[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis, utilizing 2 experimental mouse models, that plasmin is an important autoantigen that drives the production of certain IgG anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome.
BALB/cJ and MRL/MpJ mice were immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant in the presence or absence of human plasmin. The mouse sera were analyzed for production of IgG antiplasmin, IgG aCL, and IgG anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)GPI) antibodies. IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated from the plasmin-immunized MRL/MpJ mice with high titers of aCL, and these 10 mAb were studied for their binding properties and functional activity in vitro.
Plasmin-immunized BALB/cJ mice produced high titers of IgG antiplasmin only, while plasmin-immunized MRL/MpJ mice produced high titers of IgG antiplasmin, IgG aCL, and IgG anti-beta(2)GPI. Both strains of mice immunized with the adjuvant alone did not develop IgG antiplasmin or IgG aCL. All 10 of the IgG mAb bound to human plasmin and cardiolipin, while 4 of 10 bound to beta(2)GPI, 3 of 10 bound to thrombin, and 4 of 10 bound to the activated coagulation factor X (FXa). Functionally, 4 of the 10 IgG mAb inhibited plasmin activity, 1 of 10 hindered inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III, and 2 of 10 inhibited inactivation of FXa by antithrombin III.
Plasmin immunization leads to production of IgG antiplasmin, aCL, and anti-beta(2)GPI in MRL/MpJ mice, but leads to production of only IgG antiplasmin in BALB/cJ mice. IgG mAb generated from plasmin-immunized MRL/MpJ mice bind to various antigens and exhibit procoagulant activity in vitro. These results suggest that plasmin may drive potentially prothrombotic aCL in genetically susceptible individuals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that some antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) recognize a conformational epitope shared by beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI; the major autoantigen for the antiphospholipid antibodies) and the homologous catalytic domains of several serine proteases (such as thrombin, activated protein C [APC], and plasmin) involved in hemostasis.
We generated 4 new IgG monoclonal aPL (2 screened against beta2GPI, 1 against thrombin, and 1 against protein C) from 2 APS patients. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were analyzed for binding to beta2GPI, thrombin, APC, and plasmin, as well as for anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) activity. To demonstrate a shared epitope between beta2GPI and a serine protease, 1 mAb was studied by cross-inhibition analysis.
Both of the IgG anti-beta2GPI mAb bound to thrombin, APC, and plasmin. On the other hand, the 1 anti-thrombin mAb and the 1 anti-protein C mAb also bound to beta2GPI. Moreover, the binding of 1 cross-reactive mAb to beta2GPI was inhibited by alpha-thrombin (which contains only the catalytic domain of thrombin). All 4 mAb displayed aCL activity.
Taken together with the findings that some aCL bind to several serine proteases that participate in hemostasis and share homologous catalytic domains, these data demonstrate that some aCL in APS patients recognize one or more conformational epitopes shared by beta2GPI and the catalytic domains of disease-relevant serine proteases.