Hiroaki Hiraga

KKR Sapporo Medical Center, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (27)95.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A randomized Phase II/III trial was planned to commence in March 2014. Perioperative chemotherapy with adriamycin plus ifosfamide is the current standard treatment for T2bN0M0 high-grade non-round cell soft tissue sarcoma. The purpose of this study is to confirm the non-inferiority of perioperative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel to adriamycin plus ifosfamide for patients with T2bN0M0 or any TN1M0 non-round cell soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and body wall. A total of 140 patients will be accrued from 28 Japanese institutions over 6 years. The primary endpoint in the Phase II part is the proportion of completion of pre-operative chemotherapy without progressive disease and overall survival in the Phase III part. The secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate of pre-operative chemotherapy, pathological response rate, proportion of preservation of diseased limbs, disease control rate and proportion of adverse events. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000013175 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm].
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tensor fascia lata (TFL) flap is used to reconstruct various anatomical structures in different regions of the body. We herein describe the use of TFL flaps for a variety of indications, and discuss the results of such procedures with respect to postoperative complications in oncology patients. We reviewed 15 oncology patients who were treated with TFL flaps. The lesions were located in the groin in five patients, the lower abdomen in five, and the buttocks, ischium, shoulder, thigh and upper abdomen in one patient each. Abdominal wall reconstruction was performed in nine patients. Three patients underwent resection of femoral vessels and the tumor in the groin, followed by a vascular graft implant. In these patients, the combined flaps were transferred to reconstruct the defects. Nine patients developed complications. No total flap loss occurred in any patient. Postoperative complications, such as necrosis in the distal part of the flap (33 %) and ventral hernias (11 %) were seen, but these percentages were comparable to those seen in previous reports. Our review shows that the TFL flap is useful to reconstruct the defects in various anatomical sites in oncology patients.
    Surgery Today 09/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult rhabdomyoma is a rare benign tumor. It mainly occurs in the head and neck region and rarely occurs outside the head and neck region. We present an extremely rare case of the adult rhabdomyoma arising in the left foot in a 46-year-old male. Microscopically, large polygonal cells and large strap-shaped cells were observed. This is the third case of adult rhabdomyoma arising in an extremity.
    International Journal of Surgical Pathology 09/2013; · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The posterior thigh flap is a reliable flap owing to the dependability of the inferior gluteal artery. Its utility for the reconstruction of sacral, perineal, ischial, pelvic, trochanteric and vulvar defects is well established. We herein describe the use of the flap for a variety of indications, and discuss the results with respect to postoperative complications in oncology patients. METHODS: We reviewed nine oncology patients who were treated with pedicled posterior thigh flaps. We assessed the use of this treatment by recording the site of the defect, the type of flap used, and the presence or absence of previous surgical procedures, radiation therapy and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Defects after resection of soft tissue sarcomas were the most common condition (n = 4), followed by skin cancers (n = 2), gastrointestinal cancers (n = 2) and radiation osteomyelitis (n = 1). Six patients (66 %) developed complications; three (33 %) were major and three (33 %) were minor. There was one case of total necrosis of the flap and two cases of partial necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In oncology patients, the posterior thigh flap is an excellent choice for the reconstruction of sacral, ischial, pelvic or buttock defects, since it does not cause any donor site morbidity.
