[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) have proven valuable in evaluating neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII).
MRI scores in the basal ganglia of HII/HT(+) neonates were significantly lower than HII/HT(-) neonates, indicating less severe injury and were associated with lower discharge encephalopathy severity scores in the HII/HT(+) group (P = 0.01). Lactate (Lac) was detected in the occipital gray matter (OGM) and thalamus (TH) of significantly more HII/HT(-) neonates (31.6 and 35.3%) as compared to the HII/HT(+) group (10.5 and 15.8%). In contrast, the -N-acetylaspartate (NAA)-based ratios in the OGM and TH did not differ between the HII groups.
Our data show that the HT was associated with a decrease in the number of HII neonates with detectable cortical and subcortical Lac as well as a decrease in the number of MRI-detectable subcortical lesions.
We retrospectively compared the medical and neuroimaging data of 19 HII neonates who received 72 h of whole-body cooling (HII/HT(+)) with those of 19 noncooled HII neonates (HII/HT(-)) to determine whether hypothermia was associated with improved recovery from the injury as measured by MRI and MRS within the first 14 days of life. MRI scores and metabolite ratios of HII/HT(+) and HII/HT(-) neonates were also compared with nine healthy, nonasphyxiated "control" neonates.
Pediatric Research 01/2012; 71(1):85-92. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury, and several scoring systems were developed to predict neurologic outcomes in these patients. We examined the magnetic resonance imaging studies of 33 neonates/infants who manifested acute perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injuries. Using a seven-point susceptibility-weighted imaging categorical grading scale, each patient received a "prominence of vein" score, which was dichotomized into a "normal" or "abnormal" group. Six-month outcomes were assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale. We then determined whether "prominence of vein" scores correlated with neurologic outcomes in patients with hypoxic-ischemic injuries, and compared these results with the Barkovich magnetic resonance imaging scoring system. Patients with "normal" "prominence of vein" scores demonstrated better outcomes (mean Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale value = 2) than patients with "abnormal" "prominence of vein" scores (mean Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale value = 4). The dichotomized "prominence of vein" groups demonstrated correlations with the Barkovich magnetic resonance imaging scores of the proton density-weighted basal ganglia, watershed, and combined basal ganglia/watershed regions. The susceptibility-weighted imaging categorical grading scale may aid in predicting neurologic outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic injuries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical abuse associated with nonaccidental trauma (NAT) affects approximately 144,000 children per year in the USA and, frequently, these injuries affect the developing brain. Most infants with suspected NAT are initially evaluated by skull X-rays and computed tomography to determine whether fractures are present, the severity of the acute injury and the need for urgent neurosurgical intervention. Increasingly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is conducted as it provides additional diagnostic and prognostic information about the extent and nature of the injury. In this review, we examine 4 MRI techniques as they apply to children who present acutely after NAT. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a 3-D high-resolution MRI technique that is more sensitive than conventional imaging in detecting hemorrhagic lesions that are often associated with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquires metabolite information reflecting neuronal integrity and function from multiple brain regions and provides a sensitive, noninvasive assessment of neurochemical alterations that offers early prognostic information regarding outcome. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is based on differences in the diffusion of water molecules within the brain and has been shown to be very sensitive in the early detection of ischemic injury. It is now being used to study the direct effects of traumatic injury as well as those due to secondary ischemia. Diffusion tensor imaging is a form of DWI and allows better evaluation of white matter fiber tracts by taking advantage of the intrinsic directionality (anisotropy) of water diffusion in the human brain. It has been shown to be useful in identifying white matter abnormalities after DAI when conventional imaging appears normal. Although these imaging methods have been studied primarily in adults and children with accidental traumatic brain injury, it is clear that they have the potential to provide additional value in the imaging and clinical evaluation of children with NAT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypopharyngeal cancers are usually squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) that has the worst prognosis among the head and neck cancers. Overall, 5-year survival rate remains poor despite recent improvements in diagnostic imaging, radiation and chemotherapy, and improved surgical techniques. Hypopharyngeal cancers tend to present with advanced primary disease, and nodal metastasis is highly likely. The most important features determining prognosis are the size and extent of local spread of the primary carcinoma and the extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes. Distant metastasis at presentation is more common in hypopharyngeal cancers than in other head and neck cancers. Poor survival rate is partly due to emergence of second primary cancers but also to development of distant metastasis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain the mainstay of initial radiological evaluation of hypopharyngeal cancer. Imaging usually results in upstaging of the tumor at presentation. Meticulous evaluation of the extent of the primary tumor with attention to spread to the subsites of the hypopharynx, larynx, and cartilage invasion are necessary for accurate staging. After surgery and radiation therapy, it is difficult with CT and MR to differentiate residual and recurrent tumor from edema and scarring. Fluorine 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose -positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has high sensitivity in detection of occult, residual, and recurrent tumors but has low specificity. Combined PET and CT increase specificity and are increasingly being used to image posttreatment cases. Other newer imaging modalities such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy, and MRI with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agent are reported to be useful and should be used more widely in difficult cases.
Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2007; 18(4):243-58.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the relationship between neurologic outcome and total circulating white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) in the first week of life in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
Long-term neurologic outcome at 18 months was measured retrospectively in 30 term neonates with HIE using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPCS) score with outcomes dichotomized as either good or poor. We then compared white blood cell and ANC levels during the first 4 days of life and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained within the first month life between the two PCPCS groups. MRI was quantified using a validated scoring system.
Neonates with good long-term outcomes had significantly lower MRI scores (indicating lesser injury) than neonates with poor outcomes. More importantly, neonates with poor outcomes had significantly higher WBC and ANC levels as early as12 h after birth and up to 96 h after birth compared to those with good outcomes. These data suggest that elevated peripheral neutrophil counts in the first 96 h of life may signal or predict adverse long-term outcome.
Our findings suggest that elevated peripheral neutrophil counts in the first 96 h of life in term infants with HIE may contribute to abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome.
Journal of Perinatology 07/2007; 27(6):365-70. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of opioid and tissue-damaging procedures (TDPs) [i.e. procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) known to result in pain, stress, and tissue damage] on brain metabolites, we reviewed the medical records of 28 asphyxiated term neonates (eight opioid-treated, 20 non-opioid treated) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within the first month of life as well as eight newborns with no clinical findings of asphyxial injury. We found that lower creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) (p < or = 0.03) and higher Cho/Cr and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) Cr (p < or = 0.02) correlated with increased TDP incidence in the first 2 d of life (DOL). We also found that occipital gray matter (OGM) NAA/Cr was decreased (p = 0.03) and lactate (Lac) was present in a significantly higher amount (40%; p = 0.03) in non-opioid-treated neonates compared with opioid-treated neonates. Compared with controls, untreated neonates showed larger changes in more metabolites in basal ganglia (BG), thalami (TH), and OGM with greater significance than treated neonates. Our data suggest that TDPs affect spectral metabolites and that opioids do not cause harm in asphyxiated term neonates exposed to repetitive TDPs in the first 2-4 DOL and may provide a degree of neuroprotection.
Pediatric Research 06/2007; 61(5 Pt 1):614-21. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) consists of using both magnitude and phase images from a high-resolution, three-dimensional, fully velocity compensated gradient-echo sequence. Postprocessing is applied to the magnitude image by means of a phase mask to increase the conspicuity of the veins and other sources of susceptibility effects. This article gives a background of the SWI technique and describes its role in clinical neuroimaging. SWI is currently being tested in a number of centers worldwide as an emerging technique to improve the diagnosis of neurological trauma, brain neoplasms, and neurovascular diseases because of its ability to reveal vascular abnormalities and microbleeds.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2005; 22(4):439-50. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of neurologic morbidity in neonates who are born at term. Asphyxiated neonates are frequently treated with analgesic medications, including opioids, for pain and discomfort associated with their care. On the basis of previous laboratory studies suggesting that opioids may have neuroprotective effects, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 52 neonates who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between 1995 and 2002 and had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Our review revealed that 33% of neonates received morphine or fentanyl. The neonates who received opioids also had experienced hypoxic/ischemic insults of greater magnitude as suggested by higher plasma lactate levels and lower 5-min Apgar scores. It is interesting that the MRI studies of neonates who were treated with opioids during the first week of life demonstrated significantly less brain injury in all regions studied. More important, follow-up studies of a subgroup of opioid-treated neonates whose MRI scans were obtained in the second postnatal week had better long-term neurologic outcomes. Our results suggest that the use of opioids in the first week of life after perinatal asphyxia have no significant long-term detrimental effects and may increase the brain's resistance to hypoxic-ischemic insults.
Pediatric Research 07/2005; 57(6):873-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the pattern of brain injury in term neonatal encephalopathy is associated with distinct prenatal and perinatal factors and to determine whether the pattern of injury is associated with 30-month neurodevelopmental outcome.
A total of 173 term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy from 2 centers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a median of 6 days of age (range, 1-24 days). Patterns of injury on MRI were defined on the basis of the predominant site of injury: watershed predominant, basal ganglia/thalamus predominant, and normal.
The watershed pattern of injury was seen in 78 newborns (45%), the basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was seen in 44 newborns (25%), and normal MRI studies were seen in 51 newborns (30%). Antenatal conditions such as maternal substance use, gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, pre-eclampsia, and intra-uterine growth restriction did not differ across patterns. The basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was associated with more severe neonatal signs, including more intensive resuscitation at birth ( P = .001), more severe encephalopathy ( P = .0001), and more severe seizures ( P = .0001). The basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was associated with the most impaired motor and cognitive outcome at 30 months.
The patterns of brain injury in term neonatal encephalopathy are associated with different clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Measured prenatal risk factors did not predict the pattern of brain injury.
Journal of Pediatrics 05/2005; 146(4):453-60. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the pattern of brain injury in term neonatal encephalopathy is associated with distinct prenatal and perinatal factors and to determine whether the pattern of injury is associated with 30-month neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 173 term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy from 2 centers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a median of 6 days of age (range, 1-24 days). Patterns of injury on MRI were defined on the basis of the predominant site of injury: watershed predominant, basal ganglia/thalamus predominant, and normal. RESULTS: The watershed pattern of injury was seen in 78 newborns (45%), the basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was seen in 44 newborns (25%), and normal MRI studies were seen in 51 newborns (30%). Antenatal conditions such as maternal substance use, gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, pre-eclampsia, and intra-uterine growth restriction did not differ across patterns. The basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was associated with more severe neonatal signs, including more intensive resuscitation at birth ( P = .001), more severe encephalopathy ( P = .0001), and more severe seizures ( P = .0001). The basal ganglia/thalamus pattern was associated with the most impaired motor and cognitive outcome at 30 months. CONCLUSION: The patterns of brain injury in term neonatal encephalopathy are associated with different clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Measured prenatal risk factors did not predict the pattern of brain injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR) susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) with conventional MR sequences and computed tomography (CT) in the detection of hemorrhage in an acute infarct.
A series of 84 patients suspected of having acute strokes had both CT and MR imaging (MRI) scans with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and SWI. The SWI sequence is a new high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique that amplifies phase to enhance the magnitude contrast.
Thirty-eight of 84 cases showed abnormal DWI consistent with acute infarct. Of the 38, SWI showed evidence of hemorrhage in 16 cases, compared to eight cases with spin echo (SE) T2, seven cases with fluid attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and only five cases with CT. In a subset of 17 cases of acute infarct who had both two-dimensional gradient recalled echo (2D-GRE) T2*-weighted imaging and SWI, in addition to conventional MRI, evidence of hemorrhage was seen in 10 cases using SWI, compared to seven cases with 2D-GRE T2*.
SWI proved to be a powerful new approach for visualizing hemorrhage in acute stroke compared to CT and conventional MRI methods.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2004; 20(3):372-7. · 2.57 Impact Factor