Peter R Giacobbi

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (27)35.06 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imagery interventions intended to increase exercise behavior are rare. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a randomized controlled trial with imagery content. The purposes of this study were to examine the content and perceived utility of mental imagery with 24 AAMP participants (Mage = 65.00, SD = 8.79 years). Digital recordings of AAMP sessions and post-intervention interviews were content-analyzed. Emergent themes included images of the physical activity context and negative impressions about imagery. Post-intervention interviews revealed that 13 participants reported positive experiences using mental imagery while 9 would not engage in further use. Important implications are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 03/2014; 26(2). · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined predictors of individual differences in the magnitude of practice-related improvements achieved by 87 older adults (meanage 63.52 years) over 18-weeks of cognitive practice. Cognitive inconsistency in both baseline trial-to-trial reaction times and week-to-week accuracy scores was included as predictors of practice-related gains in two measures of processing speed. Conditional growth models revealed that both reaction time and accuracy level and rate-of-change in functioning were related to inconsistency, even after controlling for mean-level, but that increased inconsistency was negatively associated with accuracy versus positively associated with reaction time improvement. Cognitive inconsistency may signal dysregulation in the ability to control cognitive performance or may be indicative of adaptive attempts at functioning.
    GeroPsych. 09/2013; 26(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise behaviour and sleep are both important health indicators that demonstrate significant decreases with age, and remain modifiable well into later life. The current investigation examined both the chronic and acute relationships between exercise behaviour and self-reported sleep in older adults through a secondary analysis of a clinical trial of a lifestyle intervention. Seventy-nine community-dwelling, initially sedentary, older adults (mean age = 63.58 years, SD = 8.66 years) completed daily home-based assessments of exercise behaviour and sleep using daily diary methodology. Assessments were collected weekly and continued for 18 consecutive weeks. Multilevel models revealed a small positive chronic (between-person mean-level) association between exercise and wake time after sleep onset, and a small positive acute (within-person, day-to-day) association between exercise and general sleep quality rating. The within-person exercise and general sleep quality rating relationship was found to be reciprocal (i.e. sleep quality also predicted subsequent exercise behaviour). As such, it appears exercise and sleep are dynamically related in older adults. Efforts to intervene on either sleep or exercise in late-life would be wise to take the other into account. Light exposure, temperature regulation and mood may be potential mechanisms of action through which exercise can impact sleep in older adults.
    Journal of Sleep Research 08/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate perceptions of quality of life after a 4-month progressive resistance training program for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A second purpose was to examine participants' views about factors that facilitated or impeded exercise behavior. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight females (Mage = 49.86, SD = 6.94) with relapsing remitting MS. Audio-tape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded. Walking performance improved (M = 13.08%, SD = 7.11). All participants perceived improvements in muscular strength and endurance while six indicated improvements in walking endurance and performance in tasks of daily living. Social benefits of participation were discussed by seven participants including interactions in the exercise environment. We concluded that supervised resistance training may promote improvements in QOL for women with relapsing remitting MS.
    Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ 07/2012; 29(3):224-42. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose was to prospectively assess if the theory of planned behaviour guided physical activity (PA) beliefs and behaviours for pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. Background: Theoretically based prospective studies can advance our understanding and promotion of PA during each trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Participants (N = 81) completed self-report assessments of their PA beliefs and behaviours at Time 1 (first trimester/baseline), Time 2 (second trimester/3 months), and Time 3 (third trimester/6 months). Results: The elicited PA beliefs and behaviours varied by assessment time and group. For the PA beliefs, the nonpregnant women’s (n = 43) salient beliefs were consistent across time. For the pregnant women (n = 38) the beliefs varied across time, with pregnant-specific beliefs that differed by trimester. For example, nausea was a common PA disadvantage reported in the first trimester, compared to increased weight/size in the third trimester; whereas the nonpregnant women reported time as the main disadvantage across all three assessments. For PA behaviour, the nonpregnant women reported more moderate PA than the pregnant women across all three assessments; with the pregnant women’s moderate PA decreasing from the first, to the second, to the third trimester. Conclusion: Trimester-specific PA interventions are encouraged to increase and maintain PA during pregnancy.
    Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 09/2011; · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using peer volunteers as delivery agents may improve translation of evidence-based physical activity promotion programs for older adults. This study examined whether tailored support from older peer volunteers could improve initiation and long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior. Participants were randomized to 2 16-week, group-based programs: (1) peer-delivered, theory-based support for physical activity behavior change; or (2) an intervention typically available in community settings (basic education, gym membership, and pedometer for self-monitoring), attention-matched with health education. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed via daily self-report logs at baseline, at the end of the intervention (16 weeks), and at follow-up (18 months), with accelerometry validation (RT3) in a random subsample. Seven peer volunteers and 81 sedentary adults were recruited. Retention at the end of the trial was 85% and follow-up at 18 months was 61%. Using intent-to-treat analyses, at 16 weeks, both groups had similar significant improvements in MVPA. At 18 months, the group supplemented with peer support had significantly more MVPA. Trained peer volunteers may enhance long-term maintenance of physical activity gains from a community-based intervention. This approach has great potential to be adapted and delivered inexpensively in community settings.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 09/2011; 8 Suppl 2:S257-66. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the well-established health benefits of physical activity, the role of exercise for eating disorders (ED) is controversial; thus dictating a need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of exercise and ED. The purpose of our study was to examine a conceptual model that hypothesizes regular exercise without psychological compulsion might impart beneficial effects for preventing and treating ED. University students (N = 539) completed self-report assessments of quality of life, exercise level, ED risk and exercise dependence symptoms. Structural equation modelling analysis was undertaken to examine the conceptual model's proposed relationships. Mediation analysis and model comparison tests showed that the partially mediated model without the physical well-being latent construct fit the data best. Our results provided initial support for the conceptual model by showing that the psychological benefits, but not the physical benefits, conveyed by exercise were associated with reduced ED risk.
    European Eating Disorders Review 05/2011; 19(3):216-25. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-wk intervention that used guided relaxation and exercise imagery (GREI) to increase self-reported leisure-time exercise behavior among older adults. A total of 93 community-dwelling healthy older adults (age 70.38 ± 8.15 yr, 66 female) were randomly placed in either a placebo control group or an intervention group. The intervention group received instructions to listen to an audio compact disk (CD) containing a GREI program, and the placebo control group received an audio CD that contained 2 relaxation tracks and instructions to listen to music of their choice for 6 wk. Results revealed that listening to a GREI CD for 6 wk significantly increased self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors (p = .03). Further exploration of GREI and its effects on other psychological variables related to perceived exercise behaviors may substantiate its effectiveness.
    Journal of aging and physical activity 04/2011; 19(2):137-46. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the factor structure of a revised version of the Exercise Imagery Inventory (ELI; Giacobbi, Hausenblas, & Penfield, 2005), second-order interrelationships for cognitive and motivational forms of mental imagery, and associations with exercise behavior and barriers self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 358 (M age = 20.55 years, SD = 3.88) college students completed the EII-revised (EII-R), a measure of barriers self-efficacy and the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The EII-R demonstrated reliability and factorial validity with good model fit statistics. We observed second-order relationships among scale scores and discriminant validity evidence that distinguished cognitive (e.g., exercise technique, exercise routines) and motivational (e.g., appearance/health, exercise self-efficacy, exercise feelings) factors. The second-order imagery factors were significantly and moderately associated with barriers self-efficacy and exercise behavior.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 12/2010; 81(4):485-93. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response and to test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with power assist wheels. A 16-wk A (Preintervention)-B (Intervention)-A (Postintervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age, 43 +/- 15 yrs) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre- and postintervention phases (4 wks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-wk intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with power assist wheels. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two SDs. Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared with pre- or postintervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance. Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first 2 wks after receiving power assist wheels than in the subsequent 6 wks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Power assist wheels enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Further studies may be strengthened by taking into account the 2-wk "adjustment phase" for power assist wheels.
    American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 08/2010; 89(8):625-34. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Matthew P. Buman, L. Daphna Yasova, Peter R. Giacobbi
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesWe sought a richer understanding of the determinants and complexities of physical activity (PA) behavior by examining how early life experiences and beliefs were manifested over time to determine PA behavior in late life.MethodWe interviewed 23 inactive older adults regarding past and current attitudes and beliefs regarding PA in a two-study format. Study 1 participants responded to a semi-structured interview and data were analyzed inductively for emergent themes. Study 2 participants responded to an unstructured, narrative set of three interviews and data were analyzed using narrative analytical techniques.ResultsStudy 1 descriptively confirmed previously reported barriers and motivators and shed light on how experiences across the lifespan may affect current perceptions. Study 2 extended these findings by demonstrating how beliefs and experiences formed at a young age were manifested over time to determine current behaviors and attitudes.ConclusionImplications include how the findings presented and the narrative method itself can be used to inform contemporary theoretical perspectives and promote PA behavior in older adults.
    Psychology of Sport and Exercise 05/2010; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels using qualitative interview methods. Qualitative evaluations were conducted in a laboratory setting with a focus on users' experiences using power assist wheel in their naturalistic environments. Participants consisted of seven women and 13 men (M(age) = 42.75, SD = 14.68) that included one African American, one Hispanic, 17 whites, and one individual from Zambia. Qualitative interviews were conducted before, during, and after use of a power assist wheel. Main outcome measures included the wheelchair users' evaluations and experiences related to the use of power assist wheels. The primary evaluations included wheeling on challenging terrains, performance of novel activities, social/family aspects, fatigue, and pain. These descriptions indicated that most participants perceived positive experiences with the power assist wheels, including access to new and different activities. Secondary evaluations indicated that the unit was cumbersome and prohibitive for some participants because of difficulties with transport in and out of a vehicle and battery life. Most participants felt that power assist wheels provided more independence and social opportunities. The power assist wheel seems to offer physical and social benefits for most wheelers. Clinicians should consider users' home environment and overall life circumstances before prescribing.
    American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 03/2010; 89(3):225-34. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Daniel E. Tuccitto, Peter R. Giacobbi, Walter L. Leite
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error correlations according to Zevon and Tellegen’s mood content categories, provided the best fit to our data. In addition, parameter estimates for this model suggest that PANAS scores are reliable and explain large proportions of item variance. Taken together with previous research, the findings further suggest that the PANAS may be a higher-order measure of affect and includes several consistently problematic items. The authors recommend that affect researchers attempt to improve the PANAS by (a) revising consistently problematic items, (b) adding new items to better capture mood content categories, and (c) providing additional internal structure validity evidence through a diagonally weighted least squares estimation of a second-order PANAS CFA model.
    Educational and Psychological Measurement 01/2010; 70(1):125-141. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used the Constructive Narrative Perspective (CNP), a three-level, progressively complex reasoning schema, to examine how individuals perceive barriers to physical activity. Sedentary adults (N = 23) aged 50 years and older (M = 65.23; SD = 6.03) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding their reasons for physical inactivity. The results provided initial support for using the CNP framework. Level II (self-relevant) and Level III (cognitive-affective schema-related) reasons were most commonly reported. Level I (evidence-based) reasons were less commonly reported. The CNP framework could become a useful tool in tailoring intervention strategies based upon progressively more complex reasoning schema.
    Journal of Health Psychology 11/2009; 14(8):1174-83. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Peter R Giacobbi
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of occupational burnout, engagement, and somatic health complaints and the associations among these constructs experienced by certified athletic trainers (ATs). A secondary objective was to examine differences between men and women, those with more versus less postcertification experience, and ATs who worked in different occupational settings. Survey-based, stratified, proportionate random sample of full-time ATs. Data were collected online from ATs employed full time in the college or university, secondary school or youth, and industrial or clinical settings. Of 3998 invited ATs, 934 replied, for a response rate of 24%. The mean age of the participants was 33.84 +/- 8.29 years, and each AT worked with an average of 90 clients. The dependent variables were perceived stress, occupational burnout, engagement, and somatic health complaints. Although 17.2% of participants were in the most advanced stages of burnout, low levels of burnout and high degrees of occupational engagement were observed. Women ATs and those working in the college or university settings scored higher for burnout, whereas men and those in the clinical or industrial settings scored higher for engagement. Women also reported significantly more somatic health complaints than men did. The overall prevalence of burnout in ATs was relatively small, but sex and occupational-setting differences were observed and deserve greater scrutiny.
    Journal of athletic training 07/2009; 44(4):370-7. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    Bang Hyun Kim, Peter R. Giacobbi
    Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity 01/2009; 4(1).
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/2009; 41. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M=31.12, SD=10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that impacted their daily living. They were administered the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Washburn, Weimo, McAuley, Frogley, & Figoni, 2002) and in-depth interviews focused on their physical activity experiences and evaluations about their quality of life. Grounded theory analyses (Charmaz, 2000, 2002) revealed that individuals who use wheelchairs perceived a number of psychological, social, and health benefits associated with physical activity involvement. The participants' evaluations and descriptions of their physical activity experiences appeared to support self-efficacy beliefs, feelings of empowerment, and motivation for continued involvement. First-person descriptions are presented to demonstrate how and why physical activity behaviors were perceived to enhance the quality of the participants' lives.
    Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ 07/2008; 25(3):189-207. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research examining exercising in pregnancy is limited by non-theoretical and cross-sectional assessments that fail to capture the specific physical and psychological demands of the pregnancy trimesters. Drawing on a population in Gainesville, Florida, USA we prospectively examined, within a multilevel design, 61 pregnant women's first and second trimester exercise intention and behavior, and the potential moderating effect of past exercise behavior using the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Significant cross-sectional associations were found with exercise intention, although the only significant longitudinal effect was the relation between first trimester intention and second trimester changes in exercise behavior. Implications of our findings for study design and exercise intervention development during pregnancy are discussed.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 07/2008; 66(12):2555-61. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One aspect of construct validity is the extent to which the measurement properties of a rating scale are invariant across the groups being compared. An increasingly used method for assessing between-group differences in the measurement properties of items of a scale is the framework of differential item functioning (DIF). In this paper we introduce the concept of DIF as a validation tool for scales used in physical education and exercise science, and illustrate the use of the cumulative common log-odds ratio for assessing the presence of DIF with data from the Exercise Imagery Inventory (EII; Giacobbi, Hausenblas, & Penfield, 2005).
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 12/2007; 78(5):451-64. · 1.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

191 Citations
35.06 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • West Virginia University
      Morgantown, West Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Arizona
      • Division of Health Promotion Sciences
      Tucson, AZ, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Kentucky
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 2007
    • Long Island University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States