Catherine Espaillat

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (94)368.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project (YSOVAR). We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 40 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2-6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability time scales tend to display extinction-dominated slopes. We find a tentative trend of X-ray detected cluster members to vary on longer time scales than the X-ray undetected members.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first spatially resolved polarized scattered light H-band detection of the DoAr 28 transitional disk. Our two epochs of imagery detect the scattered light disk from our effective inner working angle of 0.10" (13 AU) out to 0.50" (65 AU). This inner working angle is interior to the location of the system's gap inferred by previous studies using SED modeling (15 AU). We detected a candidate point source companion 1.08" northwest of the system; however, our second epoch of imagery strongly suggests that this object is a background star. We constructed a grid of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer models of the system, and our best fit models utilize a modestly inclined (50 deg), 0.01 Msun disk that has a partially depleted inner gap from the dust sublimation radius out to ~8 AU. Subtracting this best fit, axi-symmetric model from our polarized intensity data reveals evidence for two small asymmetries in the disk, which could be attributable to variety of mechanisms.
    The Astronomical Journal 07/2015; 150(3). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/86 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    C. Espaillat · S. Andrews · D. Powell · D. Feldman · C. Qi · D. Wilner · P. D'Alessio
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    ABSTRACT: Resolved submillimeter imaging of transitional disks is increasingly revealing the complexity of disk structure. Here we present the first high-resolution submillimeter image of a recently identified transitional disk around IRAS 04125+2902 in the Taurus star-forming region. We measure an inner disk hole of ~20 AU around IRAS 04125+2902 by simultaneously modeling new 880 micron Submillimeter Array (SMA) data along with an existing spectral energy distribution supplemented by new Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) photometry. We also constrain the outer radius of the dust disk in IRAS~04125+2902 to ~50-60 AU. Such a small dust disk could be attributed to initial formation conditions, outward truncation by an unseen companion, or dust evolution in the disk. Notably, the dust distribution of IRAS 04125+2902 resembles a narrow ring (delta R ~ 35 AU) composed of large dust grains at the location of the disk wall. Such narrow dust rings are also seen in other transitional disks and may be evidence of dust trapping in pressure bumps, possibly produced by planetary companions. More sensitive submillimeter observations of the gas are necessary to further probe the physical mechanisms at work in shaping the spatial distribution of large dust in this disk. Interestingly, the IRAS 04125+2902 disk is significantly fainter than other transitional disks that have been resolved at submillimeter wavelengths, hinting that more objects with large disk holes may exist at the faint end of the submillimeter luminosity distribution that await detection with more sensitive imaging telescopes.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2015; 807(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/156 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze 3 epochs of ultraviolet (UV), optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the Taurus transitional disk GM Aur using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX spectrograph. Observations were separated by one week and 3 months in order to study variability over multiple timescales. We calculate accretion rates for each epoch of observations using the STIS spectra and find that those separated by one week had similar accretion rates (~1E-8 solar masses/yr) while the epoch obtained 3 months later had a substantially lower accretion rate (~4E-9 solar masses/yr). We find that the decline in accretion rate is caused by lower densities of material in the accretion flows, as opposed to a lower surface coverage of the accretion columns. During the low accretion rate epoch we also observe lower fluxes at both far UV (FUV) and IR wavelengths, which trace molecular gas and dust in the disk, respectively. We find that this can be explained by a lower dust and gas mass in the inner disk. We attribute the observed variability to inhomogeneities in the inner disk, near the corotation radius, where gas and dust may co-exist near the footprints of the magnetospheric flows. These FUV--NIR data offer a new perspective on the structure of the inner disk, the stellar magnetosphere, and their interaction.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2015; 805(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/149 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Catherine Espaillat · Laura Ingleby · Jesus Hernandez · Nuria Calvet
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    ABSTRACT: Previous Spitzer infrared observations of disks around young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars have given us an unprecedented look at dust evolution in young objects, particularly in disks which were revealed to have large inner holes (i.e., the transitional disks). Despite this ground-breaking progress in studying the dust in young disks, the relationship between the dust and gas properties in the inner disk remains essentially unknown. Here we propose to quantify the variability of both the dust and gas in the transitional disk surrounding GM Aur to study how or if accretion onto the star is tied to inhomogeneities in the inner disk. To do this, we will use simultaneous Spitzer, HST, and Swift observations to constrain the IR, UV, and X-ray emission of GM Aur and provide a picture of the interaction between dust and gas in the inner ~0.5-1 AU of the disk down to the stellar surface.
