Dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism contributes to the therapeutic action of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) but also produces undesirable side effects, including extrapyramidal motor deficits, cognitive dulling, and prolactinemia. The introduction of atypical APDs was a significant advancement in the treatment of schizophrenia. Whereas these agents are D(2) receptor antagonists, they are also potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor inverse agonists, a feature that may explain their improved efficacy and tolerability. Recently, we reported that N-(4-fluorophenylmethyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(4-(2-methylpropyloxy)phenylmethyl) carbamide (2R,3R)-dihydroxybutanedioate (2:1) (ACP-103), a novel selective 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist that fails to bind D(2) receptors, is active in several models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Using ACP-103, we tested the hypothesis that combining high levels of 5-HT(2A) inverse agonism with low levels of D(2) antagonism would result in a favorable interaction, such that antipsychotic efficacy could be achieved with reduced D(2) receptor-related adverse effects. Here we show that ACP-103 1) potently inhibited head-twitching produced by the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, 2) increased the potency of haloperidol against amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, 3) interacted synergistically with haloperidol or risperidone to suppress hyperactivity induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801), and, by contrast, 4) attenuated haloperido-l- or risperidone-induced prolactinemia. ACP-103 also attenuated catalepsy produced by haloperidol or risperidone. However, the doses that were required for this effect were higher than would be expected for a 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated mechanism. These data indicate that utilizing ACP-103 as an adjunctive therapy to currently used APDs may result in enhanced antipsychotic efficacy while reducing adverse effects including those attributable to D(2) receptor antagonism.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2007; 322(2):862-70. DOI:10.1124/jpet.107.121715 · 3.86 Impact Factor