Clemens Tesch-Römer

Deutsches Zentrum für Altersfragen, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (56)64.32 Total impact

  • Martin Wetzel, Oliver Huxhold, Clemens Tesch-Römer
    Social Indicators Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11205-015-0862-4 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated age differences in longitudinal effects of volunteering on three facets of subjective well-being (SWB), i.e. positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS). Both direct and indirect effects with self-efficacy as mediator were tested. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used on 5,564 participants of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) aged 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75–84 years. Volunteering was longitudinally directly related to PA and NA, but not to LS. The mediating role of self-efficacy differed between age groups: While volunteering affected self-efficacy only in the older age groups, self-efficacy affected SWB only in the younger age groups. Hence, indirect effects of volunteering on SWB with self-efficacy as mediator were found for the two age groups around retirement only (55–64, 65–74 years). Volunteering is beneficial for SWB not only directly, but also indirectly via self-efficacy. This mechanism is strongest for age groups around retirement.
  • Benjamin Schüz, Clemens Tesch-Römer, Susanne Wurm
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    ABSTRACT: Background Illness perceptions predict important outcomes, e.g. coping, adherence and well-being. Less is known about the sources of illness perceptions, in particular the role of environmental factors such as primary care supply. Purpose This study examines whether and how primary care supply (on district level) affects individual illness perceptions. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study in 271 adults 65 years and older with multiple illnesses. Functional limitations (SF-36 physical functioning subscale) at time 1 were tested as predictors of illness perceptions 6 months later. Primary care supply on district level was matched to individual data. Results In multilevel models, functional limitations predicted illness perceptions. Primary care supply on district level moderated the impact of functional limitations on individual identity and emotional response perceptions, with better supply buffering detrimental effects of functional limitations. Conclusions Illness perceptions do not only depend on individual factors, but socio-structural factors also substantially contribute to individual illness perceptions.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9671-2 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reports an error in "Health is health is health? Age differences in intraindividual variability and in within-person versus between-person factor structures of self-reported health complaints" by Julia K. Wolff, Annette Brose, Martin Lövdén, Clemens Tesch-Römer, Ulman Lindenberger and Florian Schmiedek (Psychology and Aging, 2012[Dec], Vol 27[4], 881-891). There was an error in the Method section due to misinterpretation of the multilevel structure. Under the heading, Data Analysis, the authors wrote: "Muthén and Satorra (1995) proposed the calculation of a design effect (deff), where deff = 1 + (c - 1) × ICC, and c is the cluster size on the higher level (i.e., in this case, number of participants)." This sentence is incorrect. The corrected sentence is: "Muthén and Satorra (1995) proposed the calculation of a design effect (deff), where deff = 1 + (c - 1) × ICC, and c is average cluster size (i.e., in this case, average number of daily assessments per participant)." Due to this error in the interpretation of Muthén and Satorra (1995), the deff entries in Table 1 were calculated in the wrong manner. The corrected entries are shown in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-18117-001.) The variability of health complaints within individuals across time has rarely been studied, and the question whether between- and within-person factor structures of health-related variables are equivalent has not been tested so far. We examined self-reported health complaints in 101 younger (20-31 years) and 103 older adults (65-80 years) over a period of 100 daily assessments. Data were analyzed with confirmatory two-level factor analysis. One-factor structures of health complaints provided an acceptable fit at the between- and average within-person levels in both age groups, supporting the assumption of equivalent average within- and between-person factor structures for health complaints. Age differences in loading patterns indicated that subjective health may be experienced differently by younger and older adults. Small age differences in mean levels of health symptoms were observed. Intraindividual variability in health complaints was reliable. Older adults fluctuated less from day to day than younger adults, presumably reflecting less fluctuation in objective health, differences in response styles, situational influences, or habituation processes. We conclude that future research should consider intraindividual variability as being descriptive of a person's health status, and take possible differences between within- and between-person factor structures of subjective health into account. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology and Aging 09/2013; 28(3):886. DOI:10.1037/a0033791 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    Susanne Wurm, Sonja Nowossadeck, Clemens Tesch-Römer
    BMC proceedings 08/2013; 7(Suppl 4 European Workshop on Health and Disability Surveilla):S11. DOI:10.1186/1753-6561-7-S4-S11
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    ABSTRACT: With increasing age and multimorbidity, medication regimens become demanding, potentially resulting in suboptimal adherence. Social support has been discussed as a predictor of adherence, but previous findings are inconsistent. The study examines general social support, medication-specific social support, and social conflict as predictors of adherence at two points in time (6 months apart) to test the mobilization and social conflict hypotheses. A total of 309 community-dwelling multimorbid adults (65-85 years, mean age 73.27, 41.7% women; most frequent illnesses: hypertension, osteoarthritis and hyperlipidemia) were recruited from the population-representative German Ageing Survey. Only medication-specific support correlated with adherence. Controlling for baseline adherence, demographics, physical fitness, medication regimen, and attitude, Time 1 medication-specific support negatively predicted Time 2 adherence, and vice versa. The negative relation between earlier medication-specific support and later adherence was not due to mobilization (low adherence mobilizing support from others, which over time would support adherence). Social conflict moderated the medication-specific support to adherence relationship: the relationship became more negative, the more social conflict participants reported. Presence of social conflict should be considered when received social support is studied, because well-intended help might have the opposite effect, when it coincides with social conflict.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2013; 87:23-30. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.03.012 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Susanne Wurm, Clemens Tesch-Römer
    Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie 01/2013; 21(1):2-4. DOI:10.1026/0943-8149/a000080 · 0.32 Impact Factor
  • Jenny de Jong Gierveld, Clemens Tesch-Römer
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    ABSTRACT: Data from European countries participating in the Generations and Gender Surveys showed that mean loneliness scores of older adults are higher in Eastern than in Western European countries. Although co-residence is considered as one of the fundamental types of social integration, and although co-residence is more common in Eastern Europe, the mean loneliness scores of older co-resident adults in Eastern Europe are still very high. This article investigates mechanisms behind the puzzling between-country differences in social integration and loneliness. Firstly, the theoretical framework of loneliness is discussed starting from the individual’s perspective using the deficit and the cognitive discrepancy approach and taking into account older adults’ deprived living conditions. Secondly, mechanisms at the societal level are investigated: cultural norms, the demographical composition and differences in societal wealth and welfare. It is argued that an integrated theoretical model, as developed in this article, combining individual and societal level elements, is most relevant for understanding the puzzling reality around social integration and loneliness in country-comparative research. An illustration of the interplay of individual and societal factors in the emergence of loneliness is presented.
    European Journal of Ageing 12/2012; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s10433-012-0248-2 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variability of health complaints within individuals across time has rarely been studied, and the question whether between- and within-person factor structures of health-related variables are equivalent has not been tested so far. We examined self-reported health complaints in 101 younger (20-31 years) and 103 older adults (65-80 years) over a period of 100 daily assessments. Data were analyzed with confirmatory two-level factor analysis. One-factor structures of health complaints provided an acceptable fit at the between- and average within-person levels in both age groups, supporting the assumption of equivalent average within- and between-person factor structures for health complaints. Age differences in loading patterns indicated that subjective health may be experienced differently by younger and older adults. Small age differences in mean levels of health symptoms were observed. Intraindividual variability in health complaints was reliable. Older adults fluctuated less from day to day than younger adults, presumably reflecting less fluctuation in objective health, differences in response styles, situational influences, or habituation processes. We conclude that future research should consider intraindividual variability as being descriptive of a person's health status, and take possible differences between within- and between-person factor structures of subjective health into account. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology and Aging 07/2012; 27(4). DOI:10.1037/a0029125 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • C Tesch-Römer, M Wiest, S Wurm, O Huxhold
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS: In the current paper, it is analyzed whether the extent of loneliness of adults in the second half of their lives has changed between 1996 and 2008 in Germany. Because patterns of objective social integration have evolved differently in different birth cohorts (familial integration in earlier birth cohorts more fragile, more solid in later birth cohorts), we expected different trends in the extent of loneliness in different birth cohorts. DESIGN AND METHODS: The three waves of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) constitute the database for the analysis: 1996 (n = 3,979), 2002 (n = 2,766) and 2008 (n = 4,392). Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide representative survey of the German population aged 40-85 years. RESULTS: Only a minority of people report being very lonely in the second part of life. Between 1996 and 2008, there is a positive trend in the extent of loneliness in the second half of life, i.e., the prevalence of loneliness decreased during this period of time. From 1996 to 2008, the youngest respondents (40-54 years of age) and the middle aged respondents (55-69 years) demonstrated a decline from 1996 to 2002 followed by an increase in loneliness between 2002 and 2008. The oldest respondents (70-85 years of age) experienced a steady decline in loneliness. Gender differences (men are somewhat lonelier than women) remain stable between 1996 and 2008. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: While people who are currently old are socially well integrated and, hence, experience loneliness only to a small degree, there is a higher risk for persons who are currently in middle adulthood because their social networks have become increasingly more fragile. Further changes have to be observed.
    Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 07/2012; · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Dr. C. Tesch-Römer, M. Wiest, S. Wurm, O. Huxhold
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    ABSTRACT: Hintergrund und Fragestellung Es wird untersucht, ob sich zwischen 1996 und 2008 das Ausmaß von Einsamkeit bei den Menschen in der zweiten Lebenshälfte gewandelt hat. Da sich objektive Kriterien sozialer Integration in verschiedenen Geburtskohorten unterschiedlich verändert haben (z. B. familiäre Integration bei jüngeren Geburtskohorten fragiler, bei älteren Geburtskohorten stabiler), wurden unterschiedliche Trends im Wandel der Einsamkeit erwartet. Studiendesign und Untersuchungsmethoden Grundlage der Datenanalysen ist der Deutsche Alterssurvey (DEAS) mit drei Erhebungsjahren: 1996 (n = 3979), 2002 (n = 2766) und 2008 (n = 4305). Der DEAS ist ein für die Bevölkerung zwischen 40 und 85 Jahren repräsentativer Survey. Einsamkeit wurde mit der De-Jong-Gierveld-Einsamkeitsskala gemessen. Ergebnisse Insgesamt gaben nur wenige Personen in der zweiten Lebenshälfte an, sich sehr einsam zu fühlen. Zwischen 1996 und 2008 war eine leichte Abnahme der Einsamkeit zu konstatieren, wobei unterschiedliche Altersgruppen differenzielle Veränderungen in der Einsamkeit aufwiesen. Die jüngere Altersgruppe (40–54 Jahre) und die mittlere Altersgruppe (55–69 Jahre) wiesen zwischen 1996 und 2002 eine Reduktion in der Einsamkeit auf, gefolgt von einem Anstieg zwischen 2002 und 2008. Die Einsamkeit in der ältesten Gruppe (70–85 Jahre) nahm im Beobachtungszeitraum kontinuierlich ab. Die Unterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern (Männer sind etwas einsamer als Frauen) blieben zwischen 1996 und 2008 stabil. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerung Während die (aktuell) alten Menschen vermutlich aufgrund ihrer guten sozialen Integration nur wenig unter Einsamkeit leiden, haben Personen im mittleren Erwachsenenalter möglicherweise aufgrund ihrer fragiler werdenden sozialen Netze aktuell ein höheres Einsamkeitsrisiko. Der Wandel der Einsamkeit in der zweiten Lebenshälfte sollte daher weiter beobachtet werden.
    Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 04/2012; 46(3). DOI:10.1007/s00391-012-0359-6 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although health behavior theories assume a role of the context in health behavior self-regulation, this role is often weakly specified and rarely examined. The two studies in this article test whether properties of the environment (districts) affect if and how health-related cognitions are translated into physical activity. Methods: Multilevel modeling was used to examine the assumed cross-level interactions. Study 1 is a large-scale survey representative of the German adult population (N = 6,201). Gross domestic product (GDP) on the level of administrative districts was used to indicate environmental opportunities and barriers. Study 2 examined cross-level interactions of proximal predictors of physical activity (intentions, action planning, and coping planning) in older adults with multiple illnesses (N = 309), a high-risk group for health deteriorations. Results: Study 1 showed that on the individual level, health attitudes (B = .11) and education (B = .71) were significantly associated with physical activity. GDP moderated the attitudes-behavior relation (B = .01), with higher attitude-behavior relations in districts with higher GDP. Study 2 finds that intention (B = .16), action planning (B = .17), and coping planning (B = .13) significantly predict activity. In addition, district-level GDP significantly moderated the relations between action planning and coping planning, but not intention, on physical activity. Conclusions: Results suggest that the effects of health attitudes and planning on physical activity are moderated by environmental factors. Districts with higher GDP provide better contextual opportunities for the enactment of concrete if-then plans for physical activity. This has implications for both theory and health promotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 03/2012; 31(6). DOI:10.1037/a0027596 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Susanne Wurm, Jochen P. Ziegelmann, Clemens Tesch-Römer
  • Clemens Tesch-Römer, Susanne Wurm
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    ABSTRACT: The year 2012 is the European Year of Active Aging and Intergenerational Solidarity. On this occasion, the journal GeroPsych presents an overview of the contributions of gerontopsychology to active aging across Europe. Active aging comprises both individual processes and societal opportunity structures for health, participation and integration. The goal of interventions for active aging is to enhance the quality of life as people age. In the following, we will sketch the situation of gerontopsychological research on active aging in Germany. We firstly describe some important milestones in the history of gerontopsychology in Germany, secondly point to some research institutions and their contributions to active aging in Germany, and thirdly give some examples of research on active aging we are involved in ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    01/2012; 25(3):167. DOI:10.1024/1662-9647/a000067
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    ABSTRACT: The proportion of the population with multiple illnesses increases with age and growing numbers of people are now living to a very old age. Despite medical progress and improved living conditions, many old people have to deal with physical, psychological, and social impairments. It is a crucial challenge for health and social policy to support the elderly with health-related impairments in their desire to lead as independent a life as possible. Against this background the research consortium Autonomy Despite Multimorbidity in Old Age (AMA I) examined the extent to which the self-determined life style of multimorbid old and very old persons can be supported and maintained. In order to reflect the diversity of life worlds of the elderly, the study sample included participants who were not notably impaired in their everyday functioning, participants in need of nursing care and participants with cognitive impairments. Moreover, the sample comprised both older persons who were still living in their own homes and nursing home residents. The studies conducted within the AMA framework focused on the resources available to old persons living in different situations and on how these resources can be strengthened. This article presents findings from the first phase of funding of the AMA research consortium. In a second phase of funding (2011-2013, AMA II), sustainable practice-based interventions are being developed to mobilize resources which can help multimorbid older persons to maintain their autonomy and the practical viability of these interventions will be tested.
    Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 12/2011; 44 Suppl 2:9-26. DOI:10.1007/s00391-011-0248-4 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Particularly in older adults, self-reports of physical health need not necessarily reflect their objective health status as they can be biased by optimism. In this study, we examine whether the effect of objective physical functioning on subjective physical functioning is modified by health-specific optimism and self-efficacy. A longitudinal study with three measurement points over 6 months and 309 older adults (aged 65-85) with multimorbidity was conducted. Subjective physical functioning was regressed on objective physical functioning, health-specific optimism and self-efficacy. Subjective physical functioning was predicted by both objective physical functioning and optimism as a mediator. Moreover, an interaction between optimism and self-efficacy was found: Optimism predicted subjective physical functioning only for individuals with low self-efficacy. Subjective physical functioning is as much based on objective physical functioning as it is on health-specific optimism. Older adults base their subjective physical functioning on objective indicators but also on optimism, when they are less self-efficacious.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 07/2011; 35(4):400-6. DOI:10.1007/s10865-011-9368-y · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) determines the degree to which psychological and social resources such as optimistic self-beliefs and social support affect health. We used data from the representative German Ageing Survey (N = 2,454, aged 40-85 years). Structural equation modeling was employed to examine whether relationships between psychological (self-esteem, control beliefs, optimism) and social resources (perceived emotional and informational support, network size) and health differ between education and income groups. Main Self-reported physical health, functional health, and subjective health. Psychological resources positively affected health in all groups but were stronger predictors of functional and subjective health in low compared to higher educated participants. A higher level of social resources was associated with better functional and subjective health mainly in the low-income group. Social resources were particularly important for financially disadvantaged older people. Our results provide evidence for differential effects of optimistic self-beliefs and social support on health depending on whether individuals are challenged by low incomes or low education. Future research, especially aimed at intervention, should consider that different aspects of SES have differential meanings and that the impact of health-protective factors may vary according to SES facet.
    Health Psychology 05/2011; 30(3):326-35. DOI:10.1037/a0022514 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    Benjamin Schüz, Susanne Wurm, Ina Schöllgen, Clemens Tesch-Römer
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    ABSTRACT: Self-rated health (SRH) is widely regarded a valid and reliable indicator of health status. The validity of self-rated health has been demonstrated in many studies, for example by predicting mortality over and above medical and epidemiological data. However, the meaning of SRH can differ between individuals, especially in elderly individuals with considerable individual differences in their physical health states. It is thus important to determine whether predictors of self-rated health vary according to physical health status in order to interpret self-rated health data. In a representative survey study, 1174 individuals over 65 years of age rated their health and filled in questionnaires on subjective well-being, control beliefs, depressive symptoms, and functional health. Structural equation modeling with latent moderated structural equations was used to determine whether health status (number of illnesses) moderated the association of self-rated health with these predictors. Self-rated health was predicted by positive affect, depressive symptoms, control beliefs, and physical functioning. Moderated effects were found for positive affect and physical functioning, suggesting that there are stronger associations with positive affect in healthier individuals and stronger associations with physical functioning in less healthy individuals. This implies that SRH has differential associations depending on health status, which should be taken into account in interpreting any research with SRH as predictor or criterion.
    Quality of Life Research 04/2011; 20(10):1573-80. DOI:10.1007/s11136-011-9909-4 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multimorbidity—the co-occurrence of multiple illnesses—is a frequent condition in older adults and poses serious threats to autonomy. In order to identify resources for autonomy despite multimorbidity, our longitudinal study tested main and interaction effects of personal and social resources (self-efficacy and social support) on maintaining autonomy. Three hundred and nine individuals (aged 65–85years) with multiple illnesses completed measures of self-efficacy beliefs, received instrumental social support and perceptions of autonomy. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, individuals with lower perceptions of autonomy received more support from their networks. Longitudinally, the relation of received support with autonomy was moderated by self-efficacy: Simple slopes analyses showed that social support compensated for lower levels of self-efficacy, whereas in individuals with higher self-efficacy the resources interfered. Receiving social support bolstered autonomy in lower self-efficacious individuals, but in highly self-efficacious individuals support threatened autonomy. This has implications for both theory and practice, as it suggests differential effects of social resources depending on personal resources. KeywordsAutonomy–Self-efficacy–Received instrumental social support–Multimorbidity–Old age
    European Journal of Ageing 03/2011; 8(1):3-12. DOI:10.1007/s10433-011-0176-6 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine factors preventing medication nonadherence in community-dwelling older adults with multiple illnesses (multimorbidity). Nonadherence threatens successful treatment of multimorbidity. Adherence problems can be intentional (e.g., deliberately choosing not to take medicines or to change medication dosage) or unintentional (e.g., forgetting to take medication) and might depend on a range of factors. This study focused in particular on the role of changes in beliefs about medication to explain changes in adherence. Longitudinal study with N = 309 individuals aged 65-85 years with two or more diseases at three measurement points over six months. Medication adherence and beliefs about medicines were assessed by questionnaire. Hierarchical weighted least squares regression analyses were used to predict individual intentional and unintentional nonadherence. Changes in intentional nonadherence were predicted by changes in specific necessity beliefs (B = -.19, P<.01), after controlling for sociodemographic factors, health status and number of prescribed medicines. Changes in unintentional nonadherence were predicted by changes in general overuse beliefs (B = .26, P<.01), controlling for the same covariates. Beliefs about medication affect both intentional and unintentional adherence to medication in multimorbid older adults. This points to the importance of addressing medication beliefs in patient education to improve adherence.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 02/2011; 70(2):179-87. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.07.014 · 2.84 Impact Factor