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of T Tauri stars, in which we detect amorphous and crystalline water ice features. Using irradiated accretion disk models, we determine the disk structure and ice abundance in each of the systems. Combining a model-independent comparison of the ice feature strength and disk size with a detailed analysis of the model ice location, we estimate that the ice emitting region is at disk radii >30AU, consistent with a proto-Kuiper belt. Vertically, the ice emits most below the photodesorption zone, consistent with Herschel observations of cold water vapor. The presence of crystallized water ice at a disk location a) colder than its crystallization temperature and b) where it should have been re-amorphized in ~1 Myr suggests that localized generation is occurring; the most likely cause appears to be micrometeorite impact or planetesimal collisions. Based on simple tests with UV models and different ice distributions, we suggest that the SED shape from 20 to 50 micron may probe the location of the water ice snow line in the disk upper layers. This project represents one of the first extra-solar probes of the spatial structure of the cometary ice reservoir thought to deliver water to terrestrial planets.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/162 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the Sigma Orionis cluster. We have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than a half of stars of our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong H$\alpha$ in emission or weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high resolution (R~34000) spectra in the H$\alpha$ region for 169 stars in the region. Radial velocities were calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous work. Analysis of the profile of the H$\alpha$ line and infrared observations reveals two binary systems or fast rotators that mimic the H$\alpha$ width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow H$\alpha$ profile not expected in stars with accretion disks. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set of the Sigma Orionis cluster to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 794(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/36 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected up to ages of 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors identified by having a significant $U$ band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ~3 Myr sigma Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations, obtained with the Magellan Echellette and in a few cases the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ~10^-8 msun/ yr. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales, unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation which is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/47 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Catherine Espaillat
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    ABSTRACT: The details of how protoplanetary disks evolve from initially well-mixed distributions of gas and dust to systems composed mostly of rocky planets and gas giants like our own solar system is a fundamental question in astronomy. It is widely accepted that the first step in planet formation is dust grain growth and settling to the disk midplane. This dust evolution in disks can be studied in greater detail with far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength observations, which offer us unique access to the outer disk's deeper layers. Here we present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter spectra of GM Aur taken with PACS and SPIRE. GM Aur is a transitional disk, whose inner disk hole is proposed to have been cleared by yet unseen planets. By utilizing Herschel data, we can potentially link the properties of dust evolution in the outer disk to dust clearing in the inner disk. In particular, preliminary SED modeling presented here suggests that GM Aur may have a lower gas-to-dust mass ratio than typically assumed for disks, which may be linked to disk clearing by planets. With further study, such Herschel data may provide insight for theoretical modeling of dust evolution and planet formation.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1743921313008120
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [OI] 63 micron for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (Dent et al. 2013) by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS at this wavelength. [OI] 63 micron traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [OI] 63 micron line luminosities two times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g. bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g. disk dust mass, etc.) that could influence the [OI] 63 micron line luminosity and we find no correlations that can explain the lower [OI] 63 micron line luminosities in transitional disks. Using a grid of thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk models, we conclude that either transitional disks are less flared than full disks or they possess lower gas-to-dust ratios due to a depletion of gas mass. This result suggests that transitional disks are more evolved than their full disk counterparts, possibly even at large radii.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/153 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as ALMA reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)mm and infrared. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and explore how the expected observational signatures from these mechanisms, particularly planet-induced disk clearing, compare to actual observations. Lastly, we discuss future avenues of inquiry to be pursued with ALMA, JWST, and next generation of ground-based telescopes.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, a continuous 30-day multi-wavelength photometric monitoring campaign on more than 1000 young cluster members using 16 telescopes. The unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength, high-precision, high-cadence, and long-duration data opens a new window into the time domain behavior of young stellar objects. Here we provide an overview of the observations, focusing on results from Spitzer and CoRoT. The highlight of this work is detailed analysis of 162 classical T Tauri stars for which we can probe optical and mid-infrared flux variations to 1% amplitudes and sub-hour timescales. We present a morphological variability census and then use metrics of periodicity, stochasticity, and symmetry to statistically separate the light curves into seven distinct classes, which we suggest represent different physical processes and geometric effects. We provide distributions of the characteristic timescales and amplitudes, and assess the fractional representation within each class. The largest category (>20%) are optical "dippers" having discrete fading events lasting ~1-5 days. The degree of correlation between the optical and infrared light curves is positive but weak; notably, the independently assigned optical and infrared morphology classes tend to be different for the same object. Assessment of flux variation behavior with respect to (circum)stellar properties reveals correlations of variability parameters with H$\alpha$ emission and with effective temperature. Overall, our results point to multiple origins of young star variability, including circumstellar obscuration events, hot spots on the star and/or disk, accretion bursts, and rapid structural changes in the inner disk.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(4):82. DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/147/4/82 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the nature of the many planetary systems found outside of our own solar system cannot be completed without knowledge of the beginnings these systems. By detecting planets in very young systems and modeling the disks of material around stars from which they form, we can gain a better understanding of planetary origin and evolution. The efforts presented here have been in modeling two pre-transitional disk systems using a radiative transfer code. With the first of these systems, V1247 Ori, a model that fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) well and whose parameters are consistent with existing interferometry data (Kraus et al 2013) has been achieved. The second of these two systems, SAO 206462, has presented a different set of challenges but encouraging SED agreement between the model and known data gives hope that the model can produce images that can be used in future interferometry work. This work was supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX09AC73G, and the IR&D program at The Aerospace Corporation.
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    ABSTRACT: The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best-fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, 2-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe)=0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10^(-8) to 10^(-10) Msol/yr, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from 3 to 0.5 microns. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1x10^(-4) of the ISM value, while the midplane is enhanced to 8 times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 micron silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 775(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/775/2/114 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the sigma Orionis cluster. Using low resolution spectra and the SPTCLASS code, we have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than half of the stars of our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong Hα line in emission or presence of weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high resolution (R˜34,000) spectra in the Hα region for 169 stars in the cluster. Radial velocity was calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous works. Analysis of the profile of the Hα line and infrared observations reveals two binary candidates or fast rotators that mimic the Hα width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow Hα profiles not expected in accreting stars. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set to date.
  • Zhaohuan Zhu · James Stone · Roman Rafikov · Xuening Bai · Catherine Espaillat
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    ABSTRACT: We use numerical simulations to perform a systematic study on the dynamics of dust particles in protoplanetary disks under the influence of a planet in disks. Dust particles in viscous disks (representing turbulent regions in disks) and inviscid hydro disks (``dead zone'') have been simulated separately using our newly developed Two-Fluids FARGO and ATHENA+Particle codes. For inviscid 3-D disks, we found that a low mass planet (8 M_earth) open almost unnoticeable gaps in gas which can still lead to significant dust piling up at gap edges. Sharp gap edges carved out by a massive planet are unstable to the formation of vortices, which can efficiently trap particles with a wide range of sizes(at least 4 orders of magnitude in our cases). Thus gaps and vortices in particle disks should be very common if there are planets in the``dead zones''. For viscous disks, the dust features are significantly smoothed out by the parameterized turbulent diffusion, and small dust particles can follow the accreting gas flowing to the inner disk. Thus, the so-called ``dust filtration'' mechanism by the gap edges can differentiate big and small dust particles. MHD simulations are developed to understand the gap opening and particle concentration in realistic turbulent disks.
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of "cluster" age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks—those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks—have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(2):149. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/769/2/149 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using NASA Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX data from 0.8 to 4.5 μm, we determine self-consistently the stellar properties and excess emission above the photosphere for a sample of classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) in the Taurus molecular cloud with varying degrees of accretion. This process uses a combination of techniques from the recent literature as well as observations of weak-line T Tauri stars to account for the differences in surface gravity and chromospheric activity between the T Tauri stars and dwarfs, which are typically used as photospheric templates for CTTS. Our improved veiling and extinction estimates for our targets allow us to extract flux-calibrated spectra of the excess in the near-infrared. We find that we are able to produce an acceptable parametric fit to the near-infrared excesses using a combination of up to three blackbodies. In half of our sample, two blackbodies at temperatures of 8000 K and 1600 K suffice. These temperatures and the corresponding solid angles are consistent with emission from the accretion shock on the stellar surface and the inner dust sublimation rim of the disk, respectively. In contrast, the other half requires three blackbodies at 8000, 1800, and 800 K, to describe the excess. We interpret the combined two cooler blackbodies as the dust sublimation wall with either a contribution from the disk surface beyond the wall or curvature of the wall itself, neither of which should have single-temperature blackbody emission. In these fits, we find no evidence of a contribution from optically thick gas inside the inner dust rim.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(1):73. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/73 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-transitional disks are protoplanetary disks with a gapped disk structure, potentially indicating the presence of young planets in these systems. In order to explore the structure of these objects and their gap-opening mechanism, we observed the pre-transitional disk V1247 Orionis using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the Keck Interferometer, Keck-II, Gemini South, and IRTF. This allows us to spatially resolve the AU-scale disk structure from near- to mid-infrared wavelengths (1.5-13 μm), tracing material at different temperatures and over a wide range of stellocentric radii. Our observations reveal a narrow, optically thick inner-disk component (located at 0.18 AU from the star) that is separated from the optically thick outer disk (radii 46 AU), providing unambiguous evidence for the existence of a gap in this pre-transitional disk. Surprisingly, we find that the gap region is filled with significant amounts of optically thin material with a carbon-dominated dust mineralogy. The presence of this optically thin gap material cannot be deduced solely from the spectral energy distribution, yet it is the dominant contributor at mid-infrared wavelengths. Furthermore, using Keck/NIRC2 aperture masking observations in the H, K', and L' bands, we detect asymmetries in the brightness distribution on scales of ~15-40 AU, i.e., within the gap region. The detected asymmetries are highly significant, yet their amplitude and direction changes with wavelength, which is not consistent with a companion interpretation but indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of the gap material. We interpret this as strong evidence for the presence of complex density structures, possibly reflecting the dynamical interaction of the disk material with sub-stellar mass bodies that are responsible for the gap clearing.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 768(1):80. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/80 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. The observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a P-Cygni profile in the C IV line, which argues for the presence of a hot (10^5 K) wind. For the overall sample, the Si IV and N V line luminosities are correlated with the C IV line luminosities, although the relationship between Si IV and C IV shows large scatter about a linear relationship and suggests that TW Hya, V4046 Sgr, AA Tau, DF Tau, GM Aur, and V1190 Sco are silicon-poor.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 04/2013; 207(1). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/207/1/1 · 14.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
368.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • Centre of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
    • Rochester Institute of Technology
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States