Catherine Espaillat

National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (82)380.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of T Tauri stars, in which we detect amorphous and crystalline water ice features. Using irradiated accretion disk models, we determine the disk structure and ice abundance in each of the systems. Combining a model-independent comparison of the ice feature strength and disk size with a detailed analysis of the model ice location, we estimate that the ice emitting region is at disk radii >30AU, consistent with a proto-Kuiper belt. Vertically, the ice emits most below the photodesorption zone, consistent with Herschel observations of cold water vapor. The presence of crystallized water ice at a disk location a) colder than its crystallization temperature and b) where it should have been re-amorphized in ~1 Myr suggests that localized generation is occurring; the most likely cause appears to be micrometeorite impact or planetesimal collisions. Based on simple tests with UV models and different ice distributions, we suggest that the SED shape from 20 to 50 micron may probe the location of the water ice snow line in the disk upper layers. This project represents one of the first extra-solar probes of the spatial structure of the cometary ice reservoir thought to deliver water to terrestrial planets.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the Sigma Orionis cluster. We have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than a half of stars of our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong H$\alpha$ in emission or weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high resolution (R~34000) spectra in the H$\alpha$ region for 169 stars in the region. Radial velocities were calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous work. Analysis of the profile of the H$\alpha$ line and infrared observations reveals two binary systems or fast rotators that mimic the H$\alpha$ width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow H$\alpha$ profile not expected in stars with accretion disks. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set of the Sigma Orionis cluster to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 794(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected up to ages of 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors identified by having a significant $U$ band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ~3 Myr sigma Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations, obtained with the Magellan Echellette and in a few cases the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ~10^-8 msun/ yr. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales, unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation which is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 790(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [OI] 63 micron for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (Dent et al. 2013) by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS at this wavelength. [OI] 63 micron traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [OI] 63 micron line luminosities two times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g. bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g. disk dust mass, etc.) that could influence the [OI] 63 micron line luminosity and we find no correlations that can explain the lower [OI] 63 micron line luminosities in transitional disks. Using a grid of thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk models, we conclude that either transitional disks are less flared than full disks or they possess lower gas-to-dust ratios due to a depletion of gas mass. This result suggests that transitional disks are more evolved than their full disk counterparts, possibly even at large radii.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as ALMA reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)mm and infrared. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and explore how the expected observational signatures from these mechanisms, particularly planet-induced disk clearing, compare to actual observations. Lastly, we discuss future avenues of inquiry to be pursued with ALMA, JWST, and next generation of ground-based telescopes.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, a continuous 30-day multi-wavelength photometric monitoring campaign on more than 1000 young cluster members using 16 telescopes. The unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength, high-precision, high-cadence, and long-duration data opens a new window into the time domain behavior of young stellar objects. Here we provide an overview of the observations, focusing on results from Spitzer and CoRoT. The highlight of this work is detailed analysis of 162 classical T Tauri stars for which we can probe optical and mid-infrared flux variations to 1% amplitudes and sub-hour timescales. We present a morphological variability census and then use metrics of periodicity, stochasticity, and symmetry to statistically separate the light curves into seven distinct classes, which we suggest represent different physical processes and geometric effects. We provide distributions of the characteristic timescales and amplitudes, and assess the fractional representation within each class. The largest category (>20%) are optical "dippers" having discrete fading events lasting ~1-5 days. The degree of correlation between the optical and infrared light curves is positive but weak; notably, the independently assigned optical and infrared morphology classes tend to be different for the same object. Assessment of flux variation behavior with respect to (circum)stellar properties reveals correlations of variability parameters with H$\alpha$ emission and with effective temperature. Overall, our results point to multiple origins of young star variability, including circumstellar obscuration events, hot spots on the star and/or disk, accretion bursts, and rapid structural changes in the inner disk.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(4):82. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Catherine Espaillat
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    ABSTRACT: The details of how protoplanetary disks evolve from initially well-mixed distributions of gas and dust to systems composed mostly of rocky planets and gas giants like our own solar system is a fundamental question in astronomy. It is widely accepted that the first step in planet formation is dust grain growth and settling to the disk midplane. This dust evolution in disks can be studied in greater detail with far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength observations, which offer us unique access to the outer disk's deeper layers. Here we present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter spectra of GM Aur taken with PACS and SPIRE. GM Aur is a transitional disk, whose inner disk hole is proposed to have been cleared by yet unseen planets. By utilizing Herschel data, we can potentially link the properties of dust evolution in the outer disk to dust clearing in the inner disk. In particular, preliminary SED modeling presented here suggests that GM Aur may have a lower gas-to-dust mass ratio than typically assumed for disks, which may be linked to disk clearing by planets. With further study, such Herschel data may provide insight for theoretical modeling of dust evolution and planet formation.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the nature of the many planetary systems found outside of our own solar system cannot be completed without knowledge of the beginnings these systems. By detecting planets in very young systems and modeling the disks of material around stars from which they form, we can gain a better understanding of planetary origin and evolution. The efforts presented here have been in modeling two pre-transitional disk systems using a radiative transfer code. With the first of these systems, V1247 Ori, a model that fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) well and whose parameters are consistent with existing interferometry data (Kraus et al 2013) has been achieved. The second of these two systems, SAO 206462, has presented a different set of challenges but encouraging SED agreement between the model and known data gives hope that the model can produce images that can be used in future interferometry work. This work was supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX09AC73G, and the IR&D program at The Aerospace Corporation.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best-fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, 2-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe)=0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10^(-8) to 10^(-10) Msol/yr, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from 3 to 0.5 microns. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1x10^(-4) of the ISM value, while the midplane is enhanced to 8 times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 micron silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 775(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the sigma Orionis cluster. Using low resolution spectra and the SPTCLASS code, we have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than half of the stars of our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong Hα line in emission or presence of weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high resolution (R˜34,000) spectra in the Hα region for 169 stars in the cluster. Radial velocity was calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous works. Analysis of the profile of the Hα line and infrared observations reveals two binary candidates or fast rotators that mimic the Hα width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow Hα profiles not expected in accreting stars. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set to date.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We use numerical simulations to perform a systematic study on the dynamics of dust particles in protoplanetary disks under the influence of a planet in disks. Dust particles in viscous disks (representing turbulent regions in disks) and inviscid hydro disks (``dead zone'') have been simulated separately using our newly developed Two-Fluids FARGO and ATHENA+Particle codes. For inviscid 3-D disks, we found that a low mass planet (8 M_earth) open almost unnoticeable gaps in gas which can still lead to significant dust piling up at gap edges. Sharp gap edges carved out by a massive planet are unstable to the formation of vortices, which can efficiently trap particles with a wide range of sizes(at least 4 orders of magnitude in our cases). Thus gaps and vortices in particle disks should be very common if there are planets in the``dead zones''. For viscous disks, the dust features are significantly smoothed out by the parameterized turbulent diffusion, and small dust particles can follow the accreting gas flowing to the inner disk. Thus, the so-called ``dust filtration'' mechanism by the gap edges can differentiate big and small dust particles. MHD simulations are developed to understand the gap opening and particle concentration in realistic turbulent disks.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of "cluster" age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks—those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks—have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(2):149. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using NASA Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX data from 0.8 to 4.5 μm, we determine self-consistently the stellar properties and excess emission above the photosphere for a sample of classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) in the Taurus molecular cloud with varying degrees of accretion. This process uses a combination of techniques from the recent literature as well as observations of weak-line T Tauri stars to account for the differences in surface gravity and chromospheric activity between the T Tauri stars and dwarfs, which are typically used as photospheric templates for CTTS. Our improved veiling and extinction estimates for our targets allow us to extract flux-calibrated spectra of the excess in the near-infrared. We find that we are able to produce an acceptable parametric fit to the near-infrared excesses using a combination of up to three blackbodies. In half of our sample, two blackbodies at temperatures of 8000 K and 1600 K suffice. These temperatures and the corresponding solid angles are consistent with emission from the accretion shock on the stellar surface and the inner dust sublimation rim of the disk, respectively. In contrast, the other half requires three blackbodies at 8000, 1800, and 800 K, to describe the excess. We interpret the combined two cooler blackbodies as the dust sublimation wall with either a contribution from the disk surface beyond the wall or curvature of the wall itself, neither of which should have single-temperature blackbody emission. In these fits, we find no evidence of a contribution from optically thick gas inside the inner dust rim.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(1):73. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-transitional disks are protoplanetary disks with a gapped disk structure, potentially indicating the presence of young planets in these systems. In order to explore the structure of these objects and their gap-opening mechanism, we observed the pre-transitional disk V1247 Orionis using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the Keck Interferometer, Keck-II, Gemini South, and IRTF. This allows us to spatially resolve the AU-scale disk structure from near- to mid-infrared wavelengths (1.5-13 μm), tracing material at different temperatures and over a wide range of stellocentric radii. Our observations reveal a narrow, optically thick inner-disk component (located at 0.18 AU from the star) that is separated from the optically thick outer disk (radii 46 AU), providing unambiguous evidence for the existence of a gap in this pre-transitional disk. Surprisingly, we find that the gap region is filled with significant amounts of optically thin material with a carbon-dominated dust mineralogy. The presence of this optically thin gap material cannot be deduced solely from the spectral energy distribution, yet it is the dominant contributor at mid-infrared wavelengths. Furthermore, using Keck/NIRC2 aperture masking observations in the H, K', and L' bands, we detect asymmetries in the brightness distribution on scales of ~15-40 AU, i.e., within the gap region. The detected asymmetries are highly significant, yet their amplitude and direction changes with wavelength, which is not consistent with a companion interpretation but indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of the gap material. We interpret this as strong evidence for the presence of complex density structures, possibly reflecting the dynamical interaction of the disk material with sub-stellar mass bodies that are responsible for the gap clearing.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 768:80. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. The observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a P-Cygni profile in the C IV line, which argues for the presence of a hot (10^5 K) wind. For the overall sample, the Si IV and N V line luminosities are correlated with the C IV line luminosities, although the relationship between Si IV and C IV shows large scatter about a linear relationship and suggests that TW Hya, V4046 Sgr, AA Tau, DF Tau, GM Aur, and V1190 Sco are silicon-poor.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 04/2013; 207(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra with multiple accretion components, we can explain excesses which have been observed in the near infrared. Comparing our estimates of the accretion rate to previous estimates, we find some discrepancies; however, they may be accounted for when considering assumptions for the amount of extinction and variability in optical spectra. Therefore, we confirm many previous estimates of the accretion rate. Finally, we measure emission line luminosities from the same spectra used for the accretion rate estimates, to produce correlations between accretion indicators (H$\beta$, Ca II K, C II] and Mg II) and accretion properties obtained simultaneously.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe observations of the hot gas 1e5 K) ultraviolet lines C IV and He II, in Classical and Weak T Tauri Stars (CTTSs, WTTSs). Our goal is to provide observational constraints for realistic models. Most of the data for this work comes from the Hubble proposal “The Disks, Accretion, and Outflows (DAO) of T Tau stars” (PI Herczeg). The DAO program is the largest and most sensitive high resolution spectroscopic survey of young stars in the UV ever undertaken and it provides a rich source of information for these objects. The sample of high resolution COS and STIS spectra presented here comprises 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. For CTTSs, the lines consist of two kinematic components. The relative strengths of the narrow and broad components (NC, BC) are similar in C IV but in He II the NC is stronger than the BC, and dominates the line profile. We do not find correlations between disk inclination and the velocity centroid, width, or shape of the CIV line profile. The NC of the C IV line in CTTSs increases in strength with accretion rate, and its contribution to the line increases from ˜20% to ˜80%, for the accretion rates considered here (1e-10 to 1e-7 Msun/yr). The CTTSs C IV lines are redshifted by ˜20 km/s while the CTTSs He II are redshifted by ˜10 km/s. Because the He II line and the C IV NC have the same width in CTTSs and in WTTSs, but are correlated with accretion, we suggest that they are produced in the stellar transition region. The accretion shock model predicts that the velocity of the post-shock emission should be 4x smaller than the velocity of the pre-shock emission. Identifying the post-shock emission with the NC and the pre-shock with the BC, we find that this is approximately the case in 11 out of 23 objects. The model cannot explain 11 systems in which the velocity of the NC is smaller than the velocity of the BC, or systems in which one of the velocities is negative (five CTTSs). The hot gas lines in some systems such as HN Tau, RW Aur A, AK Sco, DK Tau, T Tau N, and V1190 Sco require an outflow contribution, which may come from jet shocks in the observed outflows. We suggest that a hot wind is being launched by the Herbig Ae star DX Cha.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Transition disks are a subgroup of protoplanetary disks with comparatively small near-IR excesses, but large mid/far-IR excesses. These IR excesses are characteristic of an inner, optically thin dust cavity, extending ~AU from the central star. The existence of dust gaps within transition disks has been confirmed by high-resolution continuum observations at millimeter wavelengths. It is widely hypothesized that the formation of dust gaps is an intermediate process in the eventual dispersal of the entire protoplanetary disk. Here, we compare the far-IR properties of 25 transition disks to a comparable sample of classical protoplanetary disks. We report new Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of the [OI] 63 μm emission line and adjacent continuum. The [OI] 63 μm line traces cool (<100 K), optically thick gas beyond the ice line 10s of AU) and within the region where giant planets are thought to form. We find that when the [OI] 63 μm line is detected, the line luminosities in transition disks are a factor of ~2 lower than the line luminosities in classical disks. We also find that transition disks and classical disks tend to have similar 63 μm continuum luminosities. Using self-consistently derived accretion rates, far-UV luminosities, and X-ray luminosities, we rule out direct stellar irradiation as a possible cause of the [OI] 63 μm line luminosity difference. We also show that there is no correlation between [OI] 63 μm line luminosity and the size of the dust gap, or the total dust mass. Instead, by comparing our results with predictions of radiative thermo-chemical disk models, we propose that the differences in [OI] 63 μm line luminosities between classical and transition disks may result from higher dust-to-gas ratios in transition disks. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that transition disks are more evolved than classical disks, even at large radii.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: High-energy radiation from T Tauri stars (TTS) influences the amount and longevity of gas in disks, thereby playing a crucial role in the creation of gas giant planets. Here we probe the high-energy ionizing radiation from TTS using high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer IRS Neon forbidden line detections in a sample of disks from IC 348, NGC 2068, and Chamaeleon. We report three new detections of [Ne III] from CS Cha, SZ Cha, and T 54, doubling the known number of [Ne III] detections from TTS. Using [Ne III]-to-[Ne II] ratios in conjunction with X-ray emission measurements, we probe high-energy radiation from TTS. The majority of previously inferred [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios based on [Ne III] line upper limits are significantly less than 1, pointing to the dominance of either X-ray radiation or soft Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in producing these lines. Here we report the first observational evidence for hard EUV dominated Ne forbidden line production in a T Tauri disk: [Ne III]/[Ne II]~1 in SZ Cha. Our results provide a unique insight into the EUV emission from TTS, by suggesting that EUV radiation may dominate the creation of Ne forbidden lines, albeit in a minority of cases.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of GQ Lup, a protoplanetary disk in the Lupus star-forming region. Through spectral energy distribution fitting from 0.3 μm to 1.3 mm, we construct a self-consistent model of this system's temperature and density structures, finding that although it is 3 Myr old, its dust has not settled to the midplane substantially. The disk has a radial gradient in both the silicate dust composition and grain size, with large amorphous grains in the upper layers of the inner disk and an enhancement of submicron, crystalline grains in the outer disk. We detect an excess of emission in the Herschel PACS B2A band near 63 μm and model it with a combination of ~15-70 μm crystalline water ice grains with a size distribution consistent with ice recondensation-enhanced grain growth and a mass fraction half of that of our solar system. The combination of crystalline water ice and silicates in the outer disk is suggestive of disk-wide heating events or planetesimal collisions. If confirmed, this would be the first detection of water ice by Herschel.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2012; 759(1):L10. · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

723 Citations
380.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Boston University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • Centre of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
    • Rochester Institute of Technology
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States