    Surgery Today 06/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is thought to respond unreliably to radiotherapy (RT). Zoledronic acid significantly reduces the risk of skeletal complications. This study investigated whether RT with zoledronic acid prolonged the time to bone-lesion progression in comparison with RT alone. METHOD: Twenty-seven patients (34 lesions) with bone metastases secondary to RCC undergoing treatment with RT with or without zoledronic acid were retrospectively evaluated at two institutions between 1999 and 2009. Twelve patients were treated with RT alone from 1999 to 2008 (RT group). Fifteen patients were treated with RT and zoledronic acid from 2006 to 2009 (RT + Z group). The time to skeletal-related events and pain progression were assessed from patients' medical records. RESULTS: The median (range) follow-up was 26 (3-75) and 24 (3-55) months in the RT and RT + Z groups, respectively. Three patients (three lesions) in the RT + Z group had skeletal-related events (SREs). In contrast, six patients (eight lesions) in the RT group had SREs. SREs comprised pathological fractures in five, additional surgeries in three, spinal cord or cauda equine compression in two, and repeat RT in one. There was a significant difference in SRE-free survival time and duration of site-specific pain response between groups. CONCLUSIONS: RT combined with zoledronic acid significantly prolonged SRE-free survival and duration of pain response compared with RT alone in the treatment of osseous metastases from RCC.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Science 10/2012; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The KYOCERA Physio Hinge Total Knee System Type III (PHKIII) was developed to reconstruct bony defects of the distal femur. The PHKIII is originative in that the metallic parts are fully made of titanium alloy, and this prosthesis has a unique semi-rotating hinge joint and was designed especially for people with the Asian physical body-type. The clinical outcomes of the PHKIII after the resection of musculoskeletal tumors of the distal femur were evaluated. There were 41 males and 28 females with a median age of 48-years. The median duration of follow-up was 57 months. Eleven early complications and 37 late complications were observed, including 10 recurrences, 7 deep infections, 7 aseptic loosenings, 4 stem breakages, 4 displacements of shaft cap, and one wear of rotation sleeve. Twenty four prosthesis (35%) required a secondary operation because of complications. The five-year overall prosthetic survival rates, -prosthetic survival rate without aseptic loosening, and -limbs preservation rate were 85%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The mean functional score according to the classification system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society was 20.5 points (68%). Although continuous follow-up is required, reconstructions using PHKIII are considered to achieve more acceptable functional results.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 103(3):257-63. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the prognosis of human osteosarcoma in advanced stage remains poor, the development of new and effective therapies including immunotherapy is required. To identify tumor-associated antigens of osteosarcoma applicable to the immunotherapy of this malignancy, we employed the serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) technique that defines tumor antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. Screening a cDNA library derived from an osteosarcoma cell line MG63 with sera from osteosarcoma patients identified 43 positive clones, representing 14 distinct antigens. Among them, CLUAP1 (clusterin-associated protein 1) was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissue samples and cell lines. Overexpression of CLUAP1 was observed in other malignancies including ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Our results suggest that CLUAP1 may be useful as a prognostic/diagnostic marker and/or for a target of immunotherapy of osteosarcoma.
    International Journal of Oncology 03/2007; 30(2):461-7. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade malignant tumor of soft tissue, characterized by the specific chromosomal translocation t(X;18), and its resultant SYT-SSX fusion gene. Despite intensive multimodality therapy, the majority of metastatic or relapsed diseases still remain incurable, thus suggesting a need for new therapeutic options. We previously demonstrated the antigenicity of SYT-SSX gene-derived peptides by in vitro analyses. The present study was designed to evaluate in vivo immunological property of a SYT-SSX junction peptide in selected patients with synovial sarcoma. METHODS: A 9-mer peptide (SYT-SSX B: GYDQIMPKK) spanning the SYT-SSX fusion region was synthesized. Eligible patients were those (i) who have histologically and genetically confirmed, unresectable synovial sarcoma (SYT-SSX1 or SYT-SSX2 positive), (ii) HLA-A*2402 positive, (iii) between 20 and 70 years old, (iv) ECOG performance status between 0 and 3, and (v) who gave informed consent. Vaccinations with SYT-SSX B peptide (0.1 mg or 1.0 mg) were given subcutaneously six times at 14-day intervals. These patients were evaluated for DTH skin test, adverse events, tumor size, tetramer staining, and peptide-specific CTL induction. RESULTS: A total of 16 vaccinations were carried out in six patients. The results were (i) no serious adverse effects or DTH reactions, (ii) suppression of tumor progression in one patient, (iii) increases in the frequency of peptide-specific CTLs in three patients and a decrease in one patient, and (iv) successful induction of peptide-specific CTLs from four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the safety of the SYT-SSX junction peptide in the use of vaccination and also give support to the property of the peptide to evoke in vivo immunological responses. Modification of both the peptide itself and the related protocol is required to further improve the therapeutic efficacy.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2005; 3(1):1. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients with osteosarcoma who do not respond to current chemotherapy protocols still remains poor. Toward the goal of establishing efficacious peptide-based immunotherapy for those patients, we previously developed an autologous pair of CTLs and an osteosarcoma cell line. In the current study, we screened the cDNA library of this osteosarcoma cell line using an autologous CTL clone and identified cDNA encoding an antigen. The isolated cDNA was identical to papillomavirus binding factor (PBF), which was recently reported as a DNA binding transcription factor cooperating with RUNX1. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that PBF was expressed in 16 of 19 cases of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma cell lines (5 of 6 of osteosarcoma lines) and 57 of 76 sarcoma tissue samples (11 of 14 of osteosarcoma tissues). Also, PBF was expressed in 10 of 13 epithelial cancer cell lines and 20 of 34 of cancer tissues. In contrast, PBF was detected in some normal organs including ovary, pancreas, spleen, and liver by reverse transcription-PCR but was restricted in the cytoplasm by immunostaining and undetectable by Western blotting. Furthermore, a 12-mer peptide, CTACRWKKACQR, located at the COOH terminus of PBF, was found to be a minimum requirement for recognition by the CTL clone in the context of the HLA-B*5502 molecule. These findings suggest that PBF is a shared tumor-associated antigen, which may serve as a source of peptides applicable to peptide-based immunotherapy for osteosarcoma and other malignant tumors.
