V A Vincent

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States

Are you V A Vincent?

Claim your profile

Publications (15)51.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The APOE epsilon 4 allele is a strong risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular basis for this effect remains unclear. We examined expression of approximately 12,000 genes and expressed sequence tags in the hippocampus and cortex of PDAPP (APP(V717)) mice modeling AD that show extensive amyloid beta (A beta) deposition, and in PDAPP mice lacking murine APOE expression, which show marked attenuation of A beta deposition in the brain. Wild type and APOE knockout animals were also examined. Expression levels were determined at the initial stage of A beta deposition, as well as in older animals showing extensive neuropathological changes. Fifty-four transcripts were identified using our statistical analysis as differentially regulated between the PDAPP and PDAPP/APOE ko mice, whereas 31 transcripts were classified as differentially regulated among PDAPP mice and WT animals, and seven transcripts were identified as regulated between the PDAPP/APOE ko animals and the APOE ko animals. Interestingly, many of the differentially regulated genes we detected can be related to biological processes previously shown to be important in AD pathophysiology, including inflammation, calcium homeostasis, cholesterol transport and uptake, kinases and phosphatases involved in tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, mitochondrial energy metabolism, protein degradation, neuronal growth, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins, antioxidant activity, cytoskeletal organization, and presenilin binding proteins. Regulated genes also included some not directly associated with AD in the past but likely to be involved in known AD pathophysiologic mechanisms, and others that may represent completely novel factors in the pathogenesis of AD. These results provide a global molecular profile of hippocampal and cortical gene expression during the initial and intermediate stages Abeta deposition, and the effects of APOE deletion on this process.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2007; 30(4):574-90. · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor are upregulated in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. M-CSF induces activation and proliferation of microglial cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunization experiments suggest that microglia have the capacity to aggressively clear Abeta from the brain under certain circumstances. We examined the role of M-CSF in phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres and Abeta by cultured microglia. M-CSF treatment increased microglial cell phagocytosis of both microspheres and of Abeta. Antibody neutralization of M-CSF inhibited Abeta uptake induced by overexpression of the M-CSF receptor on microglia. These results suggest that M-CSF could be important in promoting microglial clearance of abnormal protein aggregates such as Abeta.
    Neuroscience Letters 08/2003; 344(3):185-8. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brain is a heterogeneous tissue in which the numbers of neurons, glia, and other cell types vary among anatomic regions. Gene expression studies performed on brain homogenates yield results reflecting mRNA abundance in a mixture of cell types. Therefore, a method for quantifying gene expression in individual cell populations would be useful. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a new technique for obtaining pure populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues. Most studies thus far have used LCM to detect DNA sequences. We developed a method to quantify gene expression in hippocampal neurons from mouse brain using LCM and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This method was optimized to permit histochemical or immunocytochemical visualization of nerve cells during LCM while minimizing RNA degradation. As an example, gene expression was quantified in hippocampal neurons from the Tg2576 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2002; 69(5):578-86. · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor are up-regulated in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in transgenic mouse models for AD, and experimental models for traumatic and ischemic brain injury. M-CSF induces activation and proliferation of microglial cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined the role of M-CSF in excitotoxic neuronal cell death in organotypic hippocampal cultures. NMDA treatment induced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, whereas treatment with M-CSF protected hippocampal neurons from NMDA-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 activation was inhibited by M-CSF treatment to the same degree as with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. These results suggest that M-CSF has neuroprotective properties through inhibition of caspase-3 that could promote neuronal survival after excitotoxic insult. The role of M-CSF in neurological disease should be reevaluated as a microglial activator with potentially neuroprotective effects.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2002; 82(6):1388-97. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Valerie A. M. Vincent, Simon P. Selwood, Greer M. Murphy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a microglial activator expressed at increased levels in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. In monotypic microglial cultures, M-CSF strongly augments amyloid beta (Aβ) induced microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. However, this augmentation could be due to strong autocrine and paracrine effects in monotypic cultures. We used hippocampal organotypic cultures to test M-CSF/Aβ augmentation in a system modeling intact brain. Combined M-CSF/Aβ treatment increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α expression by microglia, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was localized primarily to astroglia. Induction of cytokines and iNOS was also observed after lipopolysaccharide treatment of organotypic hippocampal cultures, but iNOS expression was localized mainly to microglia rather than astrocytes. Treatment with M-CSF/Aβ did not result in neuronal death. These results demonstrate that combined M-CSF/Aβ treatment results in a strong inflammatory response in the organotypic environment without inducing neurotoxicity.
    Neurobiology of Aging - NEUROBIOL AGING. 01/2002; 23(3):349-362.
  • Valerie A. M. Vincent, Simon P. Selwood, Greer M. Murphy
    Neurobiology of Aging - NEUROBIOL AGING. 01/2000; 21:49-49.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Design and methods: Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight control subjects was processed for iNOS immunocytochemistry, NADPH-diaphorase activity staining as an index of NOS activity, and in situ end-labelling to detect cell death. Results: iNOS-positive cells were present in the white matter of 14 out of 16 AIDS and ADC patients, whereas two out of eight control subjects showed iNOS-positive cells. iNOS immunoreactivity was exclusively localized in activated macrophages and microglial cells that both showed NADPH-diaphorase activity. In addition, NADPH-diaphorase activity, not related to iNOS immunoreactivity, was observed in astrocytes in both white and grey matter of AIDS and ADC patients. All AIDS and ADC patients, and only one control subject showed characteristic features of apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Different forms of NOS are present in microglial cells and astrocytes of AIDS and ADC patients but are largely absent in control subjects. Although more NOS-expressing cells occur in ADC than in AIDS patients, apoptotic cell death was found in both patient groups to the same extent. We postulate that NO production in brains of AIDS patients results in cumulative cortical cell loss, which becomes neurologically evident at later stages of disease and is expressed as ADC.
    AIDS 02/1999; 13(3):317-326. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mixed glial cell cultures from cerebral cortices of newborn rats, endotoxin induces nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. Earlier we demonstrated that endotoxin induced NO production by microglial cells is inhibited in the presence of astroglial cells by transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). Both microglial and astroglial cells produce TGFbeta in a biologically inactive form, which can be activated by plasmin generated by plasminogen activators (PA). In the present paper we describe studies on the mechanism by which glial cells may activate inactive TGFbeta and its potential inhibitory effect on NO production by microglial cells. Inhibition of plasmin increased NO production in endotoxin-treated mixed glial cell cultures. Subsequently, antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) increased NO production in endotoxin-treated mixed glial cell cultures while amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase (uPA), had no effect. We hereby concluded that tPA is the crucial PA involved in plasmin production resulting in inhibition of NO production in mixed glial cell cultures. Zymography and Northern blot analysis of purified astroglial, microglial, and mixed glial cell cultures demonstrated that astroglial cells produce tPA and a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and are thereby responsible for the production of plasmin which may activate the inactive TGF in these cultures. In conclusion, astroglial-derived tPA plays a major role in the inhibition of NO production by endotoxin-treated microglial cells through enhanced plasmin production and possible subsequent TGFbeta activation.
    Glia 02/1998; 22(2):130-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    V A Vincent, F J Tilders, A M Van Dam
    Mediators of Inflammation 02/1998; 7(4):239-55. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • V A Vincent, F J Tilders, A M Van Dam
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mixed glial cell cultures from cerebral cortices of newborn rats, endotoxin induces inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production in microglial cells. Earlier we demonstrated that endotoxin induced iNOS but not IL-1 beta expression in microglial cells is inhibited by the presence of astroglial cells. In the present paper we describe studies on the mechanism by which astroglial cells exert selective suppressive action on iNOS expression by microglial cells. Expression of iNOS and IL-1 beta was studied by single or double label immunocytochemical techniques and cell identification was performed with GSA-I-B4-isolectin and an antibody against GFAP. Production of IL-1 beta and NO was determined by measurement of IL-1 beta and nitrite concentrations in cell lysates and the culture medium, respectively. TGF beta, a cytokine known to inhibit NO production by endotoxin challenged macrophages, was measured in culture medium of mixed glial cell cultures using a bioassay. Microglial, astroglial, and mixed glial cell cultures produced similar concentrations of TGF beta. The potential effect of TGF beta was studied by using immunoneutralizing antibodies against TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 on the induction of iNOS in microglial cells in the presence of astroglial cells. Incubation of the mixed glial cell culture with these TGF beta antibodies (3 micrograms/ml) markedly increased endotoxin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in microglial cells, whereas the production of IL-1 beta was not affected. The antibodies against TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 marginally increased NO production in pure microglial cell cultures, nonetheless in cultures of purified microglial cells recombinant TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 together with endotoxin inhibited NO production. We conclude that the presence of astroglial cells is essential for the inhibitory effect of TGF beta on NO production by microglial cells (possibly) by activation of TGF beta or by increasing the sensitivity of microglial cells for TGF beta.
    Glia 04/1997; 19(3):190-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In cultures of purified microglial cells and astrocytes from newborn rats, the immunocytochemical localization of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using recently developed antibodies, as well as the release of IL-1 beta and nitric oxide (NO), was studied following exposure of the cells to endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. In the absence of LPS, IL-1 beta- and iNOS-immunoreactive microglial cells and IL-1 beta or NO release were not observed, whereas in the presence of the endotoxin, the production of NO and IL-1 beta by microglial cells dramatically exceeded their synthesis and release by astrocytes. Interestingly, microglial cells cultured for 4-8 days in the presence of astrocytes appeared to lose their ability to produce iNOS, whereas the release of IL-1 beta remained unaltered. Moreover, endotoxin-stimulated microglial cells appeared to regain their ability to synthesize iNOS following their separation from astrocytes. These data show that microglia are primarily responsible for NO and IL-1 beta production in mixed glial cell cultures upon endotoxin stimulation. Moreover, in the presence of astrocytes the induction of iNOS, but not that of IL-1 beta in microglial cells is gradually inhibited.
    Glia 07/1996; 17(2):94-102. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral administration of endotoxin induces brain-mediated responses, including activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in thermoregulation. This paper reviews the mechanisms by which endotoxin affects these responses. The effects on thermoregulation are complex and include macrophage-dependent hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Low doses of endotoxin, given IP, activate peripheral macrophages to produce interleukin (IL)-1 beta, which enters the circulation and acts as a hormonal signal. IL-1 may pass fenestrated endothelium in the median eminence to stimulate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion from the CRH nerve-terminals. In addition, IL-1 may activate brain endothelial cells to produce IL-1, IL-6, prostaglandins, etc., and secrete these substances into the brain. By paracrine actions, these substances may affect neurons (e.g., CRH neurons) or act on microglial cells, which show IL-1-induced IL-1 production and therefore amplify and prolong the intracerebral IL-1 signal. In contrast, high doses of endotoxin given i.v. may directly stimulate endothelial cells to produce IL-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and thereby activate the HPA axis in a macrophage-independent manner.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 02/1994; 19(2):209-32. · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neuroimmunology - J NEUROIMMUNOL. 01/1994; 54:204-204.
  • Valerie A M Vincent, Simon P Selwood, Greer M Murphy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a microglial activator expressed at increased levels in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. In monotypic microglial cultures, M-CSF strongly augments amyloid beta (Abeta) induced microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. However, this augmentation could be due to strong autocrine and paracrine effects in monotypic cultures. We used hippocampal organotypic cultures to test M-CSF/Abeta augmentation in a system modeling intact brain. Combined M-CSF/Abeta treatment increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha expression by microglia, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was localized primarily to astroglia. Induction of cytokines and iNOS was also observed after lipopolysaccharide treatment of organotypic hippocampal cultures, but iNOS expression was localized mainly to microglia rather than astrocytes. Treatment with M-CSF/Abeta did not result in neuronal death. These results demonstrate that combined M-CSF/Abeta treatment results in a strong inflammatory response in the organotypic environment without inducing neurotoxicity.
    Neurobiology of Aging 23(3):349-62. · 6.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

465 Citations
51.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2007
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1996–1999
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine/VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany