[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative importance of previous diagnosis and hereditary prothrombotic risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in children in determining risk of a second cerebral or systemic venous thrombosis (VT), compared with other clinical, neuroimaging, and treatment variables, is unknown.
We followed up the survivors of 396 consecutively enrolled patients with CVT, aged newborn to 18 years (median 5.2 years) for a median of 36 months (maximum 85 months). In accordance with international treatment guidelines, 250 children (65%) received acute anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular weight heparin, followed by secondary anticoagulation prophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin or warfarin in 165 (43%).
Of 396 children enrolled, 12 died immediately and 22 (6%) had recurrent VT (13 cerebral; 3%) at a median of 6 months (range 0.1-85). Repeat venous imaging was available in 266 children. Recurrent VT only occurred in children whose first CVT was diagnosed after age 2 years; the underlying medical condition had no effect. In Cox regression analyses, non-administration of anticoagulant before relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 11.2 95% CI 3.4-37.0; p<0.0001), persistent occlusion on repeat venous imaging (4.1, 1.1-14.8; p=0.032), and heterozygosity for the G20210A mutation in factor II (4.3, 1.1-16.2; p=0.034) were independently associated with recurrent VT. Among patients who had recurrent VT, 70% (15) occurred within the 6 months after onset.
Age at CVT onset, non-administration of anticoagulation, persistent venous occlusion, and presence of G20210A mutation in factor II predict recurrent VT in children. Secondary prophylactic anticoagulation should be given on a patient-to-patient basis in children with newly identified CVT and at high risk of recurrent VT. Factors that affect recanalisation need further research.
The Lancet Neurology 07/2007; 6(7):595-603. · 23.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the prevalence of seizures in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is 10 times that of the general population, there are few prospectively collected data on mechanism. With transcranial Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, we evaluated 76 patients with sickle cell disease, 29 asymptomatic and 47 with neurological complications (seizures, stroke, transient ischemic attack, learning difficulty, headaches, or abnormal transcranial Doppler), who also underwent bolus-tracking perfusion MRI. The six patients with recent seizures also had electroencephalography. Group comparisons (seizure, nonseizure, and asymptomatic) indicated that abnormal transcranial Doppler was more common in the seizure (4/6; 67%) and nonseizure (26/41; 63%) groups than in the asymptomatic (10/29; 34%) group (chi2; p = 0.045), but abnormal structural MRI (chi2; p = 0.7) or magnetic resonance angiography (chi2; p = 0.2) were not. Relative decreased cerebral perfusion was found in all seizure patients and in 16 of 32 of the remaining patients with successful perfusion MRI (p = 0.03). In the seizure patients, the perfusion abnormalities in five were ipsilateral to electroencephalographic abnormalities; one had normal electroencephalogram results. These findings suggest that vasculopathy and focal hypoperfusion may be factors in the development of sickle cell disease-associated seizures.
Annals of Neurology 09/2005; 58(2):290-302. · 11.19 Impact Factor