Maria Imaculada Zucchi

Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (139)187.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pioneer tree species exhibit life-cycle characteristics and population structures that are mainly affected by natural or human disturbances. In primary forests, demographic dynamics of pioneer species may resemble those defined for a metapopulation. In early successional forests, the patterns of establishment, survival and reproduction are mainly determined by microclimate and biota modifications of the site after the human disturbance. The aim of this study was to investigate how the ecological processes and the population genetic factors associated with disturbances can affect the genetic diversity and structure of populations of a pioneer tree species: Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers were examined in plants of two size classes sampled in four gaps of primary forest and four sub-areas of early successional forest. Despite presenting similar genetic diversity levels, the genetic diversity was distributed differently between forests. The combined effects of seed dispersal and colonizations (and extinctions) were determinants of the fine-scale genetic structure of C. floribundus. The main finding was that human disturbances seem to boost the influence of founder effects in populations of a species with limited seed dispersal. Results suggested that gene flow by pollen was responsible for maintaining the genetic diversity within populations of C. floribundus in both forests, but in the early successional forest, gene flow by seeds was equally important. We conclude that gap dynamics, colonization, and pollen and seed dispersal affect the genetic diversity and structure of the pioneer species depending mainly on the number of colonizers, the number of source populations, the gene flow rates, and the level of human disturbance.
    Forest Ecology and Management 05/2015; 344:38-52. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.01.026 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: • We developed and validated microsatellite primers for Vellozia squamata (Velloziaceae), an endemic species of the cerrado (Brazilian savannas), to investigate the influence of different fire regimes on its genetic diversity and population structure. • Using a selective hybridization method, we tested 51 SSR loci using a natural population of V. squamata and obtained 47 amplifiable loci. Among these, 26 loci were polymorphic and the average values of genetic diversity were: average number of alleles per locus ([Formula: see text]) = 6.54, average number of alleles per polymorphic locus ([Formula: see text]) = 7.13, average observed heterozygosity [Formula: see text] = 0.22, average expected heterozygosity [Formula: see text] = 0.49, and average fixation index [Formula: see text] = 0.55. • These 26 loci allowed us to assess the effects of distinct fire regimes on the genetic structure of V. squamata populations with the aim of establishing strategies for the conservation of this endemic species. The markers can also be useful for future pharmaceutical studies, as the species has great potential for medicinal and cosmetic applications.
    02/2015; 3(2). DOI:10.3732/apps.1400087
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    ABSTRACT: • Microsatellite primers were designed for Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae) and characterized to estimate genetic diversity parameters. The species is a native tree from the Atlantic Forest biome commonly used in forest restoration; it has medicinal potential and the wood is economically useful. • Twenty-eight microsatellite loci were identified from an enriched genomic library. Fifteen loci resulted in successful amplifications and were characterized in a natural population of 94 individuals. Twelve loci were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 15 per locus, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.2142 to 0.8325 and 0.190 to 0.769, respectively. • The developed markers will be used in further studies of population genetics of P. gonoacantha, aimed at conservation and management of the species in natural populations and in forest restoration projects.
    02/2015; 3(2). DOI:10.3732/apps.1400107
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the continuous introduction of germplasm from abroad, some collections have a high number of accessions, making it difficult to explore the genetic variability present in a germplasm bank for conservation and breeding purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and analyze the structure of genetic variability among 500 common bean accessions to construct a core collection. A total of 58 SSRs were used for this purpose. The polymorphism information content (PIC) in the 180 common bean accessions selected to compose the core collection ranged from 0.17 to 0.86, and the discriminatory power (DP) ranged from 0.21 to 0.90. The 500 accessions were clustered into 15 distinct groups and the 180 accessions into four distinct groups in the Structure analysis. According to analysis of molecular variance, the most divergent accessions comprised 97.2% of the observed genetic variability present within the base collection, confirming the efficiency of the selection criterion. The 180 selected accessions will be used for association mapping in future studies and could be potentially used by breeders to direct new crosses and generate elite cultivars that meet current and future global market needs.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 01/2015; 38(1):67-78. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the continuous introduction of germplasm from abroad, some collections have a high number of accessions, making it difficult to explore the genetic variability present in a germplasm bank for conservation and breeding purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and analyze the structure of genetic variability among 500 common bean accessions to construct a core collection. A total of 58 SSRs were used for this purpose. The polymorphism information content (PIC) in the 180 common bean accessions selected to compose the core collection ranged from 0.17 to 0.86, and the discriminatory power (DP) ranged from 0.21 to 0.90. The 500 accessions were clustered into 15 distinct groups and the 180 accessions into four distinct groups in the Structure analysis. According to analysis of molecular variance, the most divergent accessions comprised 97.2% of the observed genetic variability present within the base collection, confirming the efficiency of the selection criterion. The 180 selected accessions will be used for association mapping in future studies and could be potentially used by breeders to direct new crosses and generate elite cultivars that meet current and future global market needs.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 01/2015; 38(1):67-78. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite primers were developed and optimized for Lippia alba to characterize the L. alba germplasm bank of Universidade de São Paulo. A genomic library enabled the design of 9 microsatellite primers. Six of the 9 primers yielded polymorphic products, which defined 2 groups in the bank. The data provide support to characterize germplasm banks, genetic breeding programs for L. alba, and other genetic diversity studies and classifications of species in the genus Lippia.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2015; 14(1):971-974. DOI:10.4238/2015.February.3.4 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitizes humans and several other mammals. Protozoan contamination has been regularly documented at important environmental sites, although most of these studies were performed at the species level. There is a lack of studies that correlate environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity of a set of clinical and environmental samples and to use the obtained data to characterize the genetic profile of the distribution of G. duodenalis and the potential for zoonotic transmission in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The genetic assemblages and subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates obtained from hospitals, a veterinary clinic, a day-care center and important environmental sites were determined via multilocus sequence-based genotyping using three unlinked gene loci. Cysts of Giardia were detected at all of the environmental sites. Mixed assemblages were detected in 25% of the total samples, and an elevated number of haplotypes was identified. The main haplotypes were shared among the groups, and new subtypes were identified at all loci. Ten multilocus genotypes were identified: 7 for assemblage A and 3 for assemblage B. There is persistent G. duodenalis contamination at important environmental sites in the city. The identified mixed assemblages likely represent mixed infections, suggesting high endemicity of Giardia in these hosts. Most Giardia isolates obtained in this study displayed zoonotic potential. The high degree of genetic diversity in the isolates obtained from both clinical and environmental samples suggests that multiple sources of infection are likely responsible for the detected contamination events. The finding that many multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and haplotypes are shared by different groups suggests that these sources of infection may be related and indicates that there is a notable risk of human infection caused by Giardia in this region.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115489. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115489 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicoverpa armigera is one of the primary agricultural pests in the Old World, whereas H. zea is predominant in the New World. However, H. armigera was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Therefore, the geographical distribution, range of hosts, invasion source, and dispersal routes for H. armigera are poorly understood or unknown in Brazil. In this study, we used a phylogeographic analysis of natural H. armigera and H. zea populations to (1) assess the occurrence of both species on different hosts; (2) infer the demographic parameters and genetic structure; (3) determine the potential invasion and dispersal routes for H. armigera within the Brazilian territory; and (4) infer the geographical origin of H. armigera . We analyzed partial sequence data from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We determined that H. armigera individuals were m
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113286. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113286 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are used in folk medicine as a tonic, an anti-rheumatic, and an anti-syphilis treatment, and are sold in Brazilian drugstores without any quality control regarding their origin and efficacy. The origin of the material is mainly based on wild extraction. Quality control of herbal drugs should include a more reliable identification of the source involving characterization and definition of their anatomical and chemical characteristics. The current study aimed to verify whether the combined use of anatomical, chemical, and molecular genetic characteristics might be useful in the quality control of medicinal plants, specifically the sarsaparilla sold in compounding drugstores in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Root samples were subjected to conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the chemical profile, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was applied to ethanol extracts of the roots. The chemical profile of the chemical material sold in stores was compared with the previously determined profiles of medicinal Smilax species (S. goyazana, S. rufescens, S. brasiliensis, S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S. oblongifolia, and S. polyantha). Although there was considerable similarity between the anatomical structure of the commercial sarsaparilla and the structure reported in the literature for the Smilax species, there were differences in the phloem organization and in the presence of a series of idioblasts containing raphides, phenolic idioblasts, and metaxylem in the center of the plant structure. TLC analysis of the commercial ethanol extracts revealed spots with colors ranging from yellow to green. In addition, the same spots showed components with the same retention factor (Rf), indicating chemical similarity between the different samples. However, the distribution pattern of the spots,
    Economic Botany 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12231-014-9287-2 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.
