[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study of patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor reduced mortality compared to clopidogrel but the mechanisms for this mortality reduction remain uncertain. We analysed adverse events (AEs) consistent with either pulmonary infection or sepsis, and subsequent mortality, in 18,421 PLATO patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. AEs occurring within 7 days of last dose of study medication were defined as "on-treatment". Serial measurements of blood leukocyte counts, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were performed. Fewer on-treatment pulmonary AEs occurred in the ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel group (275 vs. 331 respectively; p = 0.019), with fewer deaths following these AEs (33 vs. 71; p < 0.001), particularly in those who remained on study medication three days after AE onset (10 vs. 43; p < 0.001). There were fewer deaths attributed to sepsis in the ticagrelor group (7 vs. 23; p = 0.003). Leukocyte counts were lower in the clopidogrel group during treatment (p < 0.0001 at 1, 3 and 6 months) but not at 1 month post-discontinuation. C-reactive protein increased more at discharge in the ticagrelor group (28.0 ± 38.0 vs. 26.1 ± 36.6 mg/l; p < 0.001) and interleukin-6 remained higher during the first month of treatment with ticagrelor. We conclude that the mortality risk following pulmonary AEs and sepsis in acute coronary syndrome patients appears to be lower during ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel therapy. Further work should assess whether ticagrelor and clopidogrel have differential effects on immune signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) independently predicts cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (MI) and can be estimated by creatinine and cystatin C concentrations. We evaluated 2 different cystatin C assays, alone or combined with creatinine, in patients with acute coronary syndrome.METHODS: We analyzed plasma cystatin C, measured with assays from Gentian and Roche, and serum creatinine in 16 279 patients from the PLATO trial. We evaluated Pearson correlation and agreement (Bland- Altman) between methods, as well as prognostic value in relation to cardiovascular death or MI during 1 year of follow up by multivariable logistic regression analysis including clinical variables, biomarkers, c-statistics, and relative integrated discrimination improvement (IDI).RESULTS: Median cystatin C concentrations (interquartile intervals) were 0.83 (0.68-1.01) mg/L (Gentian) and 0.94 (0.80-1.14) mg/L (Roche). Overall correlation was 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.86). The level of agreement was within 0.39 mg/L (2 SD) (n = 16 279).The areas under the curve (AUCs) in the multivariable risk prediction model with cystatin C (Gentian, Roche) or Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration eGFR (CKD-EPI) added were 0.6914, 0.6913, and 0.6932. Corresponding relative IDI values were 2.96%, 3.86%, and 4.68% (n = 13 050). Addition of eGFR by the combined creatinine/cystatin C equation yielded AUCs of 0.6923 (Gentian) and 0.6924 (Roche) with relative IDI values of 3.54% and 3.24%.CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in cystatin C concentrations, overall correlation between the Gentian and Roche assays was good, while agreement was moderate. The combined creatinine/cystatin C equation did not outperform risk prediction by CKD-EPI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate if ticagrelor treatment and other clinical characteristics were associated with increased cystatin C concentrations and if a deterioration in estimated renal function was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Plasma cystatin C concentrations were determined within 24 hours of admission (baseline), at discharge, 1 month, and 6 months in the PLATO trial. The changes over time in relation to randomized treatment were analyzed by analysis of covariance. C-statistics and the relative Integrated Discrimination Improvement of the cystatin C concentrations regarding the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction) was evaluated by multivariable analysis including background characteristics and biomarkers: N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and Troponin I.
Mean cystatin C concentrations in 2133 ticagrelor- and 2162 clopidogrel-treated patients were at baseline (0.86 mg/L and 0.86 mg/L), discharge (1.01 mg/L and 0.98 mg/L) (P < .0005), 1 month (1.00 mg/L and 0.98 mg/L) (P = .12), and 6 months (1.00 mg/L and 0.99 mg/L) (P = .17), respectively. Age, heart failure, and type of ACS were major determinants of the cystatin C concentration. c Statistics and the relative Integrated Discrimination Improvement of the primary outcome for the baseline cystatin C concentration were 0.687 and 5.2%, compared to 0.684 and 4.5% at discharge (n = 4034) and 0.693 and 5.1% at one month (n = 3096), respectively.
Mean cystatin C concentrations increased in ACS patients, most importantly determined by age. The initial greater increase in ticagrelor-treated patients was not sustained over time. Risk prediction did not improve with serial measurements of renal markers.
American heart journal 11/2012; 164(5):728-34. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the differences in specific causes of post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) deaths in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial.
In the PLATO trial, patients assigned to ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel and who underwent CABG had significantly lower total and cardiovascular mortality.
In the 1,261 patients with CABG performed within 7 days after stopping study drug, reviewers blinded to treatment assignment classified causes of death into subcategories of vascular and nonvascular, and specifically identified bleeding or infection events that either caused or subsequently contributed to death.
Numerically more vascular deaths occurred in the clopidogrel versus the ticagrelor group related to myocardial infarction (14 vs. 10), heart failure (9 vs. 6), arrhythmia or sudden death (9 vs. 3), and bleeding, including hemorrhagic stroke (7 vs. 2). Clopidogrel was also associated with an excess of nonvascular deaths related to infection (8 vs. 2). Among factors directly causing or contributing to death, bleeding and infections were more common in the clopidogrel group compared with the ticagrelor group (infections: 16 vs. 6, p < 0.05, and bleeding: 27 vs. 9, p < 0.01, for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively).
The mortality reduction with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel following CABG in the PLATO trial was associated with fewer deaths from cardiovascular, bleeding, and infection complications. (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes [PLATO]; NCT00391872).
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2012; 60(17):1623-30. · 15.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the predictive ability of cystatin C and creatinine-based estimations of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), including the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation, in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with (STE-ACS) or without (NSTE-ACS) ST elevation in a large contemporary ACS population.
Concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine, as well as eGFR at randomization, were measured in 16 401 patients in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) study and evaluated as predictors of the composite end point of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction within 1 year. Two Cox proportional hazards models were used, the first adjusting for clinical characteristics and the second for clinical characteristics plus the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin I, and C-reactive protein.
The median cystatin C value was 0.83 mg/L. Increasing quartiles of cystatin C were strongly associated with poor outcome (6.9%, 7.1%, 9.5%, and 16.2%). The fully adjusted hazard ratios per SD of cystatin C in the NSTE-ACS and STE-ACS populations were 1.12 (95% CI 1.04-1.20) (n=8053) and 1.06 (95% CI 0.97-1.17) (n=5278), respectively. There was no significant relationship of cystatin C with type of ACS (STE or NSTE). c Statistics ranged from 0.6923 (cystatin C) to 0.6941 (CKD-EPI).
Cystatin C concentration contributes independently in predicting the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction in NSTE-ACS, with no interaction by type of ACS. CKD-EPI exhibited the largest predictive value of all renal markers. Nevertheless, the additive predictive value of cystatin C or creatinine-based eGFR measures in the unselected ACS patient is small.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), as a post-randomization strategy.
Ticagrelor is a novel, reversibly binding, oral, direct-acting P2Y(12)-receptor antagonist. In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized 18,624 patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.92; p < 0.001). This report investigated the outcomes of patients treated with CABG during the trial.
In total, 1,899 patients underwent CABG post-randomization. The protocol recommended ticagrelor/placebo to be withheld for 24 to 72 h and clopidogrel/placebo for 5 days preoperatively. In all, 1,261 patients underwent CABG and were receiving study drug treatment <7 days before surgery. The statistical analysis was based on events occurring from the CABG procedure until the end of the study, excluding 3 patients with CABG after study end.
In the 1,261 patient cohort, the relative reduction of primary composite end point at 12 months (10.6% [66 of 629] with ticagrelor versus 13.1% [79 of 629] with clopidogrel; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.16; p = 0.29) was consistent with the results of the whole trial. Total mortality was reduced from 9.7% (58 of 629) to 4.7% (29 of 629; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.77; p < 0.01), CV death from 7.9% (47 of 629) to 4.1% (25 of 629; HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85; p < 0.01), and non-CV death numerically from 2.0% to 0.7% (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in CABG-related major bleeding between the randomized treatments.
In the subgroup of patients undergoing CABG within 7 days after the last study drug intake, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with a substantial reduction in total and CV mortality without excess risk of CABG-related bleeding.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2011; 57(6):672-84. · 15.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NXY-059 is a free radical-trapping neuroprotectant that has been reported to reduce infarct size and preserve brain function in experimental models of acute ischemic stroke. NXY-059 administered as an 8- or 72-hour IV infusion has been reported to be well tolerated in healthy young (age, 20-45 years) and older (55-75 years) white volunteers. NXY-059 is no longer in development following a lack of efficacy found in a Phase III trial in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of an 8-hour IV infusion of NXY-059 in healthy Chinese volunteers and to compare those data with those previously reported in the white population, therefore exploring any differences in PK properties between the 2 ethnic groups. Secondary objectives were to evaluate PK linearity and tolerability.
This Phase I, randomized, double-blind (within dose panels), placebo-controlled study was conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. Healthy male and female Chinese volunteers aged 20 to 45 years were recruited. NXY-059 was administered as a continuous 8-hour IV infusion, starting with a 1-hour loading dose (dosing rate, 3 x maintenance infusion rate) followed by a 7-hour maintenance dose infusion. Subjects were randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, to receive doses calculated (based on creatinine clearance in individual subjects) to achieve 1 of 3 concentration targets, or inactive vehicle (sodium chloride; placebo). The target unbound plasma NXY-059 concentrations during constant rate infusion (steady state) (Cu(ss)) in the 3 dose panels were 100,200, and 300 micromol/L. An explorative bridging analysis was used to compare PK data from this study with those previously reported in the white population. Linearity of NXY-059 PK properties was assessed. Tolerability was assessed using adverse events (spontaneous reporting, study staff observation, and open questioning), physical examination, including vital sign measurement; and electrocardiography and laboratory analysis.
Thirty-six subjects were randomized (mean age, 32 years [range, 20-41 years]; mean body mass index, 22.6 kg/m(2) [range, 20-26 kg/m(2)]). The target exposures of NXY-059 were achieved (mean [SD] Cu(ss) values, 98.3 [8.9], 202.1 [18.3], and 287.9 [25.4] micromol/L, respectively). Steady-state concentrations appeared to have been reached after 4 hours. From the bridging analysis, comparison of PK properties in the 27 Chinese volunteers versus those in 28 white volunteers found similar total plasma clearance of NXY-059 (estimated Chinese:white clearance ratio, 1.077 [95% CI, 1.009-1.150]). There were no apparent differences in other PK parameters between the 2 ethnic groups. The PK properties of NXY-059 in Chinese volunteers were suggestive of linearity. A total of 7 adverse events were reported, all of mild intensity, in the NXY-059 and placebo groups (thirst and polyuria [each in 2 subjects who received NXY-059 and 1 subject who received placebo]; urinary tract infection [1 subject who received NXY-059]).
The results from the present study suggest that the PK properties of NXY-059 were similar in the Chinese and historical white healthy volunteer populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: NXY-059 is a novel, free-radical trapping neuroprotectant that reduces infarct size and preserves brain function in animal models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In an initial Phase III study (SAINT I) NXY-059 has shown efficacy in AIS by reducing functional disability. Approximately 30% of NXY-059 is eliminated by active tubular secretion by an organic anion transporter (OAT) in the kidneys. Cefuroxime is eliminated renally, partially (45%) by OAT. This study explored whether co-administration of cefuroxime reduced the elimination of NXY-059, and vice versa.Methods: This was an open, single-center, randomized, three-period, crossover study. Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. NXY-059 / placebo was infused over 10h. Doses were similar to those used in the Phase III program. A clinically recommended cefuroxime dose (1.5g iv), or placebo, was infused over 30 min, 4h after the start of the NXY-059 / placebo infusion. Blood and urine were collected for 10h for determination of NXY-059 and cefuroxime.Results: NXY-059 reduced the renal clearance (CLR) of cefuroxime by 27% (p