[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with a variety of typical and atypical symptoms. Patients often present in the first instance to a pharmacist or primary care physician and are subsequently referred to secondary care if initial management fails. Guidelines usually do not provide a clear guidance for all healthcare professionals with whom the patient may consult.
To update a 2002-treatment algorithm for GERD, making it more applicable to pharmacists as well as doctors.
A panel of international experts met to discuss the principles and practice of treating GERD.
The updated algorithm for the management of GERD can be followed by pharmacists, for over-the-counter medications, primary care physicians, or secondary care gastroenterologists. The algorithm emphasizes the importance of life style changes to help control the triggers for heartburn and adjuvant therapies for rapid and adequate symptom relief. Proton pump inhibitors will remain a prominent treatment for GERD; however, the use of antacids and alginate-antacids (either alone or in combination with acid suppressants) is likely to increase.
The newly developed algorithm takes into account latest clinical practice experience, offering healthcare professionals clear and effective treatment options for the management of GERD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The water drink test is a good tool to evoke dyspeptic symptoms. To what extent these symptoms are related to altered gastric distribution is not clear. Therefore, we determined gastric volumes after a drink test using SPECT. After a baseline scan 20 healthy volunteers (HV) and 18 patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) underwent a drink test (100 mL min(-1)) followed by five scans up to 2 h. Dyspeptic symptoms were scored before every scan. A Wilcoxon signed rank test (P < 0.05) and a mixed effects model were used for statistical analyses. Fasting volumes were significantly higher in FD compared to HV for total, proximal and distal stomach (P < 0.001). Functional dyspeptic patients ingested significantly less water (P < 0.001) and had an impaired filling of the distal part of the stomach (P = 0.001) after the drink test. In FD, bloating (prox. 80%, dist. 56%), pain (prox. 87%, dist. 62%) and fullness (prox. 80%, dist. 59%) were determined more by proximal stomach volume rather than distal stomach volume. These data suggest that drinking capacity is mainly determined by antral volume, with a reduced antral filling in FD compared to HV. The persisting symptoms of bloating, pain and fullness in FD are predominantly associated with proximal stomach volume.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 12/2007; 19(12):968-76. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.00971.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a continuing increase in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), its diverse manifestations and complications worldwide. Indeed the substantial increase in Asia remains is a major epidemiologic and a developing health care issue. This manifesto provides a contemporary review of the current status of areas of uncertainty and in particular highlights the lack of knowledge and unmet needs in the field of GERD biology and especially management. There seems to be no widely accepted rationale for the increasing incidence and prevalence of GERD globally. Although consideration has been given to the decline in Helicobacter pylori infection, others consider the steadily growing problem of obesity as the most likely etiologic factor. What actually comprises the disease entity of GERD continues to confound physicians, and the steady increase in new definitions suggests that a clear picture is still emerging. Of note, however, is the rising awareness of its protean systemic manifestations and the fact that while erosive reflux disease is easily recognizable endoscopically, nonerosive disease (NERD) comprises the majority of presentations in many populations. In view of this, GERD-specific questionnaires and other evaluative tools have been designed to capture the multidimensional nature of the symptom complexes in GERD patients who for the most part may have no endoscopic evidence of disease. Such tools have obvious utility in the evaluation of changes with treatment, especially because there is no endoscopic abnormality detectable. The recognition that NERD is becoming a major clinical entity that requires substantial further investigation is now clearly apparent. At this time, however, little is known of the cellular barrier mechanisms of the esophagus and what is responsible for their reconstitution after injury. Similarly, the neural basis of esophageal pain appreciation, or its relation to the visceral sensory mechanisms that may link NERD with aspects of functional bowel disease are as yet ill understood. Apart from the clinical concern with symptom-focused issues, it is the specter of Barrett esophagus, the most-feared complication of GERD that mostly continues to drive endoscopic practice in GERD. At this time, however, current surveillance strategies remain severely limited in their ability to adequately detect or prevent most esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although considerable effort has been directed at defining the neural circuitry of the esophagus in terms of both motility and sensation, the topography and function of the esophageal-brain-gut axis in respect of the generation of esophageal symptoms remains terra incognita. At this time therefore acid suppression remains the mainstay of therapy in terms of treating the GERD/NERD disease process. Despite the efficacy of the currently available proton pump inhibitor class of drugs, there are clearly unmet needs in this area and agents with a more rapid onset of action and prolonged effect, particularly at night remain important goals in the future advance of pharmacotherapy.