    Genetica 09/2014; 142(5). DOI:10.1007/s10709-014-9786-1 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prosopis rubriflora and Prosopis ruscifolia are important species in the Chaquenian regions of Brazil. Because of the restriction and frequency of their physiognomy, they are excellent models for conservation genetics studies. The use of microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSRs) has become increasingly important in recent years and has proven to be a powerful tool for both ecological and molecular studies.
    BMC Research Notes 06/2014; 7(1):375. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-375
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    ABSTRACT: Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were identified and characterized in Acca sellowiana in order to expand the limited number of pre-existing polymorphic markers for use in population genetic studies for conservation, phylogeography, breeding, and domestication. Methods and Results: A total of 10 polymorphic microsatellite primers were designed from clones obtained from a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched genomic library. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with four to 27 alleles per locus. In all tested populations, the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.269 to 1.0. Conclusions: These new polymorphic SSR markers will allow future genetic studies to be denser, either for genetic structure characterization of natural populations or for studies involving genetic breeding and domestication process in A. sellowiana
    06/2014; 2(6). DOI:10.3732/apps.1400020
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    ABSTRACT: The Cabreúva tree, Myroxylon peruiferum, is an endangered tropical species from Brazil used in forest restoration projects. It is known for its medicinal properties. Eleven microsatellite markers were developed for this species, from a microsatellite-enriched library. Nine of these markers, characterized in 30 individuals from a semideciduous forest remnant population in southeast Brazil, were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from 2 to 8 per locus; expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.757 and 0.107 to 0.704, respectively. One locus (Mpe-C04) showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to null alleles. Two other loci (Mpe-E09 and Mpe-H07) were monomorphic in this population. These microsatellite loci should be useful for future population genetics studies of this species.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 03/2014; 13(AOP). DOI:10.4238/2014.March.26.1 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The barker frog Physalaemus cuvieri is widely distributed in South America and is found in all regions of Brazil. Significant intraspecific morphological variation in this species has been reported. To determine the genetic structure of the natural Brazilian populations of P. cuvieri, 10 different populations geographically separated by 99.41 to 2936.75 km were evaluated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data was analyzed to determine genetic distance between the populations. The genetic variation was found to be significant in most of the populations (HE ranged from 0.40 to 0.59, and allelic richness ranged from 2.07 to 3.54). An FST value of 0.27 indicated that high genetic structure was present among the P. cuvieri populations. STRUCTURE analyses grouped the 10 populations into nine clusters and indicated that only two of the populations were not genetically differentiated. The genetic distance calculated from the mitochondrial DNA data showed values <0.03 for seven of the populations and >0.03 for three of the populations and indicated the TO3 population as a candidate species.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 02/2014; 13(AOP). DOI:10.4238/2014.February.21.4 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Premise of research. Aulonemia aristulata (Do¨ ll) McClure—an endemic Brazilian species—flowers, sets seed, and subsequently dies after many years of vegetative growth. After it has died, plants regenerate by seed germination on the forest floor. Because of the sporadic and unusual records of the flowering cycle and the difficulty of identifying individuals, few studies of the genetic structure of bamboo populations have been published. In this study, we investigated how the flowering event affects the genetic diversity among different populations and evaluated the genetic variability between two ontogenic stages. Methodology. We collected seedlings in July 2009 and saplings in February 2010 in two study areas. We investigated the genetic diversity using markers with different modes of inheritance: nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and chloroplast SSRs. Pivotal results. The nuclear genetic diversity of the study populations was higher than in other bamboo species. All populations had high and significant inbreeding values, indicating a deficiency of heterozygotes. In general, saplings exhibited less inbreeding than seedlings. Moreover, chloroplast genetic diversity was low, which may indicate that individuals share maternal ancestors. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that sexual reproduction, demographic history, and colonization patterns may contribute to population diversity. The decrease in plant density between ontogenetic stages (i.e., from seedling to sapling) was associated with a higher frequency of homozygotes in seedlings compared with saplings and could indicate intraspecific competition coupled with inbreeding depression as the main factor reducing plant density in bamboos.
    International Journal of Plant Sciences 02/2014; 175(3):319. DOI:10.1086/674448 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Discriminating genotypes within plant collections is imperative, and DNA sequence approaches for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have proved essential in any modern analysis of germplasm. By sequencing the α-Phs and PvFRO1 genes that, respectively, encode phaseolin and an iron reductase, we prospected for SNPs in exonic and intronic regions of both genes in a sample of 31 accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris from Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, and one accession of Phaseolus lunatus, chosen as an outgroup. Sequence alignment showed 95 SNPs in α-Phs and 83 in PvFRO1, but diversity along the nucleotide sequences was not evenly distributed in both genes. Accessions from the same gene pool showed greater similarity than those from different gene pools, and the cluster patterns obtained in this study were consistent with the hierarchical organization into two P. vulgaris gene pools. The polymorphisms detected in the α-Phs gene allowed better discrimination among the accessions within each cluster than the PvFRO1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, some variations within exons changes amino acids in both predicted protein sequences. In an unprecedented result, the phaseolin-predicted amino acid variation allowed most of the accessions to be typified.
    Genome 02/2014; 57(2):69-77. DOI:10.1139/gen-2013-0183 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g) is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3–79.6 g). The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.
    Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 02/2014; 24(1):73–79. DOI:10.1590/0102-695X20142413111 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Of the 600 known yam species, only 10 are utilized as food, and the Dioscorea cayenensis/D. rotundata species complex is among the most cultivated. In Brazil, these species are commercially cultivated in the northeast region and are cultivated in the south and southeast regions as subsistence crops by traditional agriculturists. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 21 local varieties of D. cayenensis and 2 D. rotundata accessions using 7 isozymic loci and 24 morphological markers, and to investigate the diversity distribution in different levels of organization, such as swidden fields and communities of Vale do Ribeira. Cluster analyses for both the isozymic and morphological data separated the 2 D. rotundata accessions from the D. cayenensis accessions from Vale do Ribeira. The analysis with morphological characteristics showed the presence of 2 subgroups (Iguape and Cananéia) within group I, which included all of the local varieties from Vale do Ribeira; this result may indicate the influence of the cultural units on the morphological variation. Molecular analysis of variance indicated that most of the isozymic variability was concentrated among swiddens within communities (42.5%) and within communities (40.3%). Most of the morphological variability was also concentrated among swidden fields within communities (44.8%). The correlation between geographic and genetic distances indicated that neither morphological (r = 0.17) nor isozymic diversity (r = -0.15) is structured in space. Thus, the traditional agriculturists of Vale do Ribeira maintain and manage a great diversity of D. cayenensis varieties in their communities.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(1):425-37. DOI:10.4238/2014.January.21.10 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and a set of 19 SSR markers were developed to characterize a germplasm collection of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit., maintained at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS). Fifteen markers of 19 ranged from moderately to highly polymorphic. A total of 113 alleles were identified, with a mean of 7.52 alleles per locus. The mean HO and HE were 0.582 and 0.657, respectively. The primers developed were efficient tools for accessing the genetic diversity of the germplasm collection analyzed and may also be useful for other studies involving this species and other species in the genus Hyptis.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(4):10173-10176. DOI:10.4238/2014.December.4.11 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Annatto (Bixa orellana) is a plant native from the American continental tropical zone. The seeds are used to produce a carotenoid-based yellow to orange food coloring. Microsatellite markers were developed for the Brazilian native species Bixa orellana to describe its genetic diversity and structure as well as to support conservation studies. Twenty-five microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using an enriched genomic library. Ten loci were polymorphic in the 50 accessions sampled in this study, while 15 were considered monomorphic. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.8, ranging from 2 to 6 alleles per locus. Mean values for the observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.541 (ranging from 0 to 0.658) and 0.639 (ranging from 0.422 to 0.787), respectively. All markers described in this study will be useful in further studies evaluating the genetic diversity, population dynamics, and conservation genetics of Bixa orellana.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(4):9097-102. DOI:10.4238/2014.October.31.25 · 0.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

477 Citations
187.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    • Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2005–2015
    • Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Bhaganagar, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 2004–2008
    • Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
      Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2005–2007
    • University of São Paulo
      • Departamento de Genética (LGN) (ESALQ)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil