[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Content to Supplementary Iinformation for the Article of Y.N. Antonenko et al.:
S1: Structures, Methods of Synthesis, and Certain Physicochemical Properties of Cationic
S2: SkQs in BLM and Isolated Mitochondria;
S3: SkQ1 in Human Cell Cultures
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel penetrating cations were used for a design of mitochondria-targeted compounds and tested in model lipid membranes, in isolated mitochondria and in living human cells in culture. Rhodamine-19, berberine and palmatine were conjugated by aliphatic linkers with plastoquinone possessing antioxidant activity. These conjugates (SkQR1,SkQBerb, SkQPalm) and their analogs lacking plastoquinol moiety (C12R1,C10Berb and C10Palm) penetrated bilayer phospholipid membrane in their cationic forms and accumulated in isolated mitochondria or in mitochondria of living cells due to membrane potential negative inside. Reduced forms of SkQR1, SkQBerb and SkQPalm inhibited lipid peroxidation in isolated mitochondria at nanomolar concentrations. In human fibroblasts SkQR1, SkQBerb and SkQPalm prevented fragmentation of mitochondria and apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. SkQR1 was effective at subnanomolar concentrations while SkQberb, SkQPalm and SkQ1 (prototypic conjugate of plastoquinone with dodecyltriphenylphosphonium) were effective at 10-times higher concentrations. The aliphatic conjugates of berberine and palmatine (as well as the conjugates of triphenylphosphonium) induced proton transport mediated by free fatty acids (FA) both in the model and mitochondrial membrane. In mitochondria this process was facilitated by the adenine nucleotide carrier. In contrast to the other cationic conjugates, SkQR1 and C12R1 induced FA-independent proton conductivity due to protonation/deprotonation of the rhodamine residue. This property in combination with the antioxidant activity probably makes rhodamine conjugates highly effective in protection against oxidative stress. The novel cationic conjugates described here are promising candidates for drugs against various pathologies and aging as mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and selective mild uncouplers.
Current pharmaceutical design 10/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously it has been shown by our group that berberine and palmatine, penetrating cations of plant origin, when conjugated with plastoquinone (SkQBerb and SkQPalm), can accumulate in isolated mitochondria or in mitochondria of living cells and effectively protect them from oxidative damage. In the present work, we demonstrate that SkQBerb, SkQPalm, and their analogs lacking the plastoquinone moiety (C(10)Berb and C(10)Palm) operate as mitochondria-targeted compounds facilitating protonophorous effect of free fatty acids. These compounds induce proton transport mediated by small concentrations of added fatty acids both in planar and liposomal model lipid membranes. In mitochondria, such an effect can be carried out by endogenous fatty acids and the adenine nucleotide translocase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel mitochondria-targeted compounds composed entirely of natural constituents have been synthesized and tested in model lipid membranes, in isolated mitochondria, and in living human cells in culture. Berberine and palmatine, penetrating cations of plant origin, were conjugated by nonyloxycarbonylmethyl residue with the plant electron carrier and antioxidant plastoquinone. These conjugates (SkQBerb, SkQPalm) and their analogs lacking the plastoquinol moiety (C10Berb and C10Palm) penetrated across planar bilayer phospholipid membrane in their cationic forms and accumulated in isolated mitochondria or in mitochondria in living human cells in culture. Reduced forms of SkQBerb and SkQPalm inhibited lipid peroxidation in isolated mitochondria at nanomolar concentrations. In isolated mitochondria and in living cells, the berberine and palmatine moieties were not reduced, so antioxidant activity belonged exclusively to the plastoquinol moiety. In human fibroblasts, nanomolar SkQBerb and SkQPalm prevented fragmentation of mitochondria and apoptosis induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide. At higher concentrations, conjugates of berberine and palmatine induced proton transport mediated by free fatty acids both in model and in mitochondrial membrane. In mitochondria this process was facilitated by the adenine nucleotide carrier. As an example of application of the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQBerb and SkQPalm to studies of signal transduction, we discuss induction of cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and morphological normalization of some tumor cells. We suggest that production of oxygen radicals in mitochondria is necessary for growth factors-MAP-kinase signaling, which supports proliferation and transformed phenotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidants composed entirely of natural constituents.
Novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidants were synthesized containing plant electron carrier and antioxidant plastoquinone conjugated by nonyloxycarbonylmethyl residue with berberine or palmatine, penetrating cations of plant origin. These compounds, SkQBerb and SkQPalm, were tested in model planar phospholipid membranes and micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria and living cells.
