Sankaralingam Arunachalam

Bharathidasan University, Tiruchchināppalli, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (61)133.36 Total impact

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    G Vignesh · K Sugumar · S Arunachalam · S Vignesh · R Arthur James · R Arun · K Premkumar
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes [Co(bpy)(dien)TA](ClO4)3 · 3H2O (1) and [Co(dien)(phen)TA](ClO4)3 · 4H2O (2), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, dien = diethylenetriamine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and TA = tetradecylamine with human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions was analyzed using steady state, synchronous, 3D fluorescence, UV/visabsorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that these complexes cause the fluorescence quenching of HSA through a static mechanism. The binding constant (Kb) and number of binding-sites (n) were obtained at different temperatures. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S°) and Ea were also obtained. According to Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between the complexes and HSA were calculated. The results of synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the binding process has changed considerably the polarity around the fluorophores, along with changes in the conformation of the protein. The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the complexes were tested and the results show that the complexes have good activities against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Luminescence 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/bio.2991 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The polymer-cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(bpy)(dien)BPEI]Cl3 · 4H2 O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylentriamine, BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine) were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under physiological conditions using various physico-chemical techniques. The results reveal that the fluorescence quenching of serum albumins by polymer-cobalt(III) complexes took place through static quenching. The binding of these complexes changed the molecular conformation of the protein considerably. The polymer-cobalt(III) complex with x = 0.365 shows antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens. This complex also induces cytotoxicity against MCF-7 through apoptotic induction. However, further studies are needed to decipher the molecular mode of action of polymer-cobalt(III) complex and for its possible utilization in anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Luminescence 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/bio.2992 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Developing surfactant based metal complexes as metallodrugs is a promising approach for which it is important to know the effect of their hydrophobic tail part on the interaction with biomacromolecules as well as on their biological activities. In this report we describe about some surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes differing in their tail part and the effect of hydrophobicity of these complexes on their interaction with calf thymus DNA and on the cytotoxic activities. The obtained results along with molecular docking calculations show that the single chain surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes interact with DNA via groove binding and double chain surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes interact with DNA through partial intercalation. In tune with this, double chain systems show more anticancer activities as their hydrophobic tail part makes them effectively penetrate into the cell. So, this kind of tuning the hydrophobicity of metallodrugs will lead to optimise the DNA binding and cytotoxicity behaviour. KEYWORDS Surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes, hydrophobicity, calf thymus DNA, metallodrugs, DNA binding, cytotoxicity, molecular docking.
    RSC Advances 03/2015; 5(40). DOI:10.1039/C5RA02763B · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    Karuppiah Nagaraj · Subramanian Sakthinathan · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of two surfactant cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(ip)2(DA)2](ClO4)3 1 and cis- [Co(dpq)2(DA)2](ClO4)3 2 where ip = imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and dpq = dipyrido[3,2- d:2’-3’-f]quinoxaline with yeast tRNA have been explored by using electronic absorption, competitive binding, electrochemical studies and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that these complexes can bind to tRNA by intercalation. The presence of hydrophobic diimine ligand and the long aliphatic double chains of these complexes facilitate its intercalative interaction with the hydrophobic interior of the tRNA. The extent of tRNA binding of complex 2 has greater affinity than that of complex containing imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligands
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2015.03.042 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: c4nj00460d1
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    ABSTRACT: Copper(II) complexes, [Cu(Hsal)(L)(ClO4)] (where Hsal = salicylaldehyde, 1: L = dpqC = dipyrido[3,2-a:2’,3’-c](6,7,8,9-tetrahydro)phenazine) and 2: L = dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine]), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. Single crystal XRD on 1 confirms the presence of square pyramidal geometry around Cu(II). DNA interaction studies were performed for both the complexes using UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques and viscosity. These complexes bind with DNA through partial intercalation. Molecular docking studies confirm our experimental findings of mode of binding of our complexes with DNA.
    Journal of Coordination Chemistry 02/2015; 68(8):1-24. DOI:10.1080/00958972.2015.1014349 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    Karuppiah Nagaraj · Subramanian Sakthinathan · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The surfactant copper(II) complex, [Cu(sal-ala)(bpy)(DA)] (sal-ala = amino acid Schiff base, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridyl, DA = dodecylamine) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV–Vis, IR and EPR spectra. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of this surfactant copper(II) complex in aqueous solution was obtained from conductance measurements. Specific conductivity data (at 303, 308, 313. 318 and 323 K) served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (Δ \(G_{\text{m}}^0\) , Δ \(H_{\text{m}}^0\) and Δ \(S_{\text{m}}^0\) ). Absorption, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, circular dichroism spectroscopy and viscosity experiments have been carried to study the interaction of this surfactant complex with nucleic acids. The results suggest that the complex could bind to nucleic acids by intercalation via salicylidene aromatic chromophore into the base pairs of CT DNA. The long aliphatic chain of the surfactant complex increases the hydrophobic interaction between the complex and nucleic acid. The surfactant copper(II) complex was screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against various microorganisms. The results were compared with the standard drugs, amikacin (antibacterial) and ketokonazole (antifungal).
    Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society 02/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.1007/s13738-014-0481-z · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • G. Vignesh · Y. Manoj Kumar · K. Sugumar · S. Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between the polymer–cobalt(III) complexes,[Co(dien)(phen)BPEI]Br3 � 2H2O and[Co (phen)2(BPEI)Cl]Cl2 � 4H2O (wherephenis1,10-phenanthroline,dien is diethylenetriamine, BPEI is branched polyethyleneimine) and serum albumins is studied using steadystate fluorescence, lifetime measurement and circular dichroism spectroscopy techniques under physiological condition.The analysis of fluorescence data indicates the presence of static quenching mechanism in the binding process. Various binding parameters including thermodynamic parameters ΔH1, ΔS1 and ΔG1 have been evaluated.The quantitative analysis of CD spectra reveals information on the changes in the content of the α-helix of the HSA/BSA upon binding.
  • Gopalaswamy Vignesh · Selvan Nehru · Yesaiyan Manojkumar · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of HSA/BSA with single and double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(phen)(2)(UA) Cl](ClO4)2 center dot 2H(2)O (1), cis-[Co(phen)(2)(UA)(2)](ClO4)(3)center dot 2H(2)O (2), cis-[Co(en)(2)(UA)Cl](ClO4)(2)center dot 2H(2)O (3), cis-[Co (en)(2)(UA)(2)](ClO4)(3)center dot 2H(2)O (4), were investigated by steady state fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, synchronous, three dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results reveal that the quenching of HSA/BSA by all the four complexes takes place through static mechanism. The binding constant, binding sites and thermodymamic parameter were calculated. The results illustrate that the double chain surfactant-cobalt (III) complexes bind more strongly than the corresponding single chain complexes. The distance between donor (HSA/BSA) and acceptor (surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes) was obtained according to FRET. The results of synchronous, three dimensional and circular dichroism spectroscopy studies show that all the complexes caused considerable amount of conformational and some amount of environment changes in HSA/BSA.
    Journal of Luminescence 12/2014; 145:269-277. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2013.07.050 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Karuppiah Nagaraj · Subramanian Sakthinathan · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The binding interaction between tRNA and surfactant copper(II) complexes with imidazo[4,5-f][1, 10]phenanthroline, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydrodipyrido[3,2-a:2′,4′-c]phenazine, and benzo[1]dipyrido[3,2-a′:2′,3′-c]phenazine ligands has been studied using various physicochemical techniques. In the presence of tRNA, UV–Vis spectrum of surfactant complexes showed red shift of the absorption band along with significant hypochromicity indicating intercalation of surfactant complexes with tRNA. Competitive binding study with ethidium bromide shows that complexes exhibit the ability to displace the tRNA-bound EB indicating that these complexes bind to tRNA in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. Observed changes in the circular dichroic spectra of tRNA in the presence of surfactant complexes support the strong binding of complexes with tRNA. CV and viscosity results also affirm this mode of binding. The results reveal that the extent of tRNA binding of the benzo[1]dipyrido[3,2-a′:2′,3′-c]phenazine complex was greater than that of the other complexes. Binding to tRNA appears to be mainly intercalative in nature. Graphical abstract
    Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly 12/2014; 145(12). DOI:10.1007/s00706-014-1267-9 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The water soluble polyethyleneimine-copper(II) complexes, [Cu(phen)(L-tyr)BPEI]ClO4 (where phen=1,10-phenanthroline, L-tyr=L-tyrosine and BPEI=branched polyethyleneimine) with various degree of copper(II) complex units in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and electronic, FT-IR, EPR spectroscopic techniques. The binding of these complexes with CT-DNA was studied using UV-visible absorption titration, thermal denaturation, emission, circular dichroism spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric methods. The changes observed in the physicochemcial properties indicated that the binding between the polymer-copper complexes and DNA was mostly through electrostatic mode of binding. Among these complexes, the polymer-copper(II) complex with the highest degrees of copper(II) complex units (higher degrees of coordination) showed higher binding constant than those with lower copper(II) complex units (lower degrees of coordination) complexes. The complex with the highest number of metal centre bound strongly due to the cooperative binding effect. Therefore, anticancer study was carried out using this complex. The cytotoxic activity for this complex on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was determined adopting MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and comet assay techniques, which revealed that the cells were committed to specific mode of cell death either apoptosis or necrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 11/2014; 142C:59-67. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.11.005 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular interaction of polymer-anchored cobalt(III) complex, cis-[Co(bpy)2(BPEI)Cl]Cl2·4H2O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine) with two plasma proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using various spectrophotomeric techniques has been investigated. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectra clearly demonstrated the static quenching mechanism. The calculated thermodynamic parameters revealed that the interaction between polymer-cobalt(III) complex and HSA/BSA was driven mainly by van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds. The resuts observed from three dimentional fluorescence and Cirucular dichorism (CD) spectral studies manifested the conformational changes of HSA/BSA upon addition of the polymer-cobalt(III) complex. Furthermore, the antimicrobial result showed that the polymer-cobalt(III) complex exhibits good antibacterial and antifungal activities against certain human pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, the antiproliferative property of the polymer-cobalt(III) complex on HEp-2 human larynx cancer cells was determined using MTT assay. The mode of cell death induced by the complex following treatment was analyzed adopting specific staining techniques. MTT assay revealed that the viability of the cells thus treated was significantly decreased and the cells succumbed to apoptosis as well as necrosis as reflected in changes in the nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic features by AO & EB and Hoechst staining methods.
    RSC Advances 10/2014; 4(101). DOI:10.1039/C4RA10377G · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    Karuppiah Nagaraj · Subramanian sakthinathan · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of reductions of surfactant cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(ip)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3, cis-[Co(dpq)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ and cis-[Co(dpqc)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (ip = imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2’-3’-f]quinoxaline, dpqc = dipyrido[3,2-a:2’,4’-c](6,7,8,9-tetrahydro)phenazine, C12H25NH2=dodecylamine) by Fe2+ ion in liposome vesicles (DPPC) and ionic liquids ((BMIM)Br) were studied at different temperatures by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy method under pseudo first order conditions using an excess of the reductant. The reactions were found to be second order and the electron transfer is postulated as outer-sphere. Below the phase transition temperature of DPPC, the rate decreased with increasing concentration of DPPC, while above the phase transition temperature the rate increased with increasing concentration of DPPC. It is concluded that below the phase transition temperature, there is an accumulation of surfactant cobalt(III) complexes at the interior of the vesicle membrane through hydrophobic effects, and above the phase transition temperature the surfactant cobalt(III) complexes is released from the interior to the exterior surface of the vesicle. The effects of amphiphilicity of the long aliphatic double chains of these surfactant complex ions into ionicliquids on these reactions have also been studied. The second order rate constant for the electron transfer reactions were found to increase with increasing concentrations of ionic liquids. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydrophobic effect.
    RSC Advances 10/2014; 4(99). DOI:10.1039/C4RA07404A · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new class of surfactant cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(ip)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (1) and cis-[Co(dpq)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (2) (ip = imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2’-3’-f]quinoxaline), have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic and physico-chemical techniques. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of these complexes in aqueous solution were obtained from conductance measurements. The specific conductivity data (at 303, 308, 313, 318 and 323K) served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (ΔG0m, ΔH0 m and ΔS0 m). The trend in DNA-binding affinities and the spectral properties of a series of complexes, cis-[Co(ip)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (1) and cis-[Co(dpq)2(C12H25NH2)2](ClO4)3 (2), have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalated ligand and hydrophobicity of the complexes have a marked effect on the binding affinity of complexes to CT DNA in intercalation mode, and the order of their intrinsic DNA-binding constants Kb is Kb(1) < Kb(2). In addition, the influence of the extended aromatic ring and optical properties of the complexes can be reasonably explained by applying the DFT calculations. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO indicates that these complexes are prone to interact with CT DNA. Further, molecular docking calculations have also been performed to understand the nature of binding of the complexes and the result confirms that the complexes interact with CT DNA through the alkyl chain. The cytotoxic activity of these complexes on human liver carcinoma cancer cells were determined adopting MTT assay and specific staining techniques, which revealed that the viability of the cells, thus treated was significantly decreased and the cells succumbed to apoptosis as seen in the changes in the nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic features.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2014; 43(48). DOI:10.1039/C4DT02134G · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytotoxic potential of the surfactant–cobalt(III) complex (metallosurfactant) cis-[Co(trien)(C14H29NH2)Cl](ClO4)2 was tested on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell. The viability of the treated cell was evaluated by adopting MTT assay. The mode of cell death was assessed by adopting different morphological, cellular and molecular methods such as comet assay for DNA damage and apoptosis assays (Hoechst staining, acridine orange & ethidium bromide (AO & EB) staining and Annexin V-Cy3 assay). Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was tested using JC-1 dye. Cell cycle analysis was made by adopting flow cytometry, and the expression of some key pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was analyzed by adopting Western blotting. The surfactant–cobalt(III) complex induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was essentially apoptosis though necrosis was also noticed. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the treatment caused cell cycle arrest, as indicated in the accumulation of cells in the sub-G0 + G1 compartment. Western blot analysis revealed the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic p53 and Bax proteins and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. The study revealed the antiproliferative and apoptosis-induction properties of the surfactant–cobalt(III) complex in an MCF-7 breast cancer cell, primarily by inducing DNA damage and possibly through elevation of ROS levels.
    RSC Advances 09/2014; 4(91):49953-49959. DOI:10.1039/C4RA06702A · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymer conjugates containing copper(ii) phenanthroline complex units and ferrocenyl methylene units bound to the same polymer backbone were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. We could observe both the EPR spectrum for the paramagnetic copper(ii) units and the proton NMR spectrum due to the diamagnetic ferrocenyl methylene units. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetry, and circular dichroism studies. The complex displays significant binding properties to the CT-DNA. In fluorimetric studies, the binding mode of the complex with CT-DNA was investigated using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe. The binding of copper(ii) complex units to DNA was facilitated by the presence of ferrocenyl methylene units in the same polymer molecule. These polymer conjugates show good anticancer activity against HepG2 cells and antimicrobial studies have shown better activity.
    New Journal of Chemistry 09/2014; DOI:10.1039/C4NJ00460D · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: c4nj00460d1
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    ABSTRACT: The novel surfactant copper(II) complexes, [Cu(ip)2DA](ClO4)21, [Cu(dpqc)2DA](ClO4)22, [Cu(dppn)2DA](ClO4)23, where ip=imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, dpqc=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',4'-c](6,7,8,9-tetrahydro)phenazine, dppn=benzo[1]dipyrido[3,2-a':2',3'-c]phenazine and DA-dodecylamine, were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. In these complexes 1-3, the geometry of copper metal ions was described as square pyramidal. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of these surfactant copper(II) complexes in aqueous solution was found out from conductance measurements. Specific conductivity data at different temperatures served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (ΔGm°, ΔHm° and ΔSm°). The binding interaction of these complexes with DNA (calf thymus DNA) in Tris buffer was studied by physico-chemical techniques. In the presence of the DNA UV-vis spectrum of complexes showed red shift of the absorption band along with significant hypochromicity indicating intercalation of our complexes with nucleic acids. Competitive binding study with ethidium bromide (EB) shows that the complexes exhibit the ability to displace the nucleic acid-bound EB indicating that the complexes bind to nucleic acids in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. Observed changes in the circular dichoric spectra of DNA in the presence of surfactant complexes support the strong binding of complexes with DNA. CV results also confirm this mode of binding. Some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the titled complexes to DNA have also been determined. The results reveal that the extent of DNA binding of 3 was greater than that of 1 and 2. The antibacterial and antifungal screening tests of these complexes have shown good results compared to its precursor chloride complexes.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 06/2014; 122C:151-157. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.05.011 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of surfactant-copper(II) Schiff base complexes (1-6) of the general formula, [Cu(sal-R2)2] and [Cu(5-OMe-sal-R2)2], {where, sal = salicylaldehyde, 5-OMe-sal = 5-methoxy- salicylaldehyde, and R2 = dodecylamine (DA), tetradecylamine (TA), or cetylamine (CA)} have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis methods. For a special reason, the structure of one of the complexes (2) was resolved by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it indicates the presence of a distorted square-planar geometry in the complex. Analysis of the binding of these complexes with DNA has been carried out adapting UV-visible-, fluorescence-, as well as circular dichroism spectroscopic methods and viscosity experiments. The results indicate that the complexes bind via minor groove mode involving the hydrophobic surfactant chain. Increase in the length of the aliphatic chain of the ligands facilitates the binding. Further, molecular docking calculations have been performed to understand the nature as well as order of binding of these complexes with DNA. This docking analysis also suggested that the complexes interact with DNA through the alkyl chain present in the Schiff base ligands via the minor groove. In addition, the cytotoxic property of the surfactant-copper(II) Schiff base complexes have been studied against a breast cancer cell line. All six complexes reduced the visibility of the cells but complexes 2, 3, 5, and 6 brought about this effect at fairly low concentrations. Analyzed further, but a small percentage of cells succumbed to necrosis. Of these complexes (6) proved to be the most efficient aptotoxic agent.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 05/2014; 33(4):1-15. DOI:10.1080/07391102.2014.918523 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    Karuppiah Nagaraj · Sankaralingam Arunachalam
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of reduction of the surfactant complex ions cis-[Co(phen)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ and cis-[Co(bpy)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, C12H25NH2 = dodecylamine) in solutions of unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were studied at different temperatures by a spectrophotometric method under pseudo-first-order conditions using an excess of the reductant. Experimentally the reaction was found to be second order and the electron transfer postulated as outer sphere. Below the phase temperature of DPPC the second-order rate constant for this electron-transfer reaction of both the complexes was found to decrease with increasing concentration of the liposome. Above the phase transition temperature the reaction rate was found to increase with increasing concentration of DPPC. Below the phase transfer temperature the results have been explained on the basis of electrostatic double layer repulsion which prevents the vesicles from accumulation of surfactant–cobalt(III) complexes in the interior of the vesicle membrane. Above the phase transfer temperature the release of the surfactant–cobalt(III) complex molecules from the interior core to the exterior surface of the vesicle through the strong hydrophobic effect increases the reaction rate. The main driving force for this phenomenon is considered to be the intervesicular hydrophobic interaction between the surfactant complexes and vesicles surface. We could observe isokinetic relationships for both the complexes of the present study at the phase transfer temperature of DPPC.
    Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly 03/2014; 145(3). DOI:10.1007/s00706-013-1080-x · 1.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

448 Citations
133.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • Bharathidasan University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Marine Sciences
      • • Department of Animal Science
      Tiruchchināppalli, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2014
    • Åbo Akademi University
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland