Valerie A M Vincent

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States

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Publications (9)40.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The APOE epsilon 4 allele is a strong risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular basis for this effect remains unclear. We examined expression of approximately 12,000 genes and expressed sequence tags in the hippocampus and cortex of PDAPP (APP(V717)) mice modeling AD that show extensive amyloid beta (A beta) deposition, and in PDAPP mice lacking murine APOE expression, which show marked attenuation of A beta deposition in the brain. Wild type and APOE knockout animals were also examined. Expression levels were determined at the initial stage of A beta deposition, as well as in older animals showing extensive neuropathological changes. Fifty-four transcripts were identified using our statistical analysis as differentially regulated between the PDAPP and PDAPP/APOE ko mice, whereas 31 transcripts were classified as differentially regulated among PDAPP mice and WT animals, and seven transcripts were identified as regulated between the PDAPP/APOE ko animals and the APOE ko animals. Interestingly, many of the differentially regulated genes we detected can be related to biological processes previously shown to be important in AD pathophysiology, including inflammation, calcium homeostasis, cholesterol transport and uptake, kinases and phosphatases involved in tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, mitochondrial energy metabolism, protein degradation, neuronal growth, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins, antioxidant activity, cytoskeletal organization, and presenilin binding proteins. Regulated genes also included some not directly associated with AD in the past but likely to be involved in known AD pathophysiologic mechanisms, and others that may represent completely novel factors in the pathogenesis of AD. These results provide a global molecular profile of hippocampal and cortical gene expression during the initial and intermediate stages Abeta deposition, and the effects of APOE deletion on this process.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2007; 30(4):574-90. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.08.006 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor are upregulated in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. M-CSF induces activation and proliferation of microglial cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunization experiments suggest that microglia have the capacity to aggressively clear Abeta from the brain under certain circumstances. We examined the role of M-CSF in phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres and Abeta by cultured microglia. M-CSF treatment increased microglial cell phagocytosis of both microspheres and of Abeta. Antibody neutralization of M-CSF inhibited Abeta uptake induced by overexpression of the M-CSF receptor on microglia. These results suggest that M-CSF could be important in promoting microglial clearance of abnormal protein aggregates such as Abeta.
    Neuroscience Letters 08/2003; 344(3):185-8. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00474-9 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor are up-regulated in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in transgenic mouse models for AD, and experimental models for traumatic and ischemic brain injury. M-CSF induces activation and proliferation of microglial cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined the role of M-CSF in excitotoxic neuronal cell death in organotypic hippocampal cultures. NMDA treatment induced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, whereas treatment with M-CSF protected hippocampal neurons from NMDA-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 activation was inhibited by M-CSF treatment to the same degree as with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. These results suggest that M-CSF has neuroprotective properties through inhibition of caspase-3 that could promote neuronal survival after excitotoxic insult. The role of M-CSF in neurological disease should be reevaluated as a microglial activator with potentially neuroprotective effects.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2002; 82(6):1388-97. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.01087.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The brain is a heterogeneous tissue in which the numbers of neurons, glia, and other cell types vary among anatomic regions. Gene expression studies performed on brain homogenates yield results reflecting mRNA abundance in a mixture of cell types. Therefore, a method for quantifying gene expression in individual cell populations would be useful. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a new technique for obtaining pure populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues. Most studies thus far have used LCM to detect DNA sequences. We developed a method to quantify gene expression in hippocampal neurons from mouse brain using LCM and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This method was optimized to permit histochemical or immunocytochemical visualization of nerve cells during LCM while minimizing RNA degradation. As an example, gene expression was quantified in hippocampal neurons from the Tg2576 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2002; 69(5):578-86. DOI:10.1002/jnr.10329 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Valerie A. M. Vincent, Simon P. Selwood, Greer M. Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a microglial activator expressed at increased levels in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. In monotypic microglial cultures, M-CSF strongly augments amyloid beta (Aβ) induced microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. However, this augmentation could be due to strong autocrine and paracrine effects in monotypic cultures. We used hippocampal organotypic cultures to test M-CSF/Aβ augmentation in a system modeling intact brain. Combined M-CSF/Aβ treatment increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α expression by microglia, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was localized primarily to astroglia. Induction of cytokines and iNOS was also observed after lipopolysaccharide treatment of organotypic hippocampal cultures, but iNOS expression was localized mainly to microglia rather than astrocytes. Treatment with M-CSF/Aβ did not result in neuronal death. These results demonstrate that combined M-CSF/Aβ treatment results in a strong inflammatory response in the organotypic environment without inducing neurotoxicity.
    Neurobiology of Aging 05/2002; 23(3):349-362. DOI:10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00338-4 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Valerie A. M. Vincent, Simon P. Selwood, Greer M. Murphy
    Neurobiology of Aging 05/2000; 21:49-49. DOI:10.1016/S0197-4580(00)82898-5 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Design and methods: Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight control subjects was processed for iNOS immunocytochemistry, NADPH-diaphorase activity staining as an index of NOS activity, and in situ end-labelling to detect cell death. Results: iNOS-positive cells were present in the white matter of 14 out of 16 AIDS and ADC patients, whereas two out of eight control subjects showed iNOS-positive cells. iNOS immunoreactivity was exclusively localized in activated macrophages and microglial cells that both showed NADPH-diaphorase activity. In addition, NADPH-diaphorase activity, not related to iNOS immunoreactivity, was observed in astrocytes in both white and grey matter of AIDS and ADC patients. All AIDS and ADC patients, and only one control subject showed characteristic features of apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Different forms of NOS are present in microglial cells and astrocytes of AIDS and ADC patients but are largely absent in control subjects. Although more NOS-expressing cells occur in ADC than in AIDS patients, apoptotic cell death was found in both patient groups to the same extent. We postulate that NO production in brains of AIDS patients results in cumulative cortical cell loss, which becomes neurologically evident at later stages of disease and is expressed as ADC.
    AIDS 02/1999; 13(3):317-326. DOI:10.1097/00002030-199902250-00003 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral administration of endotoxin induces brain-mediated responses, including activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in thermoregulation. This paper reviews the mechanisms by which endotoxin affects these responses. The effects on thermoregulation are complex and include macrophage-dependent hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Low doses of endotoxin, given IP, activate peripheral macrophages to produce interleukin (IL)-1 beta, which enters the circulation and acts as a hormonal signal. IL-1 may pass fenestrated endothelium in the median eminence to stimulate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion from the CRH nerve-terminals. In addition, IL-1 may activate brain endothelial cells to produce IL-1, IL-6, prostaglandins, etc., and secrete these substances into the brain. By paracrine actions, these substances may affect neurons (e.g., CRH neurons) or act on microglial cells, which show IL-1-induced IL-1 production and therefore amplify and prolong the intracerebral IL-1 signal. In contrast, high doses of endotoxin given i.v. may directly stimulate endothelial cells to produce IL-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and thereby activate the HPA axis in a macrophage-independent manner.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 02/1994; 19(2):209-32. DOI:10.1016/0306-4530(94)90010-8 · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Valerie A M Vincent, Simon P Selwood, Greer M Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a microglial activator expressed at increased levels in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. In monotypic microglial cultures, M-CSF strongly augments amyloid beta (Abeta) induced microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. However, this augmentation could be due to strong autocrine and paracrine effects in monotypic cultures. We used hippocampal organotypic cultures to test M-CSF/Abeta augmentation in a system modeling intact brain. Combined M-CSF/Abeta treatment increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha expression by microglia, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was localized primarily to astroglia. Induction of cytokines and iNOS was also observed after lipopolysaccharide treatment of organotypic hippocampal cultures, but iNOS expression was localized mainly to microglia rather than astrocytes. Treatment with M-CSF/Abeta did not result in neuronal death. These results demonstrate that combined M-CSF/Abeta treatment results in a strong inflammatory response in the organotypic environment without inducing neurotoxicity.
    Neurobiology of Aging 23(3):349-62. · 4.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

397 Citations
40.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2007
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine/VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands