ABSTRACT: False-positive blood culture results may lead to prolonged hospitalization, inappropriate antibiotic administration, and increased healthcare costs. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the effect of skin antiseptic agents on the rate of false-positive blood culture results. We found no clear evidence to suggest which antiseptic should be used to prevent false-positive results. Studies suggest, however, a possible benefit from the use of prepackaged skin antiseptic kits and alcohol-containing antiseptics.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 08/2007; 28(7):892-5. · 3.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: From October 2001 to October 2002, we have observed a surprisingly high incidence of ocular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy at our clinic.
We conducted a retrospective chart and patient database review.
From 1997 to 2002, 455 patients in our clinic were screened for syphilis; 320 were screened from 2001 to 2002; 7.3% of patients (33/455) were diagnosed with syphilis. During the past year, syphilis was diagnosed in 7.5% of patients (24/320), of whom 13% (3/24) had ocular syphilis. We estimate the prevalence of ocular syphilis in HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy screened for syphilis to be 9% (3/33). Presenting symptoms included blurred vision, loss of vision, central scotomas, and bilateral ocular involvement. The most common ocular manifestation of syphilis was posterior chamber uveitis; one patient also had a retinal detachment. All patients demonstrated reactive rapid plasma reagin and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test results, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and elevated total protein. Each patient received a 21-day course of intravenous penicillin G (24 million units daily) with improvement of visual symptoms.
Our data demonstrate an unexpectedly high incidence of ocular syphilis in our HIV+ patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy during the past year. A diagnosis of ocular syphilis should be considered in any HIV+ patient who presents with visual symptoms, irrespective of the patient's CD4 count.
The American journal of medicine 06/2006; 119(5):448.e21-5. · 4.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: During the past decade, Candida glabrata has emerged as an important cause of fungemia. We reviewed demographic data, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes associated with C. glabrata fungemia from 1995-2002 and performed susceptibility testing of isolates.
Data on all episodes of fungemia were prospectively recorded, and the associated isolates were saved. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Susceptibility testing was performed for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
C. glabrata caused 103 (17%) of 609 fungemic episodes during the 8-year period that we studied. Medical records and isolates were available for 94 episodes that occurred in 91 patients. The patients included 42 men and 49 women. The mean age was 51 years. Thirty-four episodes (36%) occurred in patients >60 years old; only 3 episodes occurred in patients <1 year old. The most common predisposing factors were use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (in 86% of episodes), use of central venous catheters (77%), stay in an intensive care unit (48%), renal failure (46%), and receipt of parenteral nutrition (45%). Of the 94 episodes, 83 were treated with antifungal agents. The overall mortality rate at day 30 was 29%. For the 11 episodes that were not treated, the mortality rate was 64% (7 of 11 episodes). Outcome appeared to be unrelated to whether fluconazole or amphotericin B was administered. In vitro, 60% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 83% to itraconazole, and 44% to voriconazole. Susceptibility to these azoles did not change over the 8 years of the study.
C. glabrata fungemia was most often seen in older adults and was associated with a mortality rate of 29%. Outcomes appeared to be unrelated to in vitro susceptibility results and to the antifungal agent used.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2005; 41(7):975-81. · 9.15 Impact Factor