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 07/2007; DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e318064c7a3 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As fundic dysaccommodation represents one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying functional dyspepsia, gastric relaxant agents may serve as a new treatment of this disorder. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of 5HT1 receptors in the control of gastric tone. Our aim was to study the effect of R137696, a novel 5HT1A agonist, on fundus sensorimotor function in healthy volunteers. The effect of single oral doses (1-2 mg) R137696 was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner on fasting fundic volume, visceral perception, distension-evoked symptoms and fundic compliance in 21 healthy male subjects. R137696 increased the proximal stomach volumes in a dose-dependent manner. Distention-evoked symptoms or distention and discomfort threshold were not altered by R137696. A logistic regression model, characterizing the relationships between the volume and the visual analogue scale score for dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, fullness, discomfort, pain and satiety) as a sigmoidal curve, revealed that R137696 had no effect on distension-induced discomfort, fullness, pain and satiety compared to placebo. R137696 relaxes the gastric fundus in fasting conditions but has no effect on distension-evoked dyspeptic symptoms in healthy volunteers.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 11/2006; 18(10):919-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2006.00812.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral hyoscine butylbromide (hereafter hyoscine) 10 mg t.d.s., paracetamol 500 mg t.d.s. and their fixed combination against placebo in patients with recurrent crampy abdominal pain.
A total of 1637 patients were entered into a four-arm double-blind study. After a 1 week placebo run-in, they were randomized to 3 weeks of treatment with one of the four therapies with assessments after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale) and pain frequency (Verbal Rating Scale) were self-assessed daily.
Pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale decreased in all treatment groups; the adjusted mean changes from baseline were 2.3, 2.4 and 2.4 cm for the hyoscine, paracetamol and combination groups, respectively, compared with 1.9 cm for the placebo group (all P < 0.0001). The Verbal Rating Scale also showed a statistically significant decrease of 0.7, 0.7 and 0.7 in the hyoscine, paracetamol and combination groups compared with 0.5 in placebo (all P < 0.0001). All treatments were well tolerated: 16%, 14%, 17% and 11% of patients on hyoscine, paracetamol, combination and placebo reported at least one adverse event.
Hyoscine, paracetamol and their fixed combination are effective in the treatment of recurrent crampy abdominal pain and well tolerated if used three times daily continuously for 3 weeks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though functional gastrointestinal complaints are recognised as being common throughout the world, there have been few comparative studies of prevalence.
To compare the prevalence and management of abdominal cramping/pain in nine countries.
In a two-stage community survey, approximately 1000 subjects were interviewed in each of nine countries to establish the demographics of individuals with abdominal cramping/pain (stage 1) followed by market research-driven interviews with >or=200 sufferers per country (stage 2).
9042 subjects were interviewed in stage 1. Mexico (46%) and Brazil (43%) had the highest prevalence of abdominal cramping/pain; Japan the lowest (10%). Abdominal cramping/pain was more common in women (12-55%) than in men (7-38%). About 1717 subjects participated in stage 2; 65% were women and the average age at symptom onset was 29 years. The frequency of episodes differed between countries, being highest in the US (61% suffered at least once in a week). Sufferers in the US and Latin America reported a higher usage of medications (around 90%) than those in Europe (around 72%). In most countries over-the-counter drugs were principally used. Antispasmodic drugs were most popular in Latin America and Italy, antacids in Germany and the UK. Drug therapy decreased the duration of episodes (by up to 81% in Brazil).
The community prevalence, severity, healthcare seeking and medication usage related to abdominal cramping/pain are high overall, but vary considerably between countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To commemorate Edkins’ discovery of gastrin in 1905, we review a century of progress in the physiology and pathobiology of gastrin and acid secretion especially as it pertains to clinical aspects of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
Although initially ignored, Edkins’ observations eventually led to the enthusiastic investigation of gastrin and acid regulation in peptic ulcer disease, culminating in important therapeutic advances in the management of acid peptic disease. Following the improved understanding of gastric secretory physiology, and the development of acid suppressants with increasing efficacy, the use of surgical intervention for peptic ulcer disease was almost eliminated. Surgery became obsolete with the discovery of Helicobacter pylori.
Three other advances are also influencing modern practice: the gastrotoxicity of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is now increasingly appreciated, the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and therapy of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and the use of intravenous acid-suppressive agents.
The major issue for the future resides within the epidemic of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. How to diagnose, categorize and treat this condition and how to identify and prevent neoplasia, are the challenges of the new century.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid pockets at the gastro-oesophageal junction escape buffering from meals in the stomach. Combining high-dose antacid with alginate may therefore be of benefit in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
To characterize the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension (containing high-dose antacid and alginate; Bayer Consumer Care, Bladel, the Netherlands).
The in vitro acid-neutralizing capacity of Rennie algniate was compared with Gaviscon (Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) by pH-recorded HCl titration. Alginate raft weight formed in vitro at different pH was used to evaluate the pH dependency of raft formation with each product. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study also compared the antacid activity of Rennie alginate vs. placebo in vivo using continuous intragastric pH monitoring in 12 healthy fasting volunteers.
Compared with Gaviscon, Rennie alginate had a higher acid-neutralizing capacity, greater maximum pH and longer duration of antacid activity in vitro. However, the two products produced comparable alginate rafts at each pH evaluated. In vivo, Rennie alginate provided rapid, effective and long-lasting acid neutralization, with an onset of action of <5 min, and duration of action of almost 90 min.
The dual mode of action of Rennie alginate offers an effective treatment option for mild symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease particularly considering recent findings regarding 'acid pockets'.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity is a consistent finding in a considerable proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and may provide a physiological basis for the development of IBS symptoms. In this study, we aimed to confirm the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. Ten healthy volunteers (HV) and 12 IBS patients with documented hypersensitivity to rectal distension underwent a rectal barostat study. The effect of placebo and the specific NO synthase inhibitor NG -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on resting volume, rectal sensitivity to distension and rectal compliance was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion. NG -monomethyl-L-arginine did not alter resting volumes in HV or IBS patients. In HV, l-NMMA did not alter rectal sensory thresholds compared to placebo (45 +/- 3 and 46 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, L-NMMA significantly increased the threshold for discomfort/pain in IBS patients (placebo: 18 +/- 2, l-NMMA: 21 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05). Rectal compliance was not affected by L-NMMA. Although NO does not seem to play a major role in normal rectal sensation or tone, we provide evidence that NO may be involved in the pathophysiology of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 02/2006; 18(2):115-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2005.00731.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral hypersensitivity is considered an important pathophysiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome, yet its relationship to symptoms is unclear.
To detect possible associations between symptoms and the presence of hypersensitivity to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
Ninety-two irritable bowel syndrome patients and 17 healthy volunteers underwent a rectal barostat study. The association between specific irritable bowel syndrome symptoms and the presence of hypersensitivity was examined using Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves.
Irritable bowel syndrome patients had significantly lower thresholds for discomfort/pain than healthy volunteers: 24 (18-30) and 30 (27-45) mmHg above minimal distending pressure, respectively. Forty-one patients (45%) showed hypersensitivity to rectal distension. Proportions of patients with different predominant bowel habits were similar in hypersensitive and normosensitive subgroups (diarrhoea predominant: 39 and 41%, respectively; alternating type: 27 and 28%, respectively; constipation predominant: 34 and 31%, respectively). Severe abdominal pain was more frequent in hypersensitive, compared with normosensitive patients (88% vs. 67%, P = 0.02), but none of the individual irritable bowel syndrome symptoms could accurately predict the presence of hypersensitivity, as assessed by Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis.
Hypersensitive and normosensitive irritable bowel syndrome patients present with comparable, heterogeneous symptomatology. Therefore, selection based on clinical parameters is unlikely to discriminate individual irritable bowel syndrome patients with visceral hypersensitivity from those with normal visceral sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, the concept of visceral hypersensitivity provides the leading hypothesis regarding the generation of symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders.
This paper discusses the current clinical evidence for drugs that have been proposed to interfere with visceral sensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Several possible pharmacological targets have been identified to reduce visceral pain and to reverse the processes underlying the persistence of visceral hypersensitivity. However, most of the available evidence comes from experimental animal models and cannot simply be extrapolated to patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. In this review, we selected five drug classes that have been shown to exhibit visceral analgesic properties in experimental studies, and of which data were available regarding their clinical efficacy. These included opioid substances, serotonergic agents, antidepressants, somatostatin analogues and α2-adrenergic agonists.
Although clinical trials show a limited benefit, in particular for serotonergic agents, the evidence illustrating that these effects result from normalization of visceral sensation is currently lacking.
Therefore, we conclude that the concept of targeting visceral hypersensitivity as a treatment for functional gastrointestinal disorders is still controversial. Future evaluations require patient selection based on the presence of visceral hypersensitivity and application of compounds that exhibit ‘true’ viscerosensory effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major oesophageal complications associated with persistent gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include erosive oesophagitis, ulceration, strictures and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Although the causes of these complications are uncertain, studies indicate that erosive oesophagitis may progress to the development of ulcers, strictures and GI bleeding. Pharmacological treatment with proton pump inhibitors is favoured over that with H(2)-receptor antagonists for the treatment of strictures. The treatment of strictures is accomplished with dilation and many favour the concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors. Most gastroenterologists are seeing far fewer oesophageal strictures these days since the introduction of proton pump inhibitors. In addition, research has shown that oesophageal complications have a greater impact on patients suffering from night-time GERD than on those suffering from daytime GERD. Barrett's oesophagus is a significant complication associated with persistent GERD and those at risk generally experience a longer duration of symptoms, especially those with a high degree of severity. In addition, there is a strong relationship between Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. This is in part due to the association of obesity and the development of hiatal hernias. Furthermore, endoscopic screening is being used to detect Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma in persons suffering from chronic GERD, even though screening may not have an impact on outcomes (Sharma P, McQuaid K, Dent J, et al. A critical review of the diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus: The AGA Chicago Workshop. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 310-30.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of patients with esophageal cancer with malignant celiac lymph nodes (CLNs) is controversial. In this study we evaluated the management and survival of patients with positive CLN findings on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and compared the outcome in surgically treated patients with that of nonsurgically treated patients.
The EUS database of the Academic Medical Center was retrospectively searched for patients with esophageal carcinoma and EUS-positive CLN. Follow-up comprised the review of medical charts and contact with general practitioners.
From 1993 through 2000, 78 patients with esophageal carcinoma and suspicious CLN were eligible for inclusion in this study. The median survival of patients with CLN size < 2 cm was 13.5 months vs. 7.0 months for patients with CLN size >2 cm ( P = 0.01). In a multivariate model, CLN size was the only predictive factor for poor patient survival. Of the 78 study patients, 13 underwent a surgical resection and 65 received nonsurgical treatment. The surgical group was significantly younger and all patients in this group had CLN size < 2 cm. The median survival for the surgical group was 13.7 months vs. 13.5 months for the nonsurgical group with CLN size < 2 cm ( P = 0.63).
In this retrospective study, CLN size was a significant predictor for poor survival. The surgically treated patients had a medium-term survival similar to that of nonsurgically treated patients with a CLN size < 2 cm. These findings underline the prognostic value of CLN size in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a Barrett's oesophagus without dysplasia, endoscopic control every 3-5 years is sufficient. If low-grade dysplasia is encountered in the surveillance biopsies, then endoscopy should be repeated within 3-6 months and yearly thereafter if the low-grade dysplasia persists. Antacid medication must be prescribed in cases with extensive inflammation. The endoscopic treatment of patients with high-grade dysplasia and/or early cancer of the mucosa in a Barrett's oesophagus (tissue ablation and/or mucosa resection) seems a promising alternative to surgery in view of the combination of effectiveness, limited invasiveness compared to surgical resection, and the preservation of a functional oesophagus. Data from long-term follow-up are still limited. Strict endoscopic surveillance will probably detect metachronic abnormalities in an early and still curable stage, creating a new opportunity for endoscopic treatment.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 12/2003; 147(46):2275-81.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current surveillance strategies for patients with a Barrett's oesophagus are hampered by the poor endoscopic visibility of early neoplastic lesions, the sampling error of random biopsies, the subjectivity of the histological evaluation, and the low incidence of carcinoma. New endoscopic techniques are available for a more reliable evaluation of a Barrett's oesophagus: high-resolution endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, fluorescence endoscopy and optical coherence tomography. The use of molecular markers will probably lead to a better risk stratification of patients. Detection of aneuploid cell populations and assessment of an increase of the number of cells in the S- and G2-phase are possible with DNA flow cytometry; flow cytometric abnormalities may be a more reliable predictor of carcinoma than histological assessment. A combined approach with the new endoscopic techniques and molecular markers may lead to a more efficient and cost-effective surveillance programme.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 12/2003; 147(46):2268-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and constipation have a major impact on public health; however, the wide variety of treatment options presents difficulties for recommending therapy. Lack of definitive guidelines in pharmacy and general practice medicine further exacerbates the decision dilemma.
To address these issues, a panel of experts discussed the principles and practice of treating GERD and constipation in the general population and in pregnancy, with the aim of developing respective treatment guidelines.
The panel recommended antacids 'on-demand' as the first-line over-the-counter treatment in reflux, and as rescue medication for immediate relief when reflux breaks through with proton pump inhibitors. Calcium/magnesium-based antacids were recommended as the treatment of choice for pregnant women because of their good safety profile. In constipation, current data do not distinguish a hierarchy between polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based laxatives and other first-line treatments, although limitations are associated with stimulant- and bulk-forming laxatives. Where data are available, PEG is superior to lactulose in terms of efficacy. In pregnancy, PEG-based laxatives meet the criteria for the ideal treatment.
The experts developed algorithms that present healthcare professionals with clear treatment options and management strategies for GERD and constipation in pharmacy and general practice medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Los Angeles classification of reflux oesophagitis includes sharply demarcated areas of erythema without any associated slough within the definition of reflux-induced mucosal breaks, though there is uncertainty as to whether these "red streaks" actually represent such a mucosal lesion. This study evaluates the histopathology of these red streaks.
Forty patients with one or more red streaks on the tops of the mucosal folds in the distal oesophagus were included in a multinational, multicentre prospective study. All patients were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to investigate chronic heartburn and acid regurgitation. Biopsies were taken from the red streaks and from control biopsies from more normal appearing mucosa 1 cm lateral to the red streaks. A two-sided probability test using normal approximation assessed differences in the histological findings at the two biopsy locations.
Compared to control biopsies, biopsies of red streaks had a significantly thicker basal cell layer (mean +/- s 41% +/- 32% versus 18% +/- 23% of mucosal thickness, P=0.001) and longer papillae (mean +/- s 71% +/- 19% versus 49% +/- 24% of mucosal thickness, P= 0.001). Of the red streak biopsies, 25% had either newly re-epithelized lesions or granulation tissue beneath squamous epithelium. Only 10% of the control biopsies had moderate or more marked regenerative changes (based on elongation of papillae and basal cell hyperplasia), compared to 65.1% of red streak biopsies. Of the biopsies from the red streak itself, 7% showed no abnormality and 27.9% only slight changes. In comparison, 25% of the biopsies from control biopsies showed no regenerative changes and 62.5% only slight change due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
The histomorphological counterpart to the endoscopically visible red streaks of the distal oesophagus is marked regenerative changes of the squamous epithelium and/or capillary rich granulation tissue beneath the squamous epithelium. Red streaks are validated as being indicative of acid/peptic mucosal injury, but they do not satisfy a strict definition of a mucosal break.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) experience chronic relapses and require maintenance therapy for symptomatic relief. This article reviews possible mechanisms for chronic relapse in GORD, and discusses the risks and benefits of proton pump inhibitors as maintenance therapy for this disease. Recent medical literature was reviewed to gather information about proton pump inhibitor therapy and GORD. The reports indicated that the tendency to relapse in GORD is probably related to ongoing motor defects and to the acid rebound that follows successful healing therapy. Proton pump inhibitors are very effective in maintaining symptomatic and endoscopic remission in GORD. Limitations of proton pump inhibitor therapy have largely so far been clinically irrelevant. Most side-effects are inherent consequences of any form of acid suppression therapy, and include hypergastrinaemia and rebound hyperacidity upon discontinuation of therapy. We conclude that the therapeutic balance tips toward proton pump inhibitors for treatment of GORD because their limitations are largely surpassed by excellent clinical efficacy, tolerance, and lack of serious adverse effects.