SkQBerb and SkQPalm penetrated across planar bilayer phospholipid membrane in their cationic forms and accumulated in mitochondria isolated or in living human cells in culture. Reduced forms of SkQBerb and SkQPalm as well as C10Berb and C10Palm (SkQBerb and SkQPalm analogs lacking plastoquinol moiety) revealed radical scavenging activity in lipid micelles and liposomes, while oxidized forms were inactive. In isolated mitochondria and in living cells, berberine and palmatine moieties were not reduced, so antioxidant activity of C10Berb and C10Palm was not detected. SkQBerb and SkQPalm inhibited lipid peroxidation in isolated mitochondria at nanomolar concentrations; their prooxidant effect was observed at 1,000 times higher concentrations. In human cell cuture, nanomolar SkQBerb and SkQPalm prevented fragmentation of mitochondria and apoptosis induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide.
This is the first successful attempt to construct mitochondria-targeted antioxidants composed entirely of natural components, namely plastoquinone, nonyl, acetyl and berberine or palmatine residues.
Pharmaceutical Research 06/2011; 28(11):2883-95. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A limited decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential can be beneficial for cells, especially under some pathological conditions, suggesting that mild uncouplers (protonophores) causing such an effect are promising candidates for therapeutic uses. The great majority of protonophores are weak acids capable of permeating across membranes in their neutral and anionic forms. In the present study, protonophorous activity of a series of derivatives of cationic rhodamine 19, including dodecylrhodamine (C(12)R1) and its conjugate with plastoquinone (SkQR1), was revealed using a variety of assays. Derivatives of rhodamine B, lacking dissociable protons, showed no protonophorous properties. In planar bilayer lipid membranes, separating two compartments differing in pH, diffusion potential of H(+) ions was generated in the presence of C(12)R1 and SkQR1. These compounds induced pH equilibration in liposomes loaded with the pH probe pyranine. C(12)R1 and SkQR1 partially stimulated respiration of rat liver mitochondria in State 4 and decreased their membrane potential. Also, C(12)R1 partially stimulated respiration of yeast cells but, unlike the anionic protonophore FCCP, did not suppress their growth. Loss of function of mitochondrial DNA in yeast (grande-petite transformation) is known to cause a major decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that petite yeast cells are relatively more sensitive to the anionic uncouplers than to C(12)R1 compared with grande cells. Together, our data suggest that rhodamine 19-based cationic protonophores are self-limiting; their uncoupling activity is maximal at high membrane potential, but the activity decreases membrane potentials, which causes partial efflux of the uncouplers from mitochondria and, hence, prevents further membrane potential decrease.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(20):17831-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique phenomenon of mitochondria-targeted protonophores is described. It consists in a transmembrane H(+)-conducting fatty acid cycling mediated by penetrating cations such as 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) or dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C(12)TPP). The phenomenon has been modeled by molecular dynamics and directly proved by experiments on bilayer planar phospholipid membrane, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and yeast cells. In bilayer planar phospholipid membrane, the concerted action of penetrating cations and fatty acids is found to result in conversion of a pH gradient (DeltapH) to a membrane potential (Deltapsi) of the Nernstian value (about 60 mV Deltapsi at DeltapH = 1). A hydrophobic cation with localized charge (cetyltrimethylammonium) failed to substitute for hydrophobic cations with delocalized charge. In isolated mitochondria, SkQ1 and C(12)TPP, but not cetyltrimethylammonium, potentiated fatty acid-induced (i) uncoupling of respiration and phosphorylation, and (ii) inhibition of H(2)O(2) formation. In intact yeast cells, C(12)TPP stimulated respiration regardless of the extracellular pH value, whereas a nontargeted protonophorous uncoupler (trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone) stimulated respiration at pH 5 but not at pH 3. Hydrophobic penetrating cations might be promising to treat obesity, senescence, and some kinds of cancer that require mitochondrial hyperpolarization.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(2):663-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations, show pronounced prooxidant activity, the "window" between anti- and prooxidant concentrations being very much larger than for MitoQ, a cationic ubiquinone derivative showing very much lower antioxidant activity and higher prooxidant activity, (iv) are reduced by the respiratory chain to SkQH2, the rate of oxidation of SkQH2 being lower than the rate of SkQ reduction, and (v) prevent oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin by OH*. In HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, SkQs operate as powerful inhibitors of the ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis. For the two most active SkQs, namely SkQ1 and SkQR1, C(1/2) values for inhibition of the H2O2-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts appear to be as low as 1x10(-11) and 8x10(-13) M, respectively. SkQR1, a fluorescent representative of the SkQ family, specifically stains a single type of organelles in the living cell, i.e. energized mitochondria. Such specificity is explained by the fact that it is the mitochondrial matrix that is the only negatively-charged compartment inside the cell. Assuming that the Deltapsi values on the outer cell and inner mitochondrial membranes are about 60 and 180 mV, respectively, and taking into account distribution coefficient of SkQ1 between lipid and water (about 13,000 : 1), the SkQ1 concentration in the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane should be 1.3x10(8) times higher than in the extracellular space. This explains the very high efficiency of such compounds in experiments on cell cultures. It is concluded that SkQs are rechargeable, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of very high efficiency and specificity. Therefore, they might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we studied effects of phosphonium dications P2C5 and P2C10 on bilayer planar phospholipid membrane (BLM) and rat liver mitochondria. In line with our previous observations [M.F. Ross, T. Da Ros, F.H. Blaikie, T.A. Prime, C.M. Porteous, I.I. Severina, V.P. Skulachev, H.G. Kjaergaard, R.A. Smith, M.P. Murphy, Accumulation of lipophilic dications by mitochondria and cells, Biochem. J. 400 (2006) 199-208], we showed both P2C5 and P2C10 are cationic penetrants for BLM. They generated transmembrane diffusion potential (Delta Psi), the compartment with a lower dication concentration positive. However, the Delta Psi values measured proved to be lower that the Nernstian. This fact could be explained by rather low BLM conductance for the cations at their small concentrations and by induction of some BLM damage at their large concentrations. The damage in question consisted in appearance of non-Ohmic current/voltage relationships which increased in time. Such a non-Ohmicity was especially strong at Delta Psi >100 mV. Addition of penetrating lipophilic anion TPB, which increases the BLM conductance for lipophilic cations, yielded the Nernstian Delta Psi, i.e. 30 mV per ten-fold dication gradient. In the State 4 mitochondria, dications stimulated respiration and lowered Delta Psi. Moreover, they inhibited the State 3 respiration with succinate or glutamate and malate (but not with TMPD and ascorbate) in an uncoupler-sensitive fashion. Effect on the in State 4 mitochondria, similarly to that on BLM, was accounted for by a time-dependent membrane damage. On the other hand, the State 3 effect was most probably due to inhibition of the respiratory chain Complex I and/or Complex III. The damaging and inhibitory activities of lipophilic dications should be taken into account when one considers a possibility to use them as a vehicle to target antioxidants or other compounds to mitochondria.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2007; 1767(9):1164-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of uncoupling by lauryl sulfate (LS) has been studied. The very fact that uncoupling by low concentration of LS (a strong acid) resembles very much that by fatty acids (weak acids) was used as an argument against the fatty acid cycling scheme of uncoupling where protonated fatty acids operate as a protonophore. We have found that rat liver and heart muscle mitochondria can be uncoupled by low (70 microM) LS concentration in a fashion completely arrested by the ATP/ADP antiporter inhibitor carboxyatractylate (CAtr). On the other hand, uncoupling by two-fold higher LS concentration is not sensitive to CAtr. Addition of oleate desensitizes mitochondria to low LS so that addition of bovine serum albumin becomes necessary to recouple mitochondria. The data are accounted for assuming that low LS releases endogenous fatty acids from some mitochondrial depots, and these fatty acids are responsible for uncoupling. As to high LS, it causes a nonspecific (CAtr-insensitive) damage to the mitochondrial membrane.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In monolayer of HeLa cells treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), apoptotic cells formed clusters indicating possible transmission of apoptotic signal via the culture media. To investigate this phenomenon, a simple method of enabling two cell cultures to interact has been employed. Two coverslips were placed side by side in a Petri dish, one coverslip covered with apoptogen-treated cells (the inducer) and another with non-treated cells (the recipient). TNF, staurosporine, or H2O2 treatment of the inducer cells is shown to initiate apoptosis on the recipient coverslip. This effect is increased by a catalase inhibitor aminotriazole and is arrested by addition of catalase or by pre-treatment of either the inducer or the recipient cells with nanomolar concentrations of mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidant MitoQ (10-(6 -ubiquinolyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium), which specifically arrests H2O2-induced apoptosis. The action of MitoQ is abolished by an uncoupler preventing accumulation of MitoQ in mitochondria. It is concluded that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondria in the apoptotic cells initiate the release of H2O2 from these cells. The H2O2 released is employed as a long-distance cell suicide messenger. In processing of such a signal by the recipient cells, mitochondrial ROS production is also involved. It is suggested that the described phenomenon may be involved in expansion of the apoptotic region around a damaged part of the tissue during heart attack or stroke as well as in "organoptosis", i.e. disappearance of organs during ontogenesis.