[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to characterize voice intensity and stability of fundamental frequency, formants and diadochokinesis, vocal modulations, rhythms, and speed of speech in adolescents during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-three adolescent females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analyses were performed during both phases of the menstrual cycle using the Kay Elemetrics Computer Speech Lab Software Package. Data were analyzed using Student's paired sample t test. Phono-articulatory parameters were similar in both phases of the menstrual cycle (fundamental frequency: 192.6+/-23.9 Hz; minimum formant 891.7+/-110.3 Hz; and maximum formant: 2471.5+/-203.6 Hz). In diadochokinesis, they had a speed of 5.6+/-0.6 seg/s and vocal intensity was 61.5+/-2.6 dB. The mean values for the variations in voice modulations were as follows: anger (21.7+/-8.7 Hz)<normal state (23.4+/-12.4 Hz)<sadness (24.9+/-10.5 Hz)<exclamatory sentence (29.3+/-12.4 Hz)<interrogative sentence (33.1+/-12.4 Hz)<happiness (33.3+/-12.1 Hz). Combining both phases of the menstrual cycle, the speed of speech was 5.2+/-0.6 seg/s in meaningful sentences and 1.9+/-0.2 seg/s in meaningless sentences. In conclusion, the adolescents showed similar voice fundamental frequency and intensity, formants, speed of speech, and suprasegmental speech parameters. The results shown in this study may be used as standard of acoustic phono-articulatory for adolescents.
Journal of voice: official journal of the Voice Foundation 11/2007; 23(1):109-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jvoice.2007.03.001 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide the first population-based data on deafness and hearing impairment in Brazil.
In 2003, a cross-sectional household survey was conducted of 2,427 persons 4 years old and over. The study population was composed of 1,040 systematically chosen households in 40 randomly selected census tracts (dwelling clusters) in the city of Canoas, which is in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Hearing function was evaluated in all subjects by both pure-tone audiometry and physical examination, using the World Health Organization Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol and definitions of hearing levels. The socioeconomic data that were gathered included the amount of schooling of all individuals tested and the income of the head of the household.
It was found that 26.1% of the population studied showed some level of hearing impairment, and 6.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.5%-8.1%) were classified in the disabling hearing impairment group. The prevalence of moderate hearing loss was 5.4% (95% CI = 4.4%-6.4%); for severe hearing loss, 1.2% (95% CI = 0.7%-1.7%); and for profound hearing loss, 0.2% (95% CI = 0.03%-0.33%). The groups at higher risk for hearing loss were men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23); participants 60 years of age and over (OR = 12.55; 95% CI = 8.38-18.79); those with fewer years of formal schooling (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 2.14-7.16); and those with lower income (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.06-2.27).
These results support advocacy by health policy planners and care providers for the prevention of deafness and hearing impairment. The findings could help build awareness in the community, in universities, and in government agencies of the health care needs that hearing problems create.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 07/2007; 21(6):381-7. DOI:10.1590/S1020-49892007000500006 · 0.85 Impact Factor