Eduardo García

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (15)6.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze possible gender-related differences in the prevalence of dyslexia. A cross-national comparison of Spain and Guatemala was conducted. Both countries speak the same language but have a different standard of living and educational level. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of Guatemalan and Spanish males and females children with dyslexia. The log-linear analysis indicated that the number of dyslexics detected was different across the countries but there were no differences as a function of gender. Similarly, there were no significant or meaningful differences between dyslexic males and females in the cognitive processes involved in reading. Therefore, gender differences do not appear to be characteristic of developmental dyslexia. KeywordsDyslexia–Gender–Cross-national studies–Cognitive processes
    Reading and Writing 01/2011; 24(7):729-747. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Spanish children that are learning to read use the syllable unit in word reading. We used a visual version of the syllable monitoring technique (Mehler, Dommerges, Freavenfelder & Seguí, 1981). For Experiment I, we selected first grade readers at the end of the first year of reading instruction. In the Experiment II we selected second grade readers at the middle of the second year of reading instruction. Participants responded whenever the structure of the target string (e.g., bal) appeared at the beginning of a subsequently presented printed word (e.g., bala). The target was either a consonant-vowel (CV) or consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) structure and either did or did not correspond to the initial syllable of the target-bearing word. At the end of the first year of reading instruction, children showed significant effects of syllable compatibility (faster detection times when the targets correspond to the initial syllable of target-bearing words than when they did not). When we tested children of the second year of reading instruction, they also showed a syllable compatibility effect. These results suggest that Spanish children use syllabic units at the beginning of reading instruction in the visual word recognition.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 05/2010; 13(1):63-74. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Juan E. Jiménez, Eduardo García, Enrique Venegas
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    ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether phonological processes are the same or different in low literacy adults and children with or without reading disabilities in a consistent orthography. A sample of 150 subjects was selected and organized into four different groups: 53 low literacy adults, 29 reading disabled children, 27 younger normal readers at the same reading level as those with reading disabilities and low literacy adults, and 41 normal readers matched in age with the reading disabled group. We administered phonological awareness tasks which included items with different complexity of syllable structure. The results showed that the complexity of syllable structure had not a particularly marked effect on low literacy adults. Rather, the deletion task revealed the phonological deficit in low literacy adults across all syllable structures.
    Reading and Writing 01/2010; 23(1):1-18. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effects of four reading-training procedures for children with reading disabilities (RD) in a transparent orthography, with the aim of examining the effects of different spelling-to-sound units in computer speech-based reading. We selected a sample of 83 Spanish children aged between 7 years 1 month and 10 years 6 months (M = 105.2, SD = 7.8) whose pseudoword reading performance was below the 25th percentile and IQ > 90. The participants were randomly assigned to five groups: (a) the whole-word training group (WW) (n = 17), (b) the syllable training group (S)(n = 16), (c) the onset-rime training group (OR) (n = 17), (d) the phoneme training group (P) (n = 15), and (e) the untrained control group (n = 18). Children were pre- and post-tested in word recognition, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and orthographic and phonological tasks. The results indicate that experimental groups who participated in the phoneme and syllable conditions improved their word recognition in comparison with the control group. In addition, dyslexics who participated in the phoneme, syllable, and onset-rime conditions made a greater number of requests during computer-based word reading under conditions that required extensive phonological computation (low frequency words and long words). Reading time, however, was greater for long words in the phoneme group during computer-based reading. These results suggest the importance of training phonological processes in improving word decoding in children with dyslexia who learn in a consistent orthography.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 05/2007; 10(1):52-67. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Juan E. Jiménez, Enrique Venegas, Eduardo García
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    ABSTRACT: En la evaluación de la conciencia fonológica se han utilizado múltiples tareas y, en muchos casos, no se ha controlado la estructura silábica de los ítems empleados. El objetivo de esta investigación ha consistido en analizar si la conciencia fonológica se describe mejor cuando se analiza a través de distintas tareas o cuando lo hacemos a través de diferentes tipos de estructura silábica en niños y adultos iletrados. Para ello, seleccionamos una muestra de 123 niños de Educación Primaria y una muestra de 103 adultos iletrados que participaban en cursos de alfabetización. Se administraron distintas tareas de conciencia fonológica (i.e., síntesis, aislar, omisión, y segmentación) que incluían diferentes tipos de estructura silábica (i.e., CV, CVC, CCV). Un primer estudio se diseñó para analizar si la estructura silábica o el tipo de tarea describe mejor el constructo de conciencia fonológica en niños y adultos iletrados. En un segundo estudio se analizó si las diferencias en los procesos de descodificación y conciencia fonológica entre niños y adultos iletrados están mediatizadas por la influencia de la estructura silábica o por el tipo de tarea. Cuando evaluamos la conciencia fonológica, en función de la estructura silábica, los niños rinden mejor que los adultos en todas las estructuras analizadas. Sin embargo, las diferencias en conciencia fonológica entre niños y adultos están mediatizadas por la influencia del tipo de tarea. Estos hallazgos tienen implicaciones prácticas para la evaluación de la conciencia fonológica ya que el tipo de tarea juega un papel relevante en una ortografía transparente como el español.Many different tasks have been used to assess phonological awareness and in many cases the syllabic structure of the items employed has not been controlled. The purpose of the present study was to analyse if phonological awareness in children and low-literacy adults is better described when different tasks are used to measure it or when this is done through different types of syllabic structure. A sample of 123 children in Primary Education and a sample of 103 low-literacy adults attending literacy classes were selected. They were administered various phonological awareness tasks (i.e., blending, isolation, deletion, and segmentation) that included different types of syllabic structure (i.e., CV, CVC, CCV). A first study was designed to test if syllabic structure complexity rather than task type better describes the phonological awareness construct in children and illiterate adults. A second study analysed if differences in decoding and phonological processes between children and illiterate adults are mediated by the influence of syllabic structure complexity or task type. When phonological awareness is analysed as a function of syllabic structure complexity, the children performed better than the illiterate adults on all the structures analysed. However, phonological awareness differences between the children and illiterate adults are mediated by the influence of task type. These findings have practical implications for assessing phonological awareness as they show that type of task plays a relevant role in a transparent orthography such as Spanish.
    Infancia y Aprendizaje 01/2007; 30(1):73-86. · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of the study reported here was to explore the effects of the complexity of syllable structure and the effects of task differences in the explanation of deficit in phonological awareness (PA). A sample of 97 subjects was selected and organized into three different groups: 29 reading-disabled (RD) children, 41 normal readers matched in age with the former, and 27 younger normal readers at the same reading level as those with reading disabilities. We administered PA tasks which included items with different complexity of syllable structure. The results showed that the complexity of syllable structure had no particularly marked effect on the dyslexic children. Rather, the isolation task revealed the phonological deficit across all syllable structures.
    Applied Psycholinguistics 03/2005; 26(02):267 - 283. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    Revista electrónica de investigación psicoeducativa, ISSN 1696-2095, null 2, Nº. 4, 2004, pags. 105-126. 01/2004;
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    Revista electrónica de investigación psicoeducativa, ISSN 1696-2095, null 2, Nº. 4, 2004, pags. 127-142. 01/2004;
  • Primer Congreso Internacional sobre Déficit de Atención y Dificultades de Aprendizaje; 01/2001
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effects of four reading-training procedures for children with reading disabilities (RD) in a transparent orthography, with the aim of examining the effects of different spelling-to-sound units in computer speech-based reading. We selected a sample of 83 Spanish children aged between 7 years 1 month and 10 years 6 months (M = 105.2, SD = 7.8) whose pseudoword reading performance was below the 25th percentile and IQ > 90. The participants were randomly assigned to five groups: (a) the whole-word training group (WW) (n = 17), (b) the syllable training group (S)(n = 16), (c) the onset-rime training group (OR) (n = 17), (d) the phoneme training group (P) (n = 15), and (e) the untrained control group (n = 18). Children were pre- and post-tested in word recognition, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and orthographic and phonological tasks. The results indicate that experimental groups who participated in the phoneme and syllable conditions improved their word recognition in comparison with thecontrol group. In addition, dyslexics who participated in the phoneme, syllable, and onset-rime conditions made a greater number of requests during computer-based word reading under conditions that required extensive phonological computation (low frequency words and long words). Reading time, however, was greater for long words in the phoneme group during computer-based reading. These results suggest the importance of training phonological processes in improving word decoding in children with dyslexia who learn in a consistent orthography. Esta investigación fue diseñada para evaluar los efectos de la instrucción asistida a través de ordenador en los procesos fonológicos y de lectura en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje en la lectura (DAL) en una ortografía transparente. Para ello se manipularon diferentes tipos de unidades lingüísticas con objeto de analizar con cuál de ellas se consiguen mejores resultados. Se seleccionó una muestra de 83 niños españoles de edades comprendidas entre los 7 años y 1 mes y 10 años y 6 meses (edad M = 105.2. DT = 7.8) que presentaban una puntuación en lectura de pseudopalabras por debajo del percentil 25 y un cociente intelectual mayor que 90. Los sujetos fueron distribuidos al azar en cinco grupos diferentes: (a) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de palabras (WW) (n = 17), (b) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de sílabas (S) (n = 16), (c) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de principio-rima (OR) (n = 17), (d) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de fonemas (P) (n =15), y (e) ningún tipo de instrucción (n = 18). Se administraron distintas tareas, antes y después de finalizado el periodo de instrucción, para evaluar los efectos de la instrucción sobre la descodificación, comprensión lectora, conciencia fonológica, y procesamiento ortográfico. Los niños con DAL que participaron en la instrucción basada en el reconocimiento de fonemas y en la instrucción basada en reconocimiento de sílabas mejoraron la descodificación en comparación al grupo control. Además, los niños con DAL que participaron en las condiciones de fonema, sílaba y principio rima solicitaron un mayor número de ayudas durante el periodo de instrucción en aquellas condiciones donde la demanda de procesamiento fonológico era mayor (v. gr., palabras de baja frecuencia y palabras largas). Sin embargo, se registraron tiempos de lectura mayores, durante el periodo de instrucción, para las palabras largas en la condición de entrenamiento basada en fonemas. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el entrenamiento en procesos fonológicos mejora la descodificación de las palabras en niños con DAL en una ortografía transparente.
    Spanish Journal of Psychology, 2007.
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    Revista de educación, ISSN 0034-8082, Nº 353, 2010 (Ejemplar dedicado a: Identidad y educación), pags. 301-302.
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    ABSTRACT: Naming speed assessment in reading disabilities. The present study was designed to examine if the reading disabled (RD) children with phonological deficit show deficits in naming speed using a reading-level match (RLM) design. A sample of 97 children (52 male, 45 female) was classified into three groups: an experimental group of 29 RD children of 4th grade; a control group of 41 normal readers matched in age with the RD, and a control group of 27 younger children of 2nd grade matched in reading level with the RD group. Children were tested in naming speed using the Denckla and Rudel (1976) technique named Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN). Results showed that the RD children were slower than their age matched controls, but similar to their reading level matched controls. This finding suggests that RD children with phonological deficit did not show deficit in naming speed En este trabajo se examina la velocidad de nombrar de un grupo de alumnos con dificultades de aprendizaje en la lectura (DAL) que presentan déficit fonológico, utilizando un diseño de nivel lector. Se seleccionó una muestra de 97 sujetos (52 niños y 45 niñas). Se utilizó un diseño de nivel de lectura de tres grupos: un grupo experimental formado por 29 sujetos con DAL de 4º nivel de Primaria; un grupo control de 41 buenos lectores igualados en edad con el grupo anterior; y un grupo control de 27 sujetos de 2º nivel igualados en nivel lector con el grupo con DAL. Se utilizó la técnica de Denckla y Rudel (1976), denominada Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN), para evaluar la velocidad de nombrar. Los resultados mostraron que los niños con DAL y déficit fonológicos son más lentos que los buenos lectores de la misma edad y que su velocidad de nombrar es similar a la de los buenos lectores más jóvenes. Este hallazgo sugiere que los niños con DAL y déficit fonológico no presentan un déficit en la velocidad de nombrar
    Psicothema, ISSN 0214-9915, Vol. 16, Nº. 3, 2004, pags. 442-447.
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalencia, dificultades específicas de aprendizaje, dislexia, necesidades educativas específicas, legislación educativa, atención a la diversidad.
    European Journal of Education and Psychology (España) Num.2 Vol.3.