[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the fate of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the livers of newborn mice and the resulting cellular rejection.
Two HCC cell lines (HepG2 and HCCLM3) labeled with DMAHAS were orthotopically transplanted to newborn and adult mice with or without low-dose cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment (10 mg/kg). The fate of tumor xenografts was examined and the resulting cellular response was investigated.
Tumor xenografts survived in newborn mice for > 4 weeks, with a delayed lymphocyte infiltration mediated by CD4+ T, CD8+ T and NK1.1+ cells. In contrast, the xenografts survived in adults < 8-10 days with an acute cellular rejection by CD8+T cells, NK1.1+ cells, macrophages or neutrophils. Orthotopic transplantation of human HCC xenografts elicited a strong cytotoxic response in newborn mice (p < 0.05), and selective T/NK1.1+ cell deletion in vitro suggested that such effector cells were mainly CD8+ T cells. Moreover, tumor xenografts induced a rapid activation of hepatic natural killer T (NKT) cells in both newborn and adult mice with enhanced secretion of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in serum and subsequent NKT-like cytotoxicity. The rapid activation of NKT cells could be efficiently suppressed by low-dose CsA treatment, possibly in a CD1d-independent manner.
Our data suggest that the livers of newborn mice were more suitable for the survival of xenografts than those of adult mice. Cell-mediated tumor xenorejection in newborn mice was different from that in adults, and hepatic NKT cells may play an important role in early tumor xenorejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the pathological behavior of human hepatocarcinoma cells in the liver microenvironment of neonatal non-immunodeficient mice, three human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Bel7402, HepG2, and SK-Hep-1), traced by DiI, were transplanted into the intrahepatic or subcutaneous tissue of neonatal and adult Kunming mice. Histopathological observations showed that cells in the adult liver induced a severe immune response as early as the second day after the implantation, while the subcutaneous neoplasm underwent extensive necrosis by the end of the study. Only the cells injected into the neonatal liver underwent a delayed immunologic rejection in the organ microenvironment. These cells retained recognizable tumor features over the first seven days, and displayed an intrahepatic invasive pattern. The expression of tumor markers including alpha-fetoprotein and survivin was maintained. The quantitative ELISA for the expression patterns of IL-2 and IL-10 also confirmed that the intrahepatic immunity was non-susceptive during this period. The high serum alpha-fetoprotein level was inversely correlated with the change in immune response. Our study provided a bio-system for the research of immune responses to xenografts in the liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the mechanisms of AFP-specific transfer factors (AFP-TF) in induced Bel7402 cells apoptosis. Further, we investigate the interaction between AFP-TF and AFP in the apoptosis.
Methods: Bel7402 and HepG2 AFP-positive hepatocarcinoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 AFP-negative hepatocarcinoma cell line and Changliver normal liver cell line are used. Cell viability is evaluated by MTT assay and apoptosis is measured by Hoechst33342 staining and TUNEL assay. FACS is used to analyze the cell cycle. AFP expression is examined by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The interaction between AFP-TF and AFP in the apoptosis is investigated by addition of AFP in cultures or AFP transfection in Bel7402 cells prior to AFP-TF treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and intracellular Ca2+ concentration are respectively measured by Rhodamine123 and Fluo-3 AM Ester. Western blotting detects the involvement of several apoptosis-related proteins. Finally, caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activity are respectively examined.
Results: AFP-TF can induce apoptosis in Bel7402 and HepG2 AFP-positive hepatocarcinoma cells, but not SK-Hep-1 and Changliver cells. AFP-mRNA level changes little in apoptotic Bel7402 cells; while AFP expression is downregulated and uniformly dispersed throughout the whole cell. Addition of exogenous AFP or overexpression of intracellular AFP can reduce such apoptotic effect. Besides, apoptotic Bel7402 cells show a disruption of ΔΨm, an immediate elevation of Ca2+ concentration, a prominently decreased ratio of bcl-2 to bax, a release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, and ultimately an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3.
Conclusion: AFP-TF induced Bel7402 cells apoptosis is mitochondrial-dependent and is mediated by the interaction of AFP-TF with intracellular AFP.
Hepatology Research 08/2007; 37(7):557-67. DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00078.x · 2.74 Impact Factor