    Cancer Research 09/2004; 64(15):5442-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of anchor substitutions in SYT-SSX junction peptide, an HLA-A24 anchor residue (position 9) of the SYT-SSX B peptide (GYDQIMPKK) was substituted to more favorable residues according to the HLA-A24-binding motif. Among four substitutes constructed, a substitute with isoleucine (termed K9I peptide) most apparently enhanced the affinity for HLA-A24 molecule. Subsequent in vitro CTL induction analysis using PBMCs of 15 HLA-A24(+) synovial sarcoma patients revealed that the original B peptide allowed to induce synovial sarcoma-specific CTLs from 7 patients (47%), whereas such CTLs were inducible from 12 patients (80%) with K9I peptide. Moreover, the extent of cytotoxicity against HLA-A24(+) synovial sarcoma cell lines was higher in K9I peptide-induced CTLs than B peptide-induced CTLs. Influence of anchor substitution on peptide/TCR interaction was evaluated by cytotoxicity assays against autologous cells and tetramer analysis. CTLs induced from a synovial sarcoma patient using K9I peptide did not lyse autologous PHA blasts or EBV-infected B cells. In vitro stimulations of PBMCs from 5 HLA-A24(+) synovial sarcoma patients with K9I peptide increased the frequency of T cells reacting with both HLA-A24/K9I peptide tetramer and HLA-A24/B peptide tetramer. In contrast, the frequency of T cells reacting with HLA/HIV-derived peptide tetramer remained low. These findings support the validity in design of anchor residue substitution in SYT-SSX fusion gene-derived peptide, and provide a potential clue to the current stagnation in vaccination trials of fusion gene-derived natural junction peptides.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2004; 173(2):1436-43. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is associated with the EWS/ATF1 oncogene that is created by chromosomal fusion of the Ewings Sarcoma oncogene (EWS) and the cellular transcription factor ATF1. The melanocytic character of CCS suggests that the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), a major inducer of melanocytic differentiation, may be miss-expressed in CCS. Accordingly, we show that the mRNA and protein of the melanocyte-specific isoform of Mitf (Mitf-M) are present in several cultured CCS cell lines (Su-ccs-1, DTC1, Kao, MST-1, MST-2 and MST-3). The above cell lines thus provide a valuable experimental resource for examining the role of Mitf-M in both CCS and melanocyte differentiation. Melanocyte-specific expression of Mitf-M is achieved via an ATF-dependent melanocyte-specific cAMP-response element in the Mitf-M promoter, and expression of Mitf-M in CCS cells suggests that EWS/ATF1 (a potent and promiscuous activator of cAMP-inducible promoters) may activate the Mitf-M promoter. Surprisingly, however, the Mitf-M promoter is not activated by EWS/ATF1 in transient assays employing CCS cells, melanocytes or nonmelanocytic cells. Thus, our results indicate that Mitf-M promoter activation may require an appropriate chromosomal context in CCS cells or alternatively that the Mitf-M promoter is not directly activated by EWS/ATF1.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2003; 89(6):1072-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the difficulty of developing pairs of osteosarcoma cell lines and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), no osteosarcoma tumor antigens that are useful for antiosteosarcoma immunotherapy have yet been identified. In parallel with continuous attempts to develop such pairs from osteosarcoma, we employed serological identification using a recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) method to identify B cell-defined antigens. Consequently, a human osteosarcoma cell line, OS2000, was established from a primary osteosarcoma of a patient cured of hereditary retinoblastoma. Repetitious in vitro stimulations by OS2000 cells to the autologous peripheral T cells induced cytotoxic activity in the autologous osteosarcoma cells but not in the nontumor cells. The cytotoxicity was inhibited by anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibody. SEREX analysis revealed that autologous humoral immunity reacted to two proteins expressed in OS2000. One was the self HLA-Cw*0102 molecule, and the other was wild-type smooth muscle myosin light chain (SMMLC). However, no antigenicity of these proteins was seen versus the sera of the other patients. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of host cellular and humoral immune responses to autologous osteosarcoma cells. This offered the opportunity to identify osteosarcoma antigens recognized by autologous immunity.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Science 02/2003; 8(4):554-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the immunogenic property of peptides derived from the synovial sarcoma-specific SYT-SSX fusion gene, we synthesized four peptides according to the binding motif for HLA-A24. The peptides, SS391 (PYGYDQIMPK) and SS393 (GYDQIMPKK), were derived from the breakpoint of SYT-SSX, and SS449a (AWTHRLRER) and SS449b (AWTHRLRERK) were from the SSX region. These peptides were tested for their reactivity with CTL precursors (CTLps) in 16 synovial sarcoma patients using HLA-A24/SYT-SSX peptide tetramers and also for induction of specific CTLs from four HLA-A24(+) synovial sarcoma patients. Tetramer analysis indicated that the increased CTLp frequency to the SYT-SSX was associated with pulmonary metastasis in synovial sarcoma patients (p < 0.03). CTLs were induced from PBLs of two synovial sarcoma patients using the peptide mixture of SS391 and SS393, which lysed HLA-A24(+) synovial sarcoma cells expressing SYT-SSX as well as the peptide-pulsed target cells in an HLA class I-restricted manner. These findings suggest that aberrantly expressed SYT-SSX gene products have primed SYT-SSX-specific CTLps in vivo and increased their frequency in synovial sarcoma patients. The identification of SYT-SSX peptides may offer an opportunity to design peptide-based immunotherapeutic approaches for HLA-A24(+) patients with synovial sarcoma.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2002; 169(3):1611-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical significance of circulating angiogenic factors, especially in association with early relapse of osteosarcoma, we quantified pre-therapeutic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and placenta growth factor in the sera of 16 patients with osteosarcoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After a 1-year follow-up, the serum level of angiogenic factors was analysed with respect to microvessel density of the biopsy specimen and clinical disease relapse. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were positively correlated with the microvessel density with statistical significance (P=0.004; Spearman rank correlation) and also significantly higher in seven patients who developed pulmonary metastasis than the remaining nine patients without detectable disease relapse (P=0.0009; The Mann-Whitney U-test). In contrast, the serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor or placenta growth factor failed to show significant correlation with the microvessel density or relapse of the disease. Although there was no significant correlation between serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels and the tumour volume, the serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were significantly higher in patients with a vascular endothelial growth factor-positive tumour than those with a vascular endothelial growth factor-negative tumour. These findings suggest that the pre-therapeutic serum vascular endothelial growth factor level reflects the angiogenic property of primary tumour and may have a predictive value on early disease relapse of osteosarcoma.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/2002; 86(6):864-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) occur either in the central nervous system (CNS; central PNET, cPNET) or in the peripheral sites (peripheral PNET, pPNET). Recent molecular approaches have been defining a new concept of PNET, that is, the pPNET including Ewing's sarcoma (ES) which expresses MIC2 glycoprotein and shows the specific chimeric gene of EWS-FLI1. The expression of MIC2 and the genetic rearrangement of EWS-FLI1 are considered to be highly specific to the pPNET/ES. This study examined the expression of MIC2 and EWS-FLI1 gene by means of immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on various small round cell tumors originating in the CNS or non-CNS organs. All peripheral PNET tested expressed MIC2 and were positive for EWS-FLI1 (11/11). In contrast, all cPNET and other blastic CNS tumors were negative for MIC2: medulloblastoma (0/3), cerebral PNET (0/2), spinal PNET (0/2), glioblastoma (0/2), retinoblastoma (0/3), and pineoblastoma (0/2). These MIC2-negative tumors were also negative for the chimeric gene product of EWS-FLI1. Interestingly, one PNET originating in the intracranial dura mater was positive for both MIC2 and EWS-FLI1 fusion gene. The results indicate that cPNET lacks any genetic or protein markers, except for a meningeal PNET which falls into the same phenotypic spectrum of pPNET.
