSTT1 and CABIN1 genes, we observed a frequent copy number polymorphism at the GSTT1 locus. We further describe missense mutations in the CABIN1 gene that are specific to samples from schwannomatosis and NF2 and make this gene a plausible candidate for contributing to the pathogenesis of these disorders.
Human Mutation 01/2006; 26(6):540-9. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliomas are common and frequently malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Recurrent allelic losses of chromosome 22 have been reported in gliomas, indicating tumor-suppressor genes at this location. However, the target genes are still unknown. We applied a high resolution tiling-path chromosome 22 array to a series of 50 glioblastoma samples, with the aim of investigating the underlying abnormalities in both constitutional and tumor-derived DNA. We detected hemizygous deletions in 28% of the tumors (14 of 50), with monosomy 22 (10 of 50) being the predominant pattern. The distribution of overlapping hemizygous deletions delineated two putative tumor-suppressor loci (11.1 and 3.08 Mb in size) across 22q. Most strikingly, we identified two distinct loci affected by regional gains. Both alterations were of germ-line origin and were unique to samples from patients affected with tumors. Analysis of these two amplified regions revealed the presence of two interesting candidate genes: TOP3B and TAFA5. The TOP3B gene encodes a protein that seems to function in the unlinking of parental strands at the final stage of DNA replication and/or in the dissociation of structures in mitotic cells that could lead to recombination. The TAFA5 gene belongs to a novel family of proteins with similarity to chemokines and brain-specific expression. The role of the identified candidate loci should be studied further. Our results demonstrated the power of array-CGH to determine DNA copy number alterations in the context of germ-line- and tumor-specific aberrations.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 11/2005; 44(2):161-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannomas may develop sporadically or in association with NF2 and schwannomatosis. The fundamental aberration in schwannomas is the bi-allelic inactivation of the NF2 gene. However, clinical and molecular data suggest that these tumors share a common pathogenetic mechanism related to as yet undefined 22q-loci. Linkage studies in schwannomatosis, a condition related to NF2, have defined a candidate 22q-locus and excluded the NF2 gene as the causative germline mutation. Thus, analysis of aberrations in schwannomas may lead to the identification of putative gene(s) involved in the development of schwannoma/schwannomatosis. We profiled a series of 88 schwannomas and constitutional DNA using a tiling path chromosome 22 array. Array-CGH is a suitable method for high-resolution discrimination between germline and tumor-specific aberrations. Previously reported frequencies of 22q-associated deletions in schwannomas display large discrepancies, ranging from 30% to 80%. We detected heterozygous deletions in 53% of schwannomas and the predominant pattern was monosomy 22. In addition, three tumors displayed terminal deletions and four harbored overlapping interstitial deletions of various sizes encompassing the NF2 gene. When profiling constitutional DNA, we identified eight loci that were affected by copy number variation (CNV). Some of the identified CNVs may not be phenotypically neutral and the possible role of these CNVs in the pathogenesis of schwannomas should be studied further. We observed a correlation between the breakpoint position, present in tumor and/or constitutional DNA and the location of segmental duplications. This association implicates these unstable regions in rearrangements occurring both in meiosis and mitosis.
Human Genetics 11/2005; 118(1):35-44. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ependymomas frequently display allelic loss of chromosome 22 in the absence of mutations in the known tumor-suppressor genes on chromosome 22, suggesting the role of an alternative predisposing gene or genes from this chromosome. In an effort to localize these genes, 37 ependymomas derived from 33 patients were analyzed for the presence of copy number changes by use of a high-resolution chromosome 22 genomic microarray. Eighteen ependymomas (49%) displayed an array-CGH profile consistent with monosomy of chromosome 22. However, in 10 of these tumors, the fluorescence ratios for 22q clones scored as deleted were different from those at the single gene copy level. This suggests either analysis of mixed populations of tumor and normal stromal cells or analysis of mixed tumor cell populations with different genetic profiles. Four ependymomas derived from two patients showed overlapping interstitial deletions of 2.2 Mb and approximately 510 kb. Further analyses revealed that these deletions were present in the constitutional DNA of these two patients as well as in some of their unaffected relatives. Detailed microsatellite analysis of these families refined the commonly deleted segment to a region of 320 kb between markers RH13801 and D22S419. Our results provide additional evidence for the involvement of genes on chromosome 22 in the development of ependymoma and suggest the presence of a low-penetrance ependymoma susceptibility locus at 22q11.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/2005; 43(4):329-38. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copy-number polymorphisms (CNPs) represent a greatly underestimated aspect of human genetic variation. Recently, two landmark studies reported genome-wide analyses of CNPs in normal individuals and represent the beginning of an understanding of this type of large-scale variation. Future array-CGH-based CNP analyses should include standard criteria on a common microarray platform. It is only when parallel analyses of CNPs and SNPs are performed in an integrated format that we will obtain a global picture of our genetic diversity.
Trends in Genetics 07/2005; 21(6):315-7. · 9.77 Impact Factor