[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk yield, fat and protein contents, breed and season effects, parity and days in milk in dairy cows from Paraná State, Brazil. A total of 127,428 test-days from 16,013 dairy cows belonging to 96 herds enrolled in an official milk recording program were analyzed. Multivariate mixed model methodology was used to determine the relationship between MUN and the fixed effects and the covariable milk production. Milk urea nitrogen averaged 14.45±4.60 mg/dL. Positive and intermediate association between MUN and milk yield (r = 0.34) were found. Holstein cows showed lower MUN adjusted means than crossbred, Jersey, and Brown Swiss cows: 14.18 vs. 15.49, 16.12, and 17.62 mg/dL, respectively. First-lactation cows showed higher MUN values than second-lactation and older cows: 16.16 vs. 15.95, and 15.45 mg/dL, respectively. MUN test-days collected during the winter were higher than those collected in the other seasons. The effects of the lactation stage on MUN were significant, with the highest MUN values observed in the sixth month of lactation. High-producing dairy cows showed higher milk urea concentrations but several environmental factors may contribute to reduce this important parameter of diet utilization efficiency.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 03/2012; 41(3):692-697. DOI:10.1590/S1516-35982012000300032 · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43) on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking). Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%). Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested) was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 01/2012; 41(1):232-236. DOI:10.1590/S1516-35982012000100033 · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of farm, parity (PO) and month of parturition on milk production, percentage of fat and protein, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration were assessed on four specialized dairy farms using 120 cows. Also, the effects of MUN on gestation rate (GR) and artificial insemination rate (AIR) in early lactation were studied. The parameters of production and milk quality were similar among farms and were not influenced by the month of parturition. Farm D presented the highest MUN concentration. Concentration of MUN, percentages of fat and protein and SCC were not influenced by PO. Cows with a value of MUN between 10.1 and 13.0 mg/dL had the highest AIR and GR between days 55 and 70 postpartum and after 70 days in milk. These data suggested that MUN concentration was a useful parameter to predict the nutritional and reproductive stages of dairy cows.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 11/2009; 52. DOI:10.1590/S1516-89132009000700032 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 570 +/- 43 kg of body weight and 60 +/- 20 d in milk were used in a double Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine the effects of feeding ground or whole flaxseed with or without monensin supplementation (0.02% on a dry matter basis) on milk production and composition, feed intake, digestion, blood composition, and fatty acid profile of milk. Intake of dry matter was similar among treatments. Cows fed whole flaxseed had higher digestibility of acid detergent fiber but lower digestibilities of crude protein and ether extract than those fed ground flaxseed; monensin had no effect on digestibility. Milk production tended to be greater for cows fed ground flaxseed (22.8 kg/d) compared with those fed whole flaxseed (21.4 kg/d). Processing of flax-seed had no effect on 4% fat-corrected milk yield and milk protein and lactose concentrations. Monensin supplementation had no effect on milk production but decreased 4% fat-corrected milk yield as a result of a decrease in milk fat concentration. Feeding ground compared with whole flaxseed decreased concentrations of 16:0, 17:0, and cis6-20:4 and increased those of cis6-18:2, cis9, trans11-18:2, and cis3-18:3 in milk fat. As a result, there was a decrease in concentrations of medium-chain and saturated fatty acids and a trend for higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids in milk fat when feeding ground compared with whole flaxseed. Monensin supplementation increased concentrations of cis9 and trans11-18:2 and decreased concentrations of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. There was an interaction between flaxseed processing and monensin supplementation, with higher milk fat concentration of trans11-18:1 for cows fed ground flaxseed with monensin than for those fed the other diets. Flaxseed processing and monensin supplementation successfully modified the fatty acid composition of milk fat that might favor nutritional value for consumers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2005. Milk production and milk composition of dairy cows fed Lac100 ® or whole flaxseed. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 413–416. Cows were fed whole flaxseed or calcium salts of soybean oil as a fat source. Cows fed flaxseed had lower (P < 0.01) milk yield and higher (P < 0.01) percentages of fat and protein than cows fed calcium salts. Feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of soy-bean oil increased, respectively, the concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid in milk.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 09/2005; 85(3). DOI:10.4141/A04-088 · 0.52 Impact Factor