    Neuropathology 04/2001; 21(1):40-4. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human synovial sarcoma has been shown to exclusively harbor the chromosomal translocation t(X;18) that produces the chimeric gene SYT-SSX. However, the role of SYT-SSX in cellular transformation remains unclear. In this study, we have established 3Y1 rat fibroblast cell lines that constitutively express SYT, SSX1, and SYT-SSX1 and found that SYT-SSX1 promoted growth rate in culture, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and tumor formation in nude mice. Deletion of the N-terminal 181 amino acids of SYT-SSX1 caused loss of its transforming activity. Furthermore, association of SYT-SSX1 with the chromatin remodeling factor hBRM/hSNF2α, which regulates transcription, was demonstrated in both SYT-SSX1-expressing 3Y1 cells and in the human synovial sarcoma cell line HS-SY-II. The binding region between the two molecules was shown to reside within the N-terminal 181 amino acids stretch (aa 1–181) of SYT-SSX1 and 50 amino acids (aa 156–205) of hBRM/hSNF2α and we found that the overexpression of this binding region of hBRM/hSNF2α significantly suppressed the anchorage-independent growth of SYT-SSX1-expressing 3Y1 cells. To analyze the transcriptional regulation by SYT-SSX1, we established conditional expression system of SYT-SSX1 and examined the gene expression profiles. The down-regulation of potential tumor suppressor DCC was observed among 1,176 genes analyzed by microarray analysis, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription–PCR confirmed this finding. These data clearly demonstrate transforming activity of human oncogene SYT-SSX1 and also involvement of chromatin remodeling factor hBRM/hSNF2α in human cancer.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2001; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Mammal Study - MAMM STUDY. 01/2000; 25(1):41-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal sarcomatosis was found in a 53-year-old male who had a history of resection of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of the right wrist 7 years previously. Both the previous wrist tumor and the peritoneal disseminants consisted of small, spindle-shaped cells occasionally containing melanophages. Histologic features, histochemical demonstration of argentaffin granules, immunohistochemical reaction with HMB 45, and the demonstration of a chimeric transcript of EWS-ATF-1 established the diagnosis of CCS in the peritoneal tumors. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of a peritoneal sarcomatosis associated with CCS.
    Pathology International 08/1999; 49(7):653-7. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based nucleotide sequence analysis was performed in 12 cases of Ewing sarcoma on the cDNA and/or genomic DNA breakpoint regions of a t(11;22)(q24;q12), which joins the EWS gene located on chromosome 22 with the FLI1 gene located on chromosome 11, in order to understand the molecular mechanism of this translocation. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on total tumor cell RNA from the examined cases showed five types of EWS-FLI1 chimeric product, resulting from various junctions between EWS exon 7 or 10 with FLI1 exon 5, 6, or 8. Sequencing of the genomic fusion junctions of EWS-FLI1 in seven cases showing three types of the chimeric cDNA products revealed that most of the breakpoint junctions shared common nucleotide(s) from both genes, and that the breakpoints in EWS introns 7 and 10 clustered within 100 bp and 300 bp, respectively. All the junctions were found to be flanked by various oligomers, among which a consensus sequence, 5'-AGAAAARDRR-3', was found near the breakpoints of both genes in four cases, suggesting that these oligomers may have a functional significance in the genesis of t(11;22). In addition to these oligomers, sequences highly homologous to Alu repeats and/or eukaryotic topoisomerase II cleavage sites were located near, or flanked, or even encompassed, the breakpoints in most of the cases examined. Thus, these sequences may also mediate DNA double-strand breakage and rejoining to generate the t(11;22). Genomic sequence analysis of both EWS-FLI1 and FLI1-EWS chimeric genes in three of the seven cases demonstrated a deletion and duplication of both EWS and FLI1 sequences in two cases and no gain or loss in one case. The present findings suggest that multiple mechanisms may be operative for the break and rejoining of the fragments of chromosomes 11 and 22 in the genesis of t(11;22), and that some of these translocations are asymmetric at the molecular level.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/1999; 25(1):6-15. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 19-year-old woman with a primary pericardial synovial sarcoma that extended from the right ventricular free wall to the posterior aspect of the left anterior thoracic wall. Synovial sarcoma was diagnosed by the detection of the chimeric transcript SYT-SSX using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This transcript is generated by reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 18, and is specific to synovial sarcoma that usually occurs in the extremities of young adults. When pathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of synovial sarcoma is difficult, the molecular biological technique using RT-PCR becomes a powerful method of confirmation of this neoplasm.
    Japanese Circulation Journal 05/1999; 63(4):330-2.

Publication Stats

479 Citations
95.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • KKR Sapporo Medical Center
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • Sapporo Medical University
      • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 1997–2001
    • Hokkaido University Hospital
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      • • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